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Full text of "Materia indica, or, Some account of those articles which are employed by the Hindoos and other eastern nations, in their medicine, arts, and agriculture : comprising also formulae, with practical observations, names of diseases in various eastern languages, and a copious list of oriental books immediately connected with general science, &c. &c."

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p.ublic library of the 
City of boston, 


Boston Medical Library. 



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^JiAt^Jji^ Jirr/. 


JielMKype Pvintinf Ct. Bcst<(fl 


VOL. I. 


London : 

Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, 

New- Street- Square. 













I • 



VOL. t 






DifFerre quoque pro natura locorum genera medlcinae, 
et aliud opus esse Romse, aliud in Gallia, aliud in 

Celsus Med. Lib. Pr^f. 


4 S t 

(iyM(>'>^ftyj n-i\/do 'M *^ 

^. /^; /^n . 












A 3 





A Table shewing the Orthography that has been adopted xii 

Weights and Measures ------ xiii 

Forms of Prescription ------ xvii 

Explanation of the Abbreviations - - - . xviii 

Postscript - - -- - - - - xix 


Articles of the British Materia Medica found in India and 
other Eastern countries. — Their use amongst the native 
inhabitants, including also some articles of diet for the 
sick ---------- 


Metals and Metallic Substances found in India and other 
Eastern countries ------- 495 

CHAP. m. 
Formulae, with practical Observations - - - . 579 

A 4 


This publication is, properly speaking, the second 
edition of that which was printed in India, in 1813, 
under the title of " Materia Medica of Hindoostan, 
and Artisans' and Agriculturists' Nomenclature ;" 
but as much new, and, I trust, interesting matter has 
been obtained since that time, in the various branches 
treated oi\ I have thought it advisable to give the 
book a somewhat more comprehensive appellation. 

The very flattering manner in which the Madras 
edition was received by all the high authorities in 
India, the general utility of which it was found in 
that country, the subsequent approbation it met with 
from the Honourable the Court of Directors, and the 
numerous applications that have been made for it 
since out of print, have induced me to lay before the 
public this enlarged, and, I hope, much improved 

It had long been a source of regret that there was 
no where to be procured a correct list of the different 
articles employed by the natives of Hindoostan in 
their arts and manufactures, nor any sufficiently full 
and detailed account of their medicines. It was with 
a view of remedying these evils in some measure 
that the treatise was originally undertaken. 

In adopting another name for it, I have, at the same 


time, deemed it proper to change the arrangement, 
and have divided it into distinct parts : the first of 
these comprehends such of our drugs as are found in 
India and other Eastern territories : in it I have at- 
tempted to give some account of their different uses 
amongst the inhabitants of those regions, and have also 
noticed several articles of diet as the most proper for the 
sick and delicate. In fact, it has been my study, to 
the best of my ability, to supply what has long been 
wanted, a kind of combining link betwixt the Materia 
Medica of Europe and that of Asia, Of the other 
parts of the work I shall say but little here, as each 
will have its appropriate Preface : thus much, how- 
ever, I may observe, that in Volume II. will be seen 
a description of those medicines which are almost 
exclusively employed by the Hindoos and other 
Oriental nations ; and that the remainder of the 
Materia Indica will be found to treat of such articles 
as are used by them in their arts and manufactures ; 
and also of those vegetables which are cultivated as 
food, and which will be observed to embrace a very 
numerous list ; the natural consequence of this cir- 
cumstance, that as a large proportion of the natives 
of India are prohibited by their religion from eating 
animal food, they have naturally been led to seek for 
a luxurious variety from another kingdom. 

That the volumes now with great diffidence laid 
before the British public have many defects I am 
but too well convinced : that they contain matter 
which may be considered as new in the mother 
country will not, perhaps, be denied: that they are 
the result of long and patient investigation I myself 


feel. The path which I pursued was no beaten 
track, but winding, and often scarcely to be traced ; 
overgrown with innumerable useless and noisome 
weeds, yet occasionally adorned by flowers of rare 
beauty, and others possessing still more valuable qua- 
lities. If I have been so fortunate as to cull a few 
that may ultimately prove of real utility to mankind, 
I shall regret neither the time nor the labour that I 
have bestowed in the search ; and may then, too, be 
excused for having dragged into public notice some 
of Nature* s fairest offerings, with little to recom- 
mend them, but ** a brilliant aspect and an empty 


As might naturally be supposed, several of the drugs 
mentioned in Vol. I. cannot be found in any of the 
provinces of India in such quantities as to preclude 
the necessity of regular supplies from established 
stores ; nor are they always to be met with of the 
best quality ; yet it must be gratifying to know what 
those medicines are that can be procured in the 
bazars, or gardens of the wealthy inhabitants, in cases 
of extremity. 

The Sanscrit names for many articles are so nume- 
rous (synonyms), that there has been some difficulty 
in selecting; a circumstance which it is necessary to 
mention, as the reader no doubt will occasionally 
find amongst them appellations that are not familiar 
to him ; and it is also to be observed, that, as in the 
wide range of territory in which the different lan- 
guages are spoken, there cannot fail to be a variety 
of terms and dialects, the reader must expect, 
now and thep, to meet with spellings and termi- 


nations which he is perhaps not accustomed to. For 
such peculiarities there is no remedy. The Tamool 
and Tellingoo adopted, are those of the most learned 
Hindoos of the Southern provinces of India ; Brah- 
mins from the pagodas of Madura, Seringham, and 

ENGLISH character: 

a, as in the English word call, or French word baton. 

ay as in the English word man. 

diy as the letters aw-T/e in the phrase saw ye ? pro- 
nounced quick. 

ay, as the letters ay in the words day and may. 

e, or e accented thus, as the first e in the word 
elate, or as e in the French word ces. 

ee, as ee in the word bee. 

eiy as the letters ay ye in the English phrase say 
ye ? pronounced quick. 

gy as g in the English word goody or French word 

ghy as gh in the Englisli word ghostly. 

ley as ea in the English word seay or ie in the 
French word colonie. 
jy as J in the English woidjom. 

ooy as 00 in the English word moony or ou in the 
French word loiip. 

Uy as II in the English words niiid and su7i. 


2/, as y in the English word my^ or as ei in the 
German word schein (bright). 

0, as in the English word bold, or as eau in the 
French word beau^ or au in mauvais. 

if as i in the English word ifi or in the French 
word si. 

c and /r, indiscriminately, as A: in the English word 
keepf or c in the English word cold. 

chf as ch in the English word charm. 

shy as 5^ in the English word shamCy or as ch in the 
French word chapeau. 

oWy as ow in the English word cow. 

oUy as oz^ in the English word doubt. 

When p precedes hy the h is then to be slightly 
aspirated, as in the word phbol (a flower, in Dukha- 
nie), pronounced p-hool : in like manner, h following 
any other consonant is to be slightly aspirated. 

This mark ( '), so slanting, over a vowel, or this ^ ), 
denote that it must be pronounced quick ; but when 
thus ( " ), straight or horizontal, over a vowel, it de- 
notes that it is to be pronounced full and broad, as 
a in war. 

N. B. In representing Sanscrit words in Roman 
letters, u and w, i and % are to be pronounced as by 
the Italians, according to Sir W. Jones' system of 


The following account of the weights and mea- 
sures in use in the peninsula of India is almost 
entirely taken from Dr. Heyne's ^< Statistical Tracts 
on India.*' 


The weights or dry measures in India are of two 
different kinds, both defined very accurately. The 
former is called the bazar weighty and is used in the 
sale of what are termed bazar articles ; such as ta- 
marinds, turmeric, and all sorts of drugs. The 
latter is used.yor grain^ both in the bazars and all 
revenue transactions. The great difficulty lies in 
the multiplicity of weights employed in different 
districts; for almost every principal town or small 
district has weights and measures differing widely 
from all those of the neighbourhood. 

The general and uniform measure and weight is 
the pucca seer^ which is properly understood to con- 
sist of sixty-four dubs^ that is, supposing each dub 
to weigh four drachms ; but sometimes the dubs are 
lighter than that, in which case more dubs are added 
to make up the seer. This measure appears in some 
writings of very old dato, for instance, in the Sudra 

Both fluids and dry articles are determined by 
weight, with the exception of oil, for the sale of 
which a kind of graduated measure is employed. 
The works which chiefly treat of the subject of 
weights and measures are the Lilavaty and the Sudra 
Ganitam, just mentioned : the last is written in 
Tellingoo, but is said to have been translated from 
the Sanscrit j the former is a well-known Sanscrit 

The following weights are the standards for the 
Circars : as they are derived from the Sanscrit, how- 
ever, they may be considered as general for Hindoo^ 
Stan : — 


1 Paddy seed (grain of rice in the husk) is 1 visum 

= k grain. 
4 Visums are 1 gulivinda^y or 1 patika = 2 grains. 

2 Gulivindas are 1 addaga = 4 grains. 
2 Addagas are 1 chinum ^ 8 grains. 
9\ Chinums are 1 tsavila = 20 grains. 

2 Tsavilas are 1 dharanum =• 40 grains. 

2 Dharanums are 1 m<2fl?a '-^^ 1 drachm 20 grains. 

3 Madas are 1 tulam = 4 drachms. 

6 Tulams are 1 pava siru = 3 ounces. 

4 Pavas are 1 siru =12 ounces. 

5 Sirs are 1 visa = 3]bs. 12 ounces. 

2 Visas are 1 yettu i= 7lbs. 8 ounces. 

2 Yettus are 1 arda manugudu =. 15lbs. 

2 Arda manugudus are 1 manugudu = SOlbs. 

5 Manugudus are 1 yadum = 150lbs. 

2 Yadums are 1 pandum •=. SOOlbs. 

2 Pandums are 1 puladoo -candy = 600lbs. 


4 Dubs weight are 1 gidda = 2 ounces. 
2 Giddas are 1 arasola = 4 ounces. 
2 Arasolas are 1 sola r= 8 ounces. 

* Dr. Heyne calls this the seed of the ahrus precatorius, but in 
what language I know not, as the common Sanscrit name is rac- 
tictty and the Hindoostanie retti: the Tamools term it coondoo' 
munny^ the Tellingoos ghoorie ghinza, and the Malays telae. 
The appellation of the plant in Hindoostanie is guncha/in Sanscrit 
gunja ; the Mahometans of Lower India bestow on it the name of 
^^^ goo7nchie. Sir William Jones makes one of the seeds to 
weigh one grain and five-sixteenths ; and informs us, that the retli 
weighty used by jewellers, is equal to ttvo grains three-sixteenths* 
See Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 154', and vol. v. p. 92. 


2 Solas are 1 tavadu = lib. 
2 Tavadus are I manika = 2lbs. 
2 Manikas are 1 addadu = 4lbs. 
2 Addadus are 1 conchum = Slbs. 
2 Conchums are 1 /ra^a = l61bs. 
2 Trasas are 1 turn = 32lbs. 
5 Turns are 1 yadum = lOOlbs. 
2 Yadums are 1 pandum = 320lbs. 
2 Pandums are 1 pnttadu = 640lbs. 

The following table of weights was given to me 
by a Tamool medical practitioner in great repute in 
Southern India, and who was partially acquainted 
with the European Materia Medica : — 

2 Grains of dried paddy* make 1 grain (apoth.) 
16 Ditto make 1 gold fanam. 

1 Gold fanam makes 8 grains (apoth.) 
10 Gold fanams make 1 star pagoda. 

1 Star pagoda makes 4 scruples (apoth.) 
10 Star pagodas make 1 poUam. 
25 Pollams make 1 seer. 
40 Pollams make 1 viss. 
8 Viss make 1 maund. 
20 Maunds make 1 parum or candy, weighing 

In making a trial with regard to the correctness 
of the above table, it appeared to me, that about 
five grains of the dried paddy weighed two grains 
(apoth.) ; and that the star pagoda was in weight, 
perhaps, half a gold fanam more than ten gold 

♦ Rice, while in the husk, is called paddy. 



1. Infusion. Koodineer ^\ QsS'nr (Tarn.) Wo-^ 

reveshdna cdshdyum (Tel.) Nookoo ^yu (Duk.) 
A cold infusion is, in Sanscrit, sitaha. ftUJ5 (Arab.) 

2. Decoction. Cushdium e5r^rrLULO (Tarn.) 
Wundene cdshdium (Tel.) Kara j^jflT (Duk.) Stru^ 
taha (Sans.) 

3. Liniment. Tdllum^ 5"y:iLO (Tarn.) Tayl 
ligdnd ^l.^il Jxj- (Duk.) Dallum (Tel.) 

4. Liniment for the whole body. Toodlay 

^(TUTsi/^K) (Tarn.) 

5. Electuary. Layghium Qt^^iljld (Tarn.) 
Kulvd ^^:S. (Duk.) Layghum (Tel.) 

6. Powder. Shoorunum ^cr6OTrLD (Tarn.) 
Booknee ^iSij (Duk.) Shoorumum (Tel.) Kalkaha t 

7. Pill. Mdtray Lonr^^i^^ry (Tarn.) Gholie 
j/(Duk.) Matirloo (Tel.) vo. (Arab.) 

8. Plaster. iSTa/imJoo ^a\rf>L£)L_-i (Tarn.) Molum 
^y< (Duk.) Molam (Tel.) ^^^ (Arab.) 

♦ This properly signifies a liniment for the head, 
f This is, more properly speaking, a compound powder of 
several well dried plants. 

VOL. I. 
















Tamool, or Tamtil. 


















Malealie (language of the Malabar coast). 














Bali (island of). 







Coch. Chin. 

. Cochin-Chinese. 







I cannot conclude this short proem without ac- 
knowledging how much I have been indebted to 
many obhging friends, whose names may be seen in dif- 
ferent parts of this work ; but I hope that I shall be 
excused if I here express my peculiar sense of obliga- 
tion to Mr. Charles Wilkins, for the valuable inform- 
ation so kindly communicated to me on various sub- 
jects; and also to Dr. B. Babington, jun., and Captain 
Michael, for the assistance they have so readily given 
me in fixing the true orthography of many of the 
Tamool and Mahratta names. 



— a grain. 


— a scruple. 


— a drachm. 


— an ounce. 


— a pound weight. 


— a minhn. 


— a fluid drachm. 


— a fluid ounce. 


— a pint. 

a 2 


apothecaries' weight. 







= 12 





















Gal. Pints. Fluid ounces. Fluid drams. Minims. 

1 ir 8 n 128 ZZ 1024 zz 61440 

01= 16 = 128 = 768O 

f 3 1 = 8 n: 480 

f :? 1 = 60 

In the Preliminary Observations to Volume Second 
(page xxxvii.) I have expressed a notion, that in 
some parts of the Travancore country several of 
those articles of the Materia Medica, for which the 
world is now indebted to America or the West 
Indies, might be produced. I am much inclined to 
think, that the callicocca ipecacuanha (Brotero) would 
thrive there as well as in Brazil. So, perhaps, might 
the convolvulus jalapce^ as w^ell as in Mexico and 
Vera Cruz. In like manner the guaiacum officinale 
might be tried, and should it succeed most valuable 
would be the acquisition to India : both the wood 
and gum-resin are medicines of importance ; the first 
is generally given in decoction, the latter in doses of 



from grs. x. to 3i. ; in combination wit! i a little opium 
and calomel, it is an admirable alterative and dia- 
phoretic. The atropa belladojia^ I am quite certain, 
would grow well in the Mysore country, about Ban- 
galore ; so would the colchiciim autumnale ; the 
active principle of this plant has been found to 
depend on the alkaloid termed veratria. The col- 
chicum autumnale is supposed by some to form the 
basis of the eau inedicinale of Huson. In all the 
forms in which the meadow-sajSron is given, it is 
powerfully and sometimes dangerously narcotic. Sir 
E. Home has recommended the vinum colchici in 
gout and rheumatism ; the dose of the powder is 
gr. i., of the acetum fjss., of the oxymel f5i, of the 
vinum f^i., and of the spiritus colchici ammoniatus 

The author saw the digitalis purpurea (fox-glove) 
growing in the botanical garden at Bangalore some 
years ago, but the plant was not robust. Could it, 
by any care, be made to thrive in that cool climate 
it would be a great point gained. The leaves and 
seeds are used in medicine. Internally, the digitalis 
is given to diminish the velocity of the circulation 
in various maladies ; to diminish the irritability of 
the system ; to increase the action of the absorb- 
ents*; and to increase the discharge of urine. 
Externally, it has been applied to scrophulous t tu- 
mours. The dose of the powder of the digitalis 
purpurea is from gr. ss. to grs. v., as a diuretic and 

* See Dr. Duncan's Edinburgh New Dispensatory for 1826, 
p. 336. 

f See the same. 


narcotic; of the infusion from fgss. to fgij., as a 
diuretic ; of the decoction from f^i. to f^iiss,, as a 
diuretic ; of the tincture from mviii. to -nilxv., as a 
diuretic. The powder is best given in combination 
with squills. R Pulv. digit, grs. ss., pulv. scillae 
grs. iss., potassae supertart. 3iiss. ; fiat pulvis, ter in 
die sumendus ; in dropsy. Dr. Mossman speaks 
strongly of the powers of digitalis in obviating pneu- 
monic inflammation, by its directly sedative effect ; 
but, given incautiously, it is apt to injure, I think, 
the constitution, and certainly is hurtful after the 
purulent stage of phthisis has come on. The late 
Dr. Fowler ordered in pneumonia ^ss. of the decoc- 
tion to be taken twice or thrice in the twenty-four 
hours ; which decoction was made by boiling two 
ounces of the fresh leaves of the purple fox-glove in 
a pint of pure water, till only seven ounces and a 
half remain, and adding to it f^ss. of tincture of 

The conium maculatum (hemlock) would not, I 
should think, fail at Bangalore ; the powder of 
the leaves, in doses of from grs. ij. to grs. xv., is 
narcotic and sedative, so is the extract in doses of 
from gr. i. to grs. vi., as also the tincture given to 
the quantity of from fjss. to f^i. Whether the hop 
(humulus lupulus) would do well in any part of 
India is a doubtful question ; a chemical bitter prin- 
ciple discovered in it by Dr. Ives of New York, it is 
thought, contains the active virtues of the plant, 
which is anodyne ; the dose of the extract is from 
grs. iv. to grs. xv., that of the tincture from tt\xxv. 
to v\\. 


Lettuce (lactuca sativa) is common at Banga- 
lore, as well as other parts of India, but I am not 
aware that any of the lettuce opium has ever yet 
been prepared from it; a substance, for a knowledge 
of the virtues of which the world is indebted to the 
excellent Dr. Duncan, senior, and subsequently to 
Dr. Young ; it has, though by no means in so great 
a degree, the quality of opium without its binding 
effects ; it is sometimes called lactucarium : the dose 
is grs. ij. to grs. v., that of the tinctura lactucarii 
in.1. to f3ss. 

The leontodon taraxacum would thrive at Banga- 
lore, or on the Nillgherry mountains ; it is the com- 
mon dandelion j an extract prepared from the whole 
plant, which contains a bitter milky juice, has been 
supposed by Pemberton to be of use in hepatic ob- 
structions and dyspepsia, but Dr. Duncan, junior*, 
thinks it possesses little virtue : the dose is from 
grs. X. to 3SS. 

Of other new medicines, not of Indian produce, 
I shall simply here mention bismuth and the Prus- 
sic acid. The bismuthi subnitras is tonic in doses 
of from grs. iij. to grs. v. The bismuthi oxydum 
album, in doses of grs. iij. and given twice daily 
in combination with grs. xv. of compound powder 
of tragacanth, is useful in dyspepsia. The Prussic 
acid, or, as it is sometimes called, hydrocyanic 
acid, is obtained from bitter almonds and peach 
and laurel leaves ; it was discovered by Scheele 
in 1789, and first got pure by Gay Lussac j it is 

♦ See Edinburgh New Dispensatory for 1826, p. 392. 


liquid, colourless, and transparent, of a powerfully 
deleterious odour, like that of bitter almonds ; it is 
the most deadly poison known ; a single drop, when 
pure, destroys a dog in an instant. The medicinal 
Prussic acid is made by adding to the pure acid six 
times its volume of distilled water : the dose of this 
is from a quarter of a drop to two drops ; it has been 
given as a sedative, in distilled water and syrup, by 
Magendie and others, in nervous coughs, asthma, 
and consumption. Dr. A.T.Thomson found a lotion, 
prepared with the medicinal hydrocyanic acid, spirit 
of wine, and distilled water, of use in impetigo. 






Jdefore proceeding to describe the manner in which 
the following mineral acids are prepared by the na- 
tive druggists, I think it proper to observe, that in 
all operations of this nature they are extremely 
clumsy and unscientific ; their knowledge of che- 
mical decomposition and new combination is con- 
fined ; and their vessels and utensils are by no means 
of the most convenient kind. It must be gratifying, 
however, to the reader, to find that such attempts 
are made by the Tamool medical men ; and I believe 
this is the first time the formulae have appeared in 
an English garb. 

VOL, I. B 



ACID SULPHURIC. GhenddgaTrcwagumQ^r5 
g_^^^jy,_j^Lb (Tam.) Gunduch ka uttir ^ \.S 
jjj^j'(Duk.) Gunddkd rasa {Cjng.') Arekgowgird 
y/ySuijfS: (Pers.) Roohdzim -.Jar^^^^ also Maulki- 
hrit »:ij»oJC]!*L) (Arab.) Acide sulphurique. (Fr.) 
Schweffelsaure (Germ.) 


The Tamool vytians (physicians) prepare this article 
nearly in the same way that we do ; viz. by burning 
sulphur (ghendagum) with a small portion of pottle 
ooppoo (nitre) in strong earthen vessels. They pre- 
scribe it, diluted, internally, in scrofulous affections, 
and in cases of general debility. It is also given in 
an infusion of cloves in certain bowel complaints, 
unaccompanied with tenesmus. 

The diluted sulphuric acid is a favorite medicine of 
the Persians, who call it zakab i^\^fV: (Pers.) 

European practitioners give the " acidum sul- 
phuricum dilutum'^ as a tonic, stomachic, antiseptic, 
and astringent, in doses of from ten to twenty drops. 
The ancients supposed acids in general to be sto- 
machic. (Cels. lib. ii. cap. 88.) 


ACID NITROUS. Pottle ooppoo trdvdgum (jLjrrLl 

1 Q-CS^LL'L_,^crrra\j^Lb (Tam.) Vediloonoorasa 

{^y'^g^)Shorakateezab ^(y^- ]S ^^;i (Duk.) Arekishora 
i?>^ c3;.£ (Pers.) Maulabker y,j^\ u (Arab.) Sterk- 
water (Dut.) Aqua forte (Port.) Acide nitrique 
(Fr.) Salpeter sdure (Germ.) 

Acidum Nitrosum. 


This acid, * the Hindoos make a clumsy attempt at 
preparing, in the following manner, which must not 
be rigidly criticised by the chemists of Europe : the 
formula was given to me by a vytian of Trichinopoly. 

Take of pottle ooppoo (salt-petre) - 20 pollums 

paddicarum (alum) - 16 pollums 

cdddlay poolippoo neer t - 3 8 pollums 

Mix, and distil with an increasing heat till the whole 

of the nitrous acid is condensed in the cooppie 


The native practitioners consider pottle ooppoo 
travdgum as a diuretic, they also prescribe it as a 
tonic when properly diluted, and order it after tedious 
febrile affections. 

European practitioners give the diluted nitric acid 
as a tonic and antiseptic, in doses of thirty or forty 
drops diluted with water. 

The nitric acid is well known to be obtained in 
Europe from the nitrous acid, by pouring the latter 
into a retort, adapting a receiver, and subjecting it to 
a little heat, until the reddest portion of the acid 
shall have passed over into the receiver, and that 
which remains in the retort appears colourless. The 
diluted nitric acid is no longer supposed to possess 
any specific virtue in syphilis, but merely to act as a 
tonic ; it has also of late years been used for hepatic 
affections in the form of a bath, as first recommended 
by Dr. Scot of Bombay, in 1796 : when used as a 
bath, the diluted acid should be added to the water 
until it is about as sour as vinegar j or the bath may 

■* The nitrous acid properly prepared, consists of nitrous gas 
loosely combined with nitric acid and water. 

t See an account of this in a note under acid muriatic. 

B 2 


be prepared with the nitro-muriatic acid, which is 
the aqua regia of the elder chemists. 


ACID MURIATIC. Ooppoo irdvdgum s—LLI'-^^ 
rrrrcT-Lju^LD CTam.) Lawana trdvdgum (Tel.) Nemuk 
ka teezah ^\-^ IT^^J (Duk.) Loonoo rasa (Cyng.) 
Acide Muriatique (Fr.) Kochsalsdure (Ger.) 


This aeid the Tamool doctors prepare in the fol- 
lowing singular manner : 

Take of ooppoo (common salt) - 8 poUums 

paddicarum (alum) - 6 pollums 

cdddlay poolippoo neer * - 8 pollums 
Let the common salt and alum be first well dried 
and pounded together, then add the other ingredient, 
and distil till the whole of the muriatic acid is dis- 
engaged, and condensed in the cooppie (receiver.) 

This is considered by the native practitioners as a 
stomachic and tonic, and is prescribed in conjunction 
with an infusion of spices. 

The muriatic acid is an useful adjunct to gargles in 
the proportion of from ^ss to ^ij in gvi of any fluid 
in ulcerated sore throat ; and is considered as tonic 
and antiseptic, given internally in typhus fever, and 
in some cutaneous eruptions : it is, without doubt, 

* The dews of night falling on cloths spread over the Bengal 
horse gram (cicer arietinum) whilst growing, are rendered slightly 
acid. The liquor wrung out of the cloths is called in Tamool cadalay 
poolippoo neer, and is recommended by the vytians as a cooling 
drink ; and is otherwise used by them as a common menstruum for 
medical purposes. The Tellingoos call it sennagalu. Examined by 
Vauquelin, it was found that it contained oxalic, malic^ and a little 
acetic acid. (See Dr. Heyne's Tracts on India, pages 28, 29.) 


powerfully antiseptic. The dose Mr. Thomson re- 
commends in his excellent London Dispensatory, is 
from ten to twenty drops in a sufficient quantity of 
any bland fluid; or in an infusion of Cinchona bark. 
But, perhaps, the most important use ofthisacidis 
as a means of purifying the air from contagious mias- 
mata, by being diffused through it in the form of 
vapour. Dr. Paris informs us in his Pharmacologia 
(p. 229), that after a copious evacuation of the bowels, 
he found this acid useful in preventing the gener- 
ation of worms. 


AGARIC. Garikoon ^rrrf^dh^d^ (Tam.) AgarL 
kun (^^iujli! (Arab, and Duk.) Agaric de chene (Fr.) 
Feuerschwamm (Ger.) 

Boletus Igniarius (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Cryptogamia Fungi. Nat. Ord. Fungi 

Agarikoon is the appellation given to this fungus, 
equally by the Tamools and Mahomitans of India. It 
would appear by a passage in Dioscorides to be origin- 
ally an old Sarmatian word, and to have been thence 
borrowed by the Arabs. The little that is found in In- 
dia, is probably brought from Alexandria by way of 
the Red Sea ; Sir Wilham Jones tells us, that agaric 
is found in Hindoostan * on a tree^ the Sanskrit 
name of which is caraca. 

The Boletus Igniarius, a parasitical plant which 
grows upon the oak, is said to be the most valuable; 
and is what has been so much celebrated as a styptic, 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 311. 

B 3 


and in preparing the amadou^ used in some parts of 
the continent for tinder. Another species, Boletus 
pint laricis^ or male agaric, has been given in sub- 
stance, and is obtained of the best quahty from Mus- 
covy and Tartary. 

So httle is yet known of the fructification of the 
fungi, that the characters have been hitherto taken 
from the external form ; seven species of agaricus are 
indigenous in Jamaica ; and Browne, in his Natural 
History of that island, informs us, that the agaricus 
striatus, or large white agaric, is the most effectual 
application hitherto known to restrain the effusion 
of blood in recent or old wounds, applied in small 
pieces to the extremity of the vessels. See Hortus 
Jamaicensis, (vol. ii. p. 528.) 

The Arabians place garikoon amongst their Muf- 
fettehat, olzsrXi^ (Deobstruentia.) . 

The Boletus Igniarius, when prepared, is without 
smell, but has an astringent taste : chemically exam- 
ined, it was found to contain, according to Bouillon 
la Grange, resin, extractive matter similar in its na- 
ture to animal gelatin, and different salts. Mr. Eaton 
has called the attention of the scientific world to this 
fungus, by its peculiar flesh-like property while grow- 
ing ; if cut, the wound heals up by a sort of first 
intention, leaving not even a cicatrice nor any evi- 
dence of the incision. (Solliman's Jour. vi. I77.) 


ALMOND, PERSIAN. Parsie Vadomcottay 

L~'^o^^c5Yjn-g-LX)^f3(265-n-LleS^-L- (Tam.) Waloo 
Looway (Cyng.) Inghoordi (Sans.) Parsee Vadom^ 
mttooloo (Tel.) Amendoas (Port.) Badamie Farsie 


^^jM ^bU (Pers. Duk. and Hind.) Louz ^^ (Arab.) 
Lowzan ^jyi (Malay.) Kateping (Jav.) Kataping 
(Bali.) Amandes, donees^ et ameres (Fr.) Bittere 
and Siisse mandeln (Ger.) 

Amygdalus Communis. (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
pomaceae (Lin.) Geneiiie Mandel. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 982. 

Almonds are brought to India from the sea ports 
of the Persian Gulph. Tavernier in his Travels in 
Persia (book v. chap, xii.), tells us, that they grow 
in great abundance in the territories of Yesd and 
Kerman ; where the bitter and sweet kinds are dis- 
tinguished by the names of hadam telkh and badam 
shereen ^^^ ^^i, ^ ^yj ^[j 

The almond tree is a native of Syria,. Turkey, and 
Barbary, but is now naturalized in the south of Eu- 
rope.* It rises to the height of twenty feet, and di- 
vides into many spreading branches ; the leaves are 
about three inches long, and the flowers are similar 
in form to those of the peach, but larger. 

The .Hindoos do not appear to use almonds as a 
medicine ; the Arabians and Persians place blanched 
sweet almonds amongst their Mobehy-dt cX^^j^ 
(Aphrodisiaca) ; the bitter sort (which Mr. Gray 
tells us is poisonous to many birds), they consider 
as lithontriptic, and place it accordingly amongst 
their Muffuttetdht CjICa^Ckk^ 

Three species of amygdalus grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta j the Amygdalus Persica, or peach 
tree, thrives well in cool situations in India ; its 

* Spain and Italy ; particularly in the kingdom of Naples, in 
the territories of Bari, Lecce, and Abruzzo. 

B 4 


Arabic name is ^^^ (khookh) ; the Persian is ^ilxk^ 


Mr. A. T. Thomson, in his excellent London Dis- 
pensatory, informs us, that the two varieties of amyg- 
dolus communis^ the bitter ^nd sweet, are not distin- 
guished from each other by any particular appear- 
ance, and are known only by the taste of the kernel 
of their fruit ; he adds, however, that the Jordan 
almonds, the best sweet almonds brought to Eng- 
land, are said to be the produce, not of a variety, 
but of a distinct species of amygdalus. 

Almonds now are little used, but as food ; though 
Bergius in his Materia Medica, tells us, of their 
having cured an intermitting fever, when the Peru- 
vian bark failed. Mr. Thompson found the emul- 
sion of service externally in the impetigo; its internal 
use is well known in cases of strangury. 

Boullay and Proust have confirmed the analogy 
which had been stated to exist between sweet al- 
monds and the human milk ; the former consisting 
of 54 sweet oil, 24 albumen, 6 sugar, and 3 gum. 
The bitter almond in addition to these substances 
contains prussic acid in union with a peculiar vola- 
tile oil. Noyau is made with bitter almonds blanched, 
^i, proof spirit hss., sugar ^iv. See Paris's Phar- 
macologia, p. 252. The ancients, as we learn from 
Pliny, had some curious notions regarding bitter 
almonds, considering them as soporific, emenagogue, 
and diuretic. See Natural History, hb. xxiiii. 
cap. xviii. 


ALOES. Cdrriabdlum s7r^LuCL-jn~avT-Lb (Tam.) 
Catasha (Malealie.) Moosumbir ^^^^ (Duk.) Co- 


marika (Cyng.) Oolowaton iij (Malay.) Moo- 
sumbrum (Tel.) Sibbir j^^ (Pers.) Aloe (Dut.) 
Aloes (Port.) Eylwwa j^Xj (Hind.) Sue (Taloes 
(Fr.) Glausinde aloe (Ger.) 

Aloe Spicata (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. hexandria monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
coronariae (Lin.) Aehrentragende aloe. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. voLii. p. 3 85. 

The above are the names commonly given to this 
inspissated juice and gum resin, in India and some 
other eastern countries j and which is the article, as 
it is brought from the Cape of Good Hope, or from 
the Island of Zocotora.^ The latter is the best, being 
of a reddish brown colour, glossy, as if varnished, 
and of a delightful aromatic odour ; they are evi- 
dently, however, from the same species of aloe, 
(Spicata). Its stem in circumference is about four 
inches in diameter; rising three or four feet in height; 
leaves spreading, about two feet long, subverticillate, 
gradually coming to a point, with remote teeth. The 
whole plant has a dusky hue; and, when cut, there 
exudes an amber-coloured viscid juice, which has 
much of the taste and smell of the Socotrine Aloes. 
It is growing in the Governor's garden at St. Helena. 

The A. Spicata grows in abundance on the Island 
of Zocotora (now belonging to the princes of Hadra- 
maut, a province of Arabia, contiguous to Yemen); 
and also in many parts of the south of Africa, such 
as in the kingdom of Melinda, where the greater 
part of the extract is prepared that is now sold 
under the name of Socotrine Aloes. There is another 

* Zocotora was discovered by the Portuguese in 1503; for an 
account of the island and its capital (Tamerin), see Sir Henry 
Middleton's Voyage to the Red Sea, in IGIO. 


sort of aloes, common in the Indian bazars, and 
which is of a very inferior quality, resembling more 
what is called in Europe, Barbadoes Aloes. It is 
more dusky in its colour, has not the pleasant 
smell the other has, and is extremely bitter. It is 
brought from Yemen in Arabia to the western ports 
of the peninsula, and is, in all probability, obtained 
from the Aloe Perfoliata. * (Lin.) This species of the 
plant is common in India ; though I cannot learn for 
certain that any of the drug is prepared from it. 
The Sanscrit name of it is taruni t ; in Hindostanie 
and Bengalie it is called ghrita koomareej and is 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. In 

Tamool it is termed hattalay er^g-rros)! q. ^.nd in 

Canarese, ravana. It is the herba babosa of the 

Braconnot conceives aloes to be a substance sid 
generiSy which he calls bitter resin ; others regard it 
as a compound of gum, resin, and extractive matter. 
The native practitioners of India prescribe it in 
nearly the same doses that we do ; from five to 
twelve grains as a purge ; and like some of the 
ancient medical writers, suppose it to be less hurtful 
to the stomach than any other cathartic. *' Ideoque 
omnibus catharticis aloe miscenda est.^' (Vide Cels. 
lib. ii. cap. 12). They also apply it externally 
round the eye, in cases of chronic ophthalmia. The 
Tamool doctors administer it, when toasted, in certain 
bowel affections to which women are subject after 
lying-in. Dr. Paris recommends aloes, in conjunc- 
tion with assafbetida, as a purgative in the dyspepsia 
of old people. 

* This grows to the height of ten or twelve feet, with narrowish 
leaves of a sea-green colour, very succulent. 

t There is a coarse kind of aloe, called musambrum^ common 
in the bazars, which is> perhaps, prepared in India from this 


The Arabians place it amongst their Mofeshyat 
cXjjik^ (Carminativa). The reader may find the 
nature of aloes discussed in an Arabic book, entitled 
v^^ J ^5 J^yi\ji (Kanooni-fil-tib). It is the work 
known in' Europe under the name of the Canons 
of Avicenna. 

Virey, in his ** Histoire Naturelle des Medica- 
mens ** (page 135), tells us, that the agave americana, 
yields a yellow juice very analogous to the true aloes, 
and that it is considered as sudorific in decoction. 

I shall conclude what I have to say of this article 
by observing, that it would appear to be most indi- 
cated in diseases distinguished by a deficiency of 
bile, such as sometimes occur after a long residence 
in India ; or when it is necessary to stimulate the 
uterine vessels or rectum. It is contra-indicated in 
haemorrhoidal cases. In delicate habits it is given 
with most safety when deprived of its resinous part. 
The ancients prepared with it a kind of eye-water.- 
Vide Cels. lib. vi. p. 296. 304. 


ALUM. Faddicarum lj' Q.usu^rrrjris) (Tam.) 

Puttika (Sans.) Chinakarum (Cyng.) Puttdkarie 
<^j^Ck^^ (Duk.) Shebb ^^ (Arab.) Zqjbelur j^L^Sj 
(Pers.) Pdddicara (Tel.) Pedrahume (Port.) Aluin 
(Dut.) also Spiiticca (Sans.) Alun (Fr.) Alaun 
(Ger.) ^ 

Alumen. Sulphas Aluminse (Edin.) 

This article, though scarce, is found in some parts 
of Upper Hindoostan, and Captain Macdonald Kin- 
neir, in his very interesting Geographical Memoir of 


Persia (p. 224.), informs us, that it is to be met with 
in its natural state, in mountains south of Kelat, in 
the province of Mekran ; Mr. Elphinston says, it is 
found in clay in Calabaugh in Cabul, but that which 
is commonly used in India, is brought from China, 
and reckoned preferable to the alum of Jeypour. 
(See Elmore's Directory to the Indian Trade, p. 134.) 

The greater part of the alum employed in com- 
merce, is prepared by a peculiar management of 
schistose pyritic clays, usually called alum ores ; at 
La Tolfa^ where the best Roman alum is made, the 
alum-stone ore is used; at Hurlet near Glasgow, it 
is from the alum slate that a large quantity of alum 
is now prepared. * 

The ingenious Captain Arthur, late of the Madras 
Engineer Corps, told me that he discovered alum in 
Travancore, in a soft, dark coloured, laminated, t 
earthy matter, which contained sulphur in the state 
of sulphuret of iron. Alum is well known in Eu- 
rope to be often found in connexion with coal, as in 
Bohemia, which, however, as far as Captain Arthur 
observed, it does not appear to be in the present in- 
stance. Dr. Davy found alum in the interior of 
Ceylon. (See his Account of that Island, p. 30.) 

The native practitioners prescribe alum occasion- 
ally as we do, as an astringent in cases of obstinate 

* There is every^ reason to believe that the alumen of the Ro- 
mans was not our alum, but rather a vitriolic earth ; in Pliny's 
time the best was the Egyptian ; it was also a produce of the 
island of Milo. 

f Captain Arthur further said, that at certain depths in the 
soil, under the laminated matter, he observed a regular stratum 
of charcoal, a circumstance which led him to conjecture that the 
bed in which the mineral is found, is of a vegetuble origin ; and 
we know that it has been ascertained by Vauquelin and others, 
that in what is termed the alum ore of La Tolfa^ potass is met 
with in considerable quantity. 


diarrhsea, diabetes, and fluor albus, and externally in 
ophthalmia. European practitioners use it externally 
and internally for restraining haemorrhages, as a gar- 
gle for the mouth and throat in cases of aphthae and 
cynanche, and in coUyriafor chronic opthalmia. In 
haemorrhages the dose is from grs. iii. to 9i every hour, 
till the bleeding abates. Alum whey is made by 
boiling 5i of alum in a pint of milk and straining ; 
the dose is ^ij or f iij : but alum is much more com- 
monly used in the arts and manufactures. 

The constituent parts of it according to the ex- 
periments of Mr. Phillips, are 

Sulphate of alumina - - 123.00 

Bi-sulphate of potassa - - 119.32 

Water • • . I87.OO 


The Arabians place alum amongst their Yabisatke- 
rouh ^^^c.\^Aj (Epulotica.) 

Professor Beckman, as appears by his History of 
Inventions, seems to think it probable that the first 
alum works in Europe were established in 1459 in the 
island of Ischia, but that the most ancient in exist- 
ence are those still carried on in the neighbourhood 
of Civita Vecchia in the Ecclesiastical States. In 
England, the first alum works were established in 
the sixteenth century by Sir Thomas Chaloner, near 
Gisborough in Yorkshire. Dr. Paris, in his Pharma- 
cologia, informs us, that alum has the effect of re- 
tarding the acetous fermentation in vegetables. Its 
property of clearing muddy water is well known, as 
are the virtues of the alum curd in opthalmia, this 
is made by agitating alum with the white of an 



AMBER. Umbir ^uoljct (Tarn, and Tel.) 
Kdrooba L^^ (Duk. andPers.) Kepoor ^^S (Hind.) 
Ambarj,j^\ (Malay.) Kernulhehr yszA\^^^ (Arab.) 
Amhra (Cyng.) Ambar (Port.) Barnsteen (Dut.) 
Hambar (Bali.) Succin (Fr.) Bernstein (Ger.) 


Amber has been found in the earth in the Dec- 
can of a fine quality, but it is very scarce ; I have 
also been informed that it is occasionally met with 
in the alluvial soil in Travancore. 'The greater part 
of what we have in India, however, is brought from 
Japan, where it is called nambu; and also occasion- 
ally from the Philippine Islands, where, De Comyn * 
informs us in his State of those Countries, that it 
is gathered in large lumps in the vicinity of the island 
of Samar and others named Bissayas. 

Blumenbach, in his " Histoire Naturelle'* (tome ii. 
p. 312.), mentions, that this substance in Europe is 
chiefly found at Palmnicken in East Prussia. 

It is not rarely procured at Madagascar^ either fished 
on the sea coast, or dug out of the earth. It is also 
frequently found on the shores of the Baltic, and 
may be met with in Poland, Sweden, Italy, and 
Sicily; in the last named country, chiefly on the 
shore of the river Giaretta. 

Copal is occasionally sold in the Indian bazars 
under the name of amber, and is deceitfully made 
into necklaces by the jewellers : a similar imposition 
we learn from Mr. Brydon, is practised in Sicily. 
(See article Copal in Part iii. of this work.) 

* See his work, p. 39. 


Various conjectures have been proposed respect- 
ing the origin of amber, which when rubbed is well 
known to have a strong negative electric virtue. 
Some suppose it to be a vegetable resin or gum ; 
others a mineral oil thickened by absorption of oxy- 
gen. Parkinson thinks that it is inspissated mineral 
oil ; Patrin, that it is honey modified by time, and 
mineral acids, which have converted it into bitumen. 
Distilled amber yields the succinic acid, and with it 
comes over the oil of amber, a valuable stimulant 
and antispasmodic. Of all the varieties of this sub- 
stance, what is called the wax and honey yellow, are 
the most highly valued, equally because they are 
the most beautiful and more solid than the yellowish 
white-coloured kinds. 

I cannot find that amber is used by the Indians 
as a medicine. The Arabians place it amongst their 
Mokewt/dtdil ^^oL^iLo (Cardiaca.)* In Europe, the 
officinal preparations of it are, the acid and oil ; the 
latter is frequently given with good effect in cases 
of epilepsy and hysteria, in doses of from ten to fif- 
teen drops combined with water by means of muci- 
lage. The acid is produced, as above stated, by 
distillation ; when purified and crystalized, it is fusible ; 
and volatile, when heated ; along with the succinic 
acid, there distils over a quantity of volatile oil of a 
light brown colour, and called the oil of amber. 


AMBERGRIS. Min umbir Lr5^(5t7r«ULDi-J^ 
(Tam.) Amber ^p\ (Duk. and Hind.) Shdhbo'oi 

* For the notions of the Persians respecting amber, the reader 
is referred to a celebrated Persian work by Mohammed Mehdy, 

written in 1756, entitled oL^^JqjJsx*^ or Mine of Experience. 


cf^sU (Pers.) Ambara (Sans.) Ambei^ (Dut.) Am- 

bargris (Port.) Mussambra (Cyng.) Anbar J^s^ 

(Arab, and Malay.) Uambregris (Fr.) 

Ambragrisea (Waller.) 

This is a solid opake, generally ash-coloured and 
brittle, fatty, inflammable substance, variegated like 
marble, very light, and has when heated, a fragrant 
and singular odour ; its specific gravity ranges from 
780 to 926, and it consists, accordmg to Bouillon la 
Grange^ of adipocere, a resinous substance, benzoic 
acid, and charcoal. Ambergris is sometimes found 
floating in the Indian seas, or adhering to rocks in 
the Eastern Islands, and is an article of commerce 
from New Guinea, and is also to be met with on the 
shores of Arabia Felix, the Maldives, and the Phi- 
lippine Islands, from w^hich last place, Mr. Craw- 
ford tells us, in his History of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago (vol. iii. p. 446), it constitutes an article in 
the commercial returns to China. M. Tiuyin in his 
^' Histoire de Siam^^^ informs us, that he found it in that 
country; but it would appear that it can be no where 
procured of so fine a quality as on the coast of Ma- 
dagascar. * 

In Hindoostan, ambergris is chiefly used as a per- 
fume, a drop or two of the essence mixed with a 
large quantity of lavender water, adding much to its 
fragrance. Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of the 
Indian Plants, however, tells us, that the native 
physicians in Bengal, consider the substance itself as 
aphrodisiac. The name min umbir has been given 
to ambergris by the Tamuls ; and we know that 

* See Objects interesting to the English Nation, by Elias Ha- 
beschi, Count Gika (p. 177), also Tavernier's Indian Travels. 


Dr. Schwediur and others assure us, that it has been 
frequently found in the intestines of that species of 
whale called physeter macrocephalus ; nay, it seems 
a fact now pretty generally understood, that all am- 
bergris is generated in the bowels of the whale above 
mentioned, which is the species termed spermaceti 

For further particulars on this subject, the reader 
is referred to Thunberg's Travels (vol. iv. p. 98), 
Pennant's View of Hindoostan (vol. i. p. 149), and 
especially to the 33d and 38th volumes of the Phi- 
losophical Transactions. 

Mr. Magellan, on the authority of M. Aublet, 
author of the '^ Histoire de la Guyane^^^ published in 
1774, mentions an undoubtedly vegetable ambergris, 
gathered from a tree which grows in Guyana*, and 
there called cuma ; it is of a whitish brown colour, 
with a yellowish tinge, melts and burns like wax in 
the fire, but is rather of a more powdery consistence 
than common ambergris. 

The Arabians place ambergris as they do the last 
mentioned article ; for their notions as well as those 
of the Persians respecting it, the reader may consult 
the Arabic work Tucvim al Aladviah va Mokhteser Ja- 
Unus (j^yJL:^ ^xal^^ ^ ^.-^^^'J^' f:^>i^' it treats of the dif- 
ferent disorders of the human frame, and is com- 
posed by Abid Fazil Ben Ibrahim of T'abriz. 


ANISE SEED. Somboo Q^rrCjOi^ (Tam.) Som^ 
poo (Tel.) Jera maiiis ^U Lj^* (Malay.) Aiiisu 

* See Nicholson's Dictionary of Chemistry appHed to the Arts. 
(Article Ambergris.) 



(Guz.) Sataphusphd (Sans.) Sonf u^;^^^ (Duk.) 
Anison ^^^^j! (Arab.) Razyaneh roomie ^^^^ ^LjV, 
(Pers.) Anys (Dut.) Anis (Port.) Mun'gji (Jav.) 
also adts manis (Jav.) Kadis Manis (Bali.) Graines 
d'anis (Fr.) Anis (Ger.) 

PiMPiNELLA Anisum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. Um- 
bel) atas (Lin.) A7iis bibernelL (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1473. 

Dr. Fleming gives this article a place in his '' Ca- 
talogue of Indian Medicinal Plants and DrugSy^' but 
I am inclined to think, that the greater part of what 
is found in India is brought from Persia. The plant 
is properly a native of Egypt, but is much cultivated 
in Spain and Malta, It is delicate, and rises about 
a foot only in height, the leaves roundish, lobed, and 
toothed, the flowers small and white. 

The aromatic, sweetish, warm tasted seeds, are 
often confounded by the natives with sweet fennel 
seeds, and the Tamools then give them the name of 
perinsiragum. Anise seeds grow in Java, and are 
there called adas manis ; the plant is in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, and is there termed mahooree 

The native practitioners prescribe anise seeds as 
we do, in cases of flatulency and dyspepsia ; com- 
monly made into pills, the dose from eight grains to 
a drachm and a half. 

The Arabians place this article amongst their Mo- 
feshyat c^LxiA^ (Carminitiva.) See notions respecting 
it in a medical work, entitled c:^!^^^^ ^U^l^^^i by 
Nafis Ben Aviz. Celsus notices anise amongst his 
diuretics, *' Urinam autem movent ocimum, mentha, 
hyssopum, anisum, &c, &c.'' (lib. ii. p. 92.) 


ANTELOPE. See article Deer. 


©■0A_j-^LDrr6ij (Tam.) Kooaka neshdsteh ^^'.^Uj \S\^ 
(Duk.) Tihhur ^jCj (Hind.) Kooa (Malealie.) 

also Kooghei. 

Curcuma Angustifolia (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitaminese (Lin.) 

An excellent kind of arrow root, if it may be so 
called, is now prepared in Travancore from the root 
of the curcuma angustifolia of Roxburgh, no way in- 
ferior to that obtained from the maranta arundinacea 
(Lin.), in the West Indies. So much of it has been 
made of late years on the Malabar coast, where the 
plant grows in abundance, tliat it has become a con- 
siderable object in trade, and is much prized in Eng- 

This plant was found by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq., 
in the forests extending from the banks of the Sona 
to Nagpore, and was by him brought into the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. Its bulb is oblong, 
with pale oblong pendulous tubers only ; leaves pe- 
tioled, narrow lanceolar flowers, longer than the 
bractes. (See Flora Indica, edited by Dr. Carey, 
p. 31.) 

The name kooa is given to most of the curcumas^ 
amomumSy and kcempherias on the Malabar coast. 
The root of the curcuma angustifolia had long been 
an article of food amongst the natives before it 
was particularly noticed by Europeans. The finely 

c 2 


powdered flour boiled a little in milk, is an excellent 
diet for sick or infants. 

The arrow root of the West Indies is there con- 
sidered as alexipharmic^ and powerful to resist poi- 
sons ; the plant is a native of South America, and 
w^as first discovered by Plumier. The maranta arun- 
dinacea has lately been brought to Ceylon from the 
West Indies, and thrives well at the Three Korles, 
where arrow root is now prepared from it, reckoned 
of the finest quality. On that island a new species of 
maranta has lately been discovered and called ma- 
ranta paniculata: the root is a medicine of the natives, 
and termed by the Cyngalese get-ohia. 

For an account of the comparative quantities of 
amylaceous matter yielded by different West Indian 
vegetables, the reader is referred to vol. vii. of Dr. 
Simmon's Medical Facts and Observations. 


ASSAFQETIDA. Perungyum Q\__\(c^rKj^ rru^Co 
(Tam.) Ingoova(Te\.^ Hingaahohingoo(Saus.) Hing 
^'j,^ also jC;^^ (Duk. and Hind.) Angoo ^3Cj5 (Ma- 
lay.) Hilteet CkjCJI^ (Arab.) Ungoozeh ^^^Sij\ (Pers.) 
Hinghoo (Cyng.) Duivelsdreck (Dut.) Assafetida 
(Port.) Ingu(J'dv.) Hingu (Bali.) Assafcetida (Fy.) 
Stinkender asand (Ger.) 

Ferula Assafcetida (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. Um- 
bellatae (Lin.) Teufelsdreck seckenkraut. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. WiUd. (vol. i. p. 1413.) 

I am inclined to think, however I may differ from 
D'Herbelot, that the Hindoostanee and Malay names 


of this article are Persian, as it is in Persia only that 
assafcetida is produced, in the provinces of Korassan 
and Laar, from a plant there, called dirukht imgoo- 
zeh ^'Xj\ tr<:srL:b the Arabic name of which is kdshem 
^^\S Another Arabic name for the plant is / .^Ij^^jj 
anjedan^ that of the root c^^y^^ mehroot. (See 
Avicen, 130, p. 211.) For an excellent account of the 
appearance of the plant, the reader is referred to 
Mr. Thomson's London Dispensatory. It would 
appear to rise to the height of nine feet, with a round 
smooth stem surrounded with six or seven radical 
leaves, nearly two feet long. 

Captain Macdonald Kinneir, in his Geographical 
Memoir of Persia*, informs us, that assafoetida is 
a staple export from Herat in Korassen ; he also 
mentions, that the leaves of the plant are eaten like 
common greens, as is the root when roasted. The 
plant, it would appear, grows also in India. (See Re- 
marks on the Husbandry and Internal Commerce of 
Bengal, p. 205.) This gum resin is obtained from 
the roots of the plants when four years old; the stalks 
having been previously twisted off, the tops of the 
roots are wounded, and from the orifices thus made, 
a juice exudes, which being exposed to the sun 
hardens into assafoetida. 

Moomina, in his Moofurddt\y tells us, that he con- 
ceives this medicine to be of so heating a nature, 
that if administered to a pregnant woman, it will 
kill the child in the womb. 

Assafcetida is much used by the Brahmins against 
flatulence, and to correct their cold vegetable food. 

* See pages 182, 183 of the Memoir. See also Pottinger's 
Travels in Beloochistan. 
f See list of Persian books at the end of Part ii. of this work. 

c 3 


(See Aromat. Hist. Garcia ab Horto, p. 18.) The 
Tamool practitioners hold it in high estimation, and 
prescribe it as we do in cases of weak digestion*^ and 
as an antispasmodic and emmenagogue, in doses of 
from six grains to half a drachm. 

Tlie Arabians place assafbetida amongst their Mo- 
bdyat (Aphrodisiaca), and Mosebetat c^VJix^^ C^yP" 
notica.) See notions respecting it in a celebrated 
medical work, entitled ^^U^j^l^^ s^^x^j by Ismael 
Ben Hussen, written in Arabic. 

The seed of the iinjedan ^jjs^jl they place amongst 
their stimulants.f 


ARTICHOKE. Hirshuf ^^^^ (Arab.) Kun^ 
ghir X'jS (Pers.) Artichaut (Fr.) Alcachofa (Port.) 

Cynara Scolymus (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Polygamia ^qualis. Nat. 
Ord. Flosculosas. Gemeine artischocke. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 1691. 

The artichoke does not thrive in the Carnatic, but 
in the Mysore country, and in the northern provinces 
of India it succeeds tolerably well, and may cer- 
tainly be considered as one of the most nourishing 

* Particularly In that dyspeptic affection they term azirna vai- 
voo, the leading symptom of which is flatulency. 

f Dr. Duncan, jun., in his valuable Edinburgh Dispensatory, 
informs us, that the ferula assafcetida plants which were sent to 
Dr. Hope by Dr. Guthrie from Petersburgh, produced healthy 
seed in the botanical garden of Edinburgh. Assafcetida, accord- 
ing to Brugnatelli, consists of gum, 60; resin, 30; and essential oil, 
10 parts. Dr. Paris informs us, that in coughs attended with pul- 
monary weakness it is beneficial, and that in flatulent cholic in the 
form of enema, it acted like a charm. (Pharmacologia, p. 296.) 


and best of all vegetables. The ancients prized arti- 
chokes highly, and had a strange idea that the juice 
of them had the power of restoring the hair of the 
head when it had fallen off; it was a standing dish 
at the Roman suppers, and Pliny tells us (book xix. 
chap 8.), that it was the dearest of all the garden 
herbs, so much so, that the lower classes of Rome 
were prohibited from eating it. The modern Ara- 
bians cultivate this plant with great care, and con- 
sider the root as a medicine of some value as an ape- 
rient ; they call the gum of it kunkirzud ^j jCjlT and 
place it amongst their emetics. The receptacle of 
the flowers of the onopordum acanthium, or cotton 
thistle, may be eaten like artichokes ; the plant itselfj 
according to Withering, the ancients thought was a 
specific in cancerous cases. 


ASARABACCA. Mootricunjayvie (^^g-^^Qjn^ 
u^'^Q^c^-us (Tam.) Asaroon ^^^^Ul (Arab, and 
Duk.) Cheppoo tatakoo (Tel.) Oopana (Sans.) 
Tuckir (Hind.) Assaret (Fr.) Haselwitrtzel (Ger.) 

AsARUM Europium (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Sarmentaceae. Europciische Haselwurz. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant, vol. ii. p. 838. 

The appellation asaroon^ which has been given to 
this article by the Arabs and Mahometan conquerors 
of India, Moomina informs us, was first bestowed on it 
by the Syrians, in whose country the plant at one time 
plentifully grew, and whence the dried root and leaves 

c 4 


are now in all probability brought in small quantities 
to India. 

Asarabacca is but little used in medicine by the 
native practitioners of Lower Hindoostan, though I 
find that the Tamool vytians occasionally prescribe 
the root as a powerful evacuant ; they also employ 
the bruised and moistened leaves as an external ap- 
plication round the eyes, in certain cases of opthal- 
mia ; but I cannot learn that they ever use them as 
an emetic or as an errhine, for which they are so 
much celebrated in Europe, where they are also ad- 
ministered as a stimulant in chronic opthalmia and 
lethargic affections, in doses of from three grains to 
five, repeated every night till the full effect is produced. 

The plant grows in many parts of Europe, and of 
a good quality in several of the northern coun- 
ties of England. It is perennial, flowering in May ; 
root creeping, fleshy and fibrous ; leaves entire, oppo- 
site, of a kidney shape, and on foot stalks three inches 
long, they are somewhat hairy, and of a deep shining 
green colour. 

The Arabians place asarabacca amongst their 
Muffuttetat CjVxTx^ (Lithontriptica), and Mohelilat 
o!J.X:s:^ (Discutientia. j For their notions respecting 
it, the reader may consult an Arabic medical work, 
entitled y^^^^^^^^:, \\^\ j^>.Kj by Abul Fazil Ben Ibra- 
him of Tabriz. 


ASPARAGUS. Nakdo^n (Hind.) Yerdmyd 
^A^l^. (Arab.) Margeeah j^LfjU (Pers.) 

Asparagus Officinalis (Lin.) 


Asparagus is cultivated by the English inhabitants 
in most parts of India, but does not thrive in the 
Carnatic so well as in higher and more northern 
provinces; its name is from the Greek word oLo-Trot^ayog: 
it is supposed by some to promote appetite. Sue- 
tonius informs us, that the Emperor Augustus was 
very fond of it. The modern Arabs prize it highly, 
and place it amongst their aphrodisiaca. The use 
of it gives a peculiar strong smell to the urine. 


BALM, ARABIAN. Farsee cunjamkoray 

LJ n-/T-0^ 67 ^e=rrat5r (2 ^n-{22)Cr(Tam.) Mekka subza 

^yx^ ^3C^ (Duk.) Bucklitulfaristum u'^^yjUXXj (Arab.) 
Badrmijhuyeh ^^a^^^l (Pers.) Melisse (Fr.) Me- 
lisse (Ger.) 

Melissa Officinalis (Var.) 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospernia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae (Lin.) Citronem inelisse. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 146. 

This plant was originally brought to India from 
Arabia, and is therefore called Arabian Balm : it 
seems to differ a little in appearance from the gar- 
den balm, as we see it in Europe, resembling more 
what Mr. Millar has called Melissa Romana, which 
is common about Rome and other parts of Italy ; 
the stalks are very slender, leaves rather short, tlie 
whole plant hairy, and not of so pleasant a smell as 
the officinal sort. It is not by any means common 
in India, but is occasionally met with in the gar- 
dens of rich Mahometans, who do not appear, how- 


ever, to use it as a medicine. This plant is now seldom 
employed except as a tea and diluent in fevers. 

The melissa officinalis was growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta in 181 ^i, introduced from Europe 
in 1799. 


BALSAM OF GILEAD. AkooyeeldsemoonroO' 
^^^ ,5^j^;C^>>'^-'^:»>^'' (Ai^ab.) Roghdn bulsdn ^^\, 
i (Pers.) Balsamier delamecque (Fr.') 

Amyris Giliadensis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Terebintaceae (Juss.) Giliadischer balsamstrauch. 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Wiild. vol. ii. 
p. 334. 

This liquid gum resin and odoriferous cosmetic, I 
have never seen in India, but I understand that it is 
sometimes to be met with, and 1 see it has a place 
in the Ulfaz Udwiyeh. We are told by Alpinus, 
that the tree grows wild in Arabia, and there only ; 
on the other hand, we learn from Mr. Bruce* that it 
is a native of Upper Ethiopia, and was thence at an 
early period, transplanted into the southern provinces 
of Arabia. ^' It appears to have been cultivated in 
Judea 1730 years before Christ; and it was from 
Gilead in Judea, that the merchants brought its resi- 
nous product in early times to Egypt ;^^ it is to this 
day, there called balessan according to Bruce; though 
I perceive by the Hortus Bengalensis^ that the Amy- 
ris Giliadensis is growing in the botanical garden at 
Calcutta, introduced by Dr. Berry in 1798. 

* See Bruce's Travels, vol. v. Appendix, p. 17. 


I think there can be httle doubt but that the name 
balsam is taken from balessan or bulsan (Pers.), which 
are appellations given, not to the produce but to the 
tree itself, the gum resin being in Persian, roghen 
bitlsan. The fruit of the tree is called by the Ara- 
bians Inibul buhdn . ^J^xl Jc.^^ and by the Persians 
tokem bulsan /^l^L ^:kj by both of whom it is con- 
sidered as attenuant, cardiac, and detergent. From 
it the carpobalsamum was supposed to have been 
prepared, though Virey is of opinion that this is the 
fruit of the plant. The ancients, we are told, held 
the balsam of Gilead in great esteem ; in Egypt it is 
now considered almost as a panacea, and prescribed for 
bad wounds, ulcers, poisonous bites, in nervous and 
pulmonic affections, and also against sterility in wo- 
men. (See Virey's Histoire des Medicamens, p. 290.) 
The Arabians of these days reckon it a valuable sto- 
machic, and place it accordingly amongst their Advi- 
yaheezeh ^^j^^^^^^^S In Turkey it is chiefly used as a 
cosmetic by the ladies. 

Niebhur^ in his Travels (vol. ii. p. 356 J, informs 
us, that the tree which produces this article in Ara- 
bia, grows in abundance betwixt Mecca and Medina ; 
that in most parts of Arabia they only burn the wood 
as a perfume, but that in the province oi Hedsjas 
they collect the balsam and export it from Mocha. 
For a very distinct account of the Ami/ris Giliadensis, 
the reader is referred to Mr. Thomson^s London 
Dispensatory. I shall only here observe^ that it rises 
about fourteen feet in height, that the wood is light 
and open, that the leaves are thinly scattered, small, 
composed of one or two pair of opposite leaflets, with 
an odd one ; these are obovate, entire, veined, and 
of a bright green colour ; and lastly, that the flowers 


are white, three on one stalk, but two generally drop 
off; one only produces fruit. 

Our article with eight other species of amyris, grow 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta, all oriental plants. 
(See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 28,) 

• BARK, PERUVIAN. See article Febrifuge 


BEAN. Faba (Latin.) Kdai^^og (Greek.) 
The Windsor bean, vicia faba (Lin.), does not 
thrive in any part of India, but it is not missed, as 
there is one of a superior quality which succeeds ad- 
mirably, the vellore or duffin bean as it is called in 
the southern provinces ; it is about the size of the 
Windsor bean, but flatter, and of a more delicate 
taste, and highly nutritious ; it was brought to India 
from the Mauritius, and is the phaseolus lunatus 
(Lin.), or more properly speaking a variety of it, 
not known for culinary purposes in Europe. The 
common country bean, as it is termed by the Eng- 
lish, is very inferior to that just mentioned, though 
also a phaseolus lunatus. There is a great variety 
of the pulse kind in India, many of them excellent, 
and to be noticed in another part of this work. The 
kidney or French bean, phaseolus vulgaris, grows well 
in India, where it is of course an exotic ; Mr. Phil- 
lips, in his very curious and interesting work on Culti- 
vated Vegetables, tells us, that the old French name of 
this bean was feve de Rome, and that it had the same 
name in England in the time of Queen EUzabeth ; and 
we know that Pliny speaks of it in his history (chap, xii .), 


under the appellation of phaseolus. The Ara- 
bians hold several kinds of beans in high estimation ; 
the bdkela i^^jL they suppose to be in its nature, hot, 
dry and astringent; the loobeeyd Uj j they reckon 
diaphoretic ; the yumboot o^-jJo which the Persians 
call LijJ^4.5j.^ is most eaten. The great or huzar 
bean, dolichos cultratus (Thun.), is a native of India, 
and common on the Coromandel coast, called in 
Tamool tambatangdi^ in Dukhanie i^ ^f ^x'j^ >,^ in 
Tellingoo, tummahdia^ in the Hort. Mai. baramareca^ 
Iwsapulla (Sans.) ; when young it is eaten whole, 
when full grown the seeds only are used. For some 
truly classical information regarding the bean, Jaba^ 
the reader is referred to Mr. Phillips's work above 
mentioned. The inhabitants of Affganistan live 
chiefly on different kinds of pulse, which, perhaps, 
contributes to make them the strongest, and hand- 
somest race in the world. * 


BDELLIUM. Kookool (g^(^av) (Tam.) Goo- 
gooloo (Tel.) Googula (Cyng.) Aflatoon , ^^JbiJM 
(Arab.) Mulail j^jCo (Pers,) Googul yf^ (Hind.) 
Bdellium (Fr.) 


This gum resin is semipellucid and of a yellowish 
brown or dark brown colour according to its age, 
unctuous to the touch, but brittle; soon, however, 
softening betwixt the fingers ; in appearance it is 
not unlike myrrh, of a bitterish taste and moderately 

* The ancients preferred much beans to pea$e. ^' ex legumini- 
bus valentior faba quam pisum." (Cels. lib. ii.) 


strong smell ; in burning it sputters a little, but can- 
not be said to explode, as Herman Valentine reports. 
Two kinds have been distinguished, the opocalpasimi 
of the ancients, which is thick like wax, and the 
common dark sort. Dr, Alston in his Materia Medica^ 
says, some make the word bdellhcm to be originally 
Hebrew, others Greek ; it appears, however, by the 
Ulfaz Udwiyeh that it is taken from the Syrian word 
hiidleeyoon. Dioscorides has sufficiently well de- 
scribed the article, and has moreover told us, that it 
has got the names of madelcon and bolchon. All 
of this gum resin found in India, is brought from 
Arabia, where the tree is called dowm ^ it would 
appear that it also grows in Persia, where it is called 
derukht mukul j^jLc Ck<.j:^ (See a work entitled 
c^LJ! ^\jl\ ^ ^<Sj c.r,Lx^5 Ikhtiarati Bedia va Agrhaz 
al Tibby in 2 vols, by the authors Aby Ben Hussein, 
and Ismael Ben Hussein al Jorany.) Under the 
name derukht mukul* it is mentioned by Avicenna, 
and we have the authority of Kampher for saying, 
that the bdellium is got from that tree. (Vide Amoe- 
nit: 668.) The Tamool practitioners occasionally 
prescribe bdellium as a purifier of the blood in de- 
praved habits : they also use it externally for cleans- 
ing the foul ulcer they call alie poonnoo^ and for dis- 
cussing tumors in the joints. In Europe it has 
been considered as diaphoretic, diuretic, cathartic, 
and also pectoral, and administered in doses of from 
a scruple to a drachm: it is now however but little used. 
An ounce of picked bdellium^ afforded Newman when 
triturated with water, six dramchs two scruples of 
gummy extract, and afterwards when triturated with 

* Vide Historia Rei Herbariae Sprengelei, torn. i. p. 272. 


alcohol, two scruples of resin ; two scruples remaining 

It is a lamentable fact, that the actual tree from 
which bdellium is procured has not hitherto been 
clearly ascertained by botanists ; Woodville, in his 
Medical Botany, takes no notice at all of the article ; 
Soninij in his Travels in Egypt, informs us, that 
it is nothing more than common myrrh in an imper- 
fect state, (see work, p. 558) ; Sprengel, in his '' His- 
toria Rei Herbariae,^* tells us, that dowm ^^ is the 

Arabic name, according to Forskahl, of the borassus 
JlabelliformiSj and it is from that tree, according to 
the testimony of both Ksempfer (Amoen: 6G8), and 
Rumphius (^±\mh.\. 50), that bdelUum is procured. 
As the reader may naturally wish to satisfy himself 
respecting so singular an assertion, he may find it in 
the work above mentioned ('' Historia Rei Herbariae, 
vol. i. p. 27^) ; on the other hand, it has been said 
that the tree which yields the bdellium is no other 
than the chamcerops humilis or dwarf fan-palm of Lin- 
naeus ; and Mathiolus (p. 92), assures us, that he 
himself saw at Naples this bdelUum-bearing dwarf 
palm of Linnaeus. (See Historia Rei Herbariae, same 
page and vol. as those just quoted.) Virey, in his 
Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, (p. 291), in- 
forms us, that it is got from a species of amyris, the 
niouttoutt of Adanson, which according to Forskahl, 
resembles myrrh. (Mat. Med. Arab. p. 49.) 

The modern Arabs believe qflatoon to be attenu- 
ant and pectoral, but seem chiefly to employ it as 
an external application, and place it amongst their 
Mohelilat cS^y^^ (Discutientia.) I perceive that 
googal is one of the substances thrown into the fire 
by the Hindoos at their trial by ordeal. (See Asiatic 
Researches, vol. i. p. 400. Calcutta edition.) 


BEEF. Caro bubula. 

Bos Taurus. 

This, though generally speaking it is inferior to 
the beef of England, yet when the ox has been pro- 
perly fed, which is now almost always the case at 
the chief stations in India, it is excellent, and is cer- 
tainly, with the exception of mutton, the most nou- 
rishing and easily digested of all kinds of butcher 
meat. The oxen of India maybe distinguished from 
those of Europe by the hump on the shoulder (which 
when dressed is extremely delicate and tender), and 
the singular declivity of the os sacrum, peculiarities 
which have obtained for the variety in natural his- 
tory, the appellation of zebu ; they are in other re- 
spects not quite so large as the domestic cattle of 
Europe. The oxen of Guzerat are considered as 
the most valuable; and much has been said o? MaU 
"wahj Hansij and Harrianah oxen. Cattle are ex- 
ported from India to countries lying farther north, 
such as Nepaul, where those called the rajepoot are 
much prized. The bullock being a sacred animal 
in India, there is not seldom a difficulty in procuring 
beef at out stations. The Mahometans are fond of 
beef, and know well how to make its various prepar- 
ations, beef tea (infusum carnis bubulae), &c. &c. 
The beef of the bull and cow they rarely eat ; veal 
they consider as the lightest and safest food for sick, 
and frequently prescribe the broth (jus vitulinum). 
The flesh of the gijal is said to be very agreeable to 
the taste ; it is an animal betwixt a buffalo and do- 
mestic bull, commonly found betwixt the Bram- 


puter and Megna rivers ; it is the bos frontalis of 
natural history, is of a brownish colour, and has sin- 
gularly thick, short, and remote horns. The ox in 
Hindostanie is hyln and gotso^ the Arabians call it 
huckir Sj the Persians Jf in Sanscrit a cow is ma- 
heyi. While on this subject, I may mention that what 
is termed the yak (bos gruniens), or as the Hindoos 
name it soora goy ^s\^ ^^^ is common in Nepaul and 
Thibet, the beautiful bushy tail of which, called chotiO' 
rie^ is an export. Colonel Kirckpatrick, in his account 
of the first mentioned country, says, that the natives 
of Thibet eat the flesh of it without reserve, but that 
those of Nepaul do not consider it as lawful food. 

The flesh of the common buffalo (bos bubulus) is 
tough and not very savory. 


BENZOIN, 1st. Sort. Malacca sambrdnie LiDav)n-^ 
^rr9=-rLbL_?c£955Trf^ (Tam.) Loobanie ood ^^ 
^JU^J (Duk.) Looban ^^L^J (Hind.) Cominyan 

(Malay.) Sambrdnie (Tel.) Devadhoopd ^^tT'Cf 

(Sans.) Liban f^j,\{AY2ih.)Cdloo'well{Cyxig.) Menian 
(Jav.) Martian (Bali.) Benjoin (Fr.) Kaminian 

Styrax Benzoin (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Bicornes (Lin.) Benzoin storax. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. ^^Q. 

BENZOIN, 2d. Sort. Sambrdnie g=/n-Ll)!-^,A>6TOr 
(Tam.) Ood ^^s, (Duk.) Tooaralla (Cyng.) 

VOL. I. D 


There are two sorts of benzoin distinguished in 
India, the finer and dearer of which the Tamools 
call malacca sambranie^ and the Mahometans^ loobanie 
ood; it is the head benzoin of commerce ; to the other 
kind, the Tamools have given simply the name of 
sambranie^ and the Mahometans that of ood ; this is 
the foot benzoin of commerce, and is sometimes called 
the Caffres head. 

The finest kind has a very fragrant odour, but lit- 
tle or no taste ; the mass is white or yellowisli, some- 
what translucent and brittle ; this is the sort that is 
obtained by wounding the bark of the tree near the 
origin of the low^er branches : the inferior kind, and 
that which I have called above the second sort, is of 
a brownish colour, is harder, and is mixed with 

This very fragrant, but insipid balsam, is brought 
to India from Sumatra^ ^ exported from Acheen^ 
which has occasioned it sometimes to be called by 
the Tamools Achie paui sambranie ; it is also a pro- 
duct of Siam^ t of Laos, and of Java, and we learn 
from Baron's description of Tonquin, that it is to be 
procured in the country of Laos, where the tree 

The less valuable sort is burnt by the Malays and 
Arabs to perfume their temples and houses ; the bet- 
ter kind is used by the Hindoos in medicine, parti- 
cularly by the Tamools, who prescribe it internally in 
doses of from four to fifteen grains in kshyum^ which 
is consumption, and suvdsa cashum (asthma.) In 
Europe it is now seldom ordered in practice. The 

'^ See Marsden's Sumatra, p. 123. 

t See Turpin's '' Histoire de Siam." Mr. Crawford, however, 
in his Indian Archipelago^ says, Borneo and Sumatra are the only 
countries that produce it. (See work, vol. i. p. 518.) 


products, Braiule obtained by distillation from 100 
parts of benzoin, were, benzoic acid, 9.0 ; acidulated 
water, 5.5 ; butyraceous and empyreumatic oil, 60.0; 
charcoal, 22.0 ; and a mixture of carburetted hydro- 
gen and carbonic acid, 3.5 parts. The tree which 
yields benzoin is tall, with many round branches, its 
leaves are alternate and pointed, and the flowers are 
in compound axillary clusters, and nearly as long as 
the leaves. 

Mr. Thomson, in his London Dispensatory, has 
given an excellent botanical description of the plant; 
it is said now to thrive well at Prince of Wales's Is- 
land, at Bourbon, and also, by Mr. Colebrooke's * 
account, in India. It is growing in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta, introduced by Dr. Lumsdain from 
Sumatra in 1812; also the species serrulata a native 
of Chittagon, introduced in 1810. 

The ancients employed much the common styrax 
(styrax officinale), as a resolvent. '' Alvum moliri 
videtur, concoquit et movet pus, purgat, discutif 
(Celsus, lib. iii. cap. .5.) 


BEZOAR. Vhhik kulloo <s^ g^ oFfrFFrrr\')qv2/ (Tam.) 
Visdgul (Cyng.) Zeher morah (Duk. and Hind.) 
Fdduj -iLi (Arab.) Padzefir kanie Ji\,S j.^Wij (Pers.) 
Goleha ^j^ (Malay.) Bezoarsteen (Ger.) Bazar 

(Port.) Gorochand 3JT"^T^^T (Sans.) Bezoard 
(Fr.) also Koroshanum (Tam.) 

Bezoar Orientale. 

* See Remarks on the Husbandry and Internal Commerce of 
Bengal, p. 20.5. 

D 2 


This is a concretion found in the stomach of an 
animal of the goat kind ; it has a smooth glossy sur- 
face, and is of a dark green or olive colour ; the 
word bezoar, however, has lately been extended to 
all the concretions found in animals ; such as the 
hofi: bezoar. found in the stomach of the wild boar 
in India ; the bovine bezoar^ found in the gall-blad- 
der of the ox, common in Nepaul ; and the camel 
bezoar^ found in the gall-bladder of the camel ; this 
last is much prized as a yellow paint by the Hindoos, 
and is called by the Tamools wootay kordshanum ; 
nay. Pennant tells us, that a very valuable kind is 
got in Borneo, from a species of monkey ; it is of a 
bright green colour, and has a finer lustre than the 
goat bezoar. (See Lockyer's Account of the Trade 
of India, p. dQ.') It is a fact, that from Borneo* and 
the sea-ports of the Persian Gulph, the finest bezoar 
is brought to India ; the Persian article is particu- 
larly sought after, and is said to be procured in the 
neighbourhood of Moujit Bdrsij from animals of the 
goat kind, capra gazella (Lin.) Christophorus a 
Costa t observes, that a factitious sort is made at 
Ormus ; the same author mentions, that a bezoar is 
sometimes obtained from pigs. 

This substance appears to have been first used as 
a medicine by the Arabians ; Avenzoar gives us a 
wonderful account of it; and Razis^ in his Continens^ 
describes it fully, and extols its good qualities as a 
sudorific and alexipharmic. It was formerly given, 
in doses of a scruple ; Schroder, however, did not 
administer more than from three to twelve grains. 

* See Dr. Leyden's Sketches of the Island of Borneo, vol. vii. 
Transactions of the Batavian Society. 

t See Fasciculi Amcenitatem Exoticorum, ab Auctore Engle- 
berto Kaempfeeroett, M.D. pp. 398. 410. 


It is no longer ordered in practice in Europe. The 
Hindoos suppose it to possess sovereign virtues, as 
an external application in cases of snake bites or 
stings of scorpions ; and its various oriental names 
imply that it destroys poisons. 

The Persians are well acquainted with its absorbent 
nature, and prescribe it in conjunction with a little 
black pepper in the cholera morbus, which they call 
illvA^xib hayzety very wisely conceiving that that disease 
is occasioned by an acid in the first passages, which 
requires but to be neutralized to be removed ; and I 
perceive by a Tamool sastrum of Tunmundrie Vag- 
hadum, that he recommends for the same disease 
koroshanunij or cow^s bezoar. Dr. Davy, on exam- 
ining what are called the snakes stones of India, 
which are supposed to have great virtue in curing 
snake bites, found them to be simply bezoar, and as 
such, could have no real virtue in such cases. I shall 
conclude this article by observing, that another Arabic 
name for bezoar is hejer-atis j\ y^^ signifying lite- 
rally goat stone ; and that in Arabia Petraea, a kind 
of bezoar, called in Arabic teriac-id'hyte ^xx^JI 6L v.j 
is said to be found in the corner of the eye of a 
mountain ox. In the centre of the oriental bezoar, 
which is composed of smooth concentric laminae of 
an olive colour, not unusually is found in a nucleus, 
small pieces of straw, or stones or seeds, but most 
commonly the pod of a particular kind of fruit. What 
is called the occidental bezoar is much more rough 
in its surface than the other, and has sometimes been 
found in the camel tribe. The specific gravity of the 
first is 2.233 ; that of the last is 1.666. 

D 3 

.'38 MATERIA IN Die A. PART 1. 


(Tam. and Tel.) Ajamodum also Brahmadar- 
bhd ^^Zy^ (Sans.) Assamodiim (Cyng.) Amoos 
^y<\ (Arab.) Nankhah j^l^^jU (Pers.) Ajoowan 
(^O^.^^! (Duk. and Hind.) Amyzaad (Dut.) Ameos 
also Saldrie (Port.) Aymaddvum (Can.) Sison (Fr.) 

SisoN Ammi (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Dyginia. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellatae (Lin.) Kleines sison. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1437^ 

This is a small, warm, aromatic seed, resembling 
anise seed in its virtues, and much used by the native 
doctors as a stomachic, cardiac, and stimulant; and 
given in doses of from ten grains to two scruples. 
On showing it to Dr. Rottler, he made no hesitation 
in declaring it to be the seed of the sison ammi of 
Linnaeus. It is, however, the same seed which Dr. 
Fleeming calls (ajawain) in his '* Catalogue of Indian 
Medicinal Plants,'* and which. Dr. Roxborough says, 
is the produce of a species of lovage^ named by him, 
ligusticum ajawain^ which in Bengalie is called juva- 
nee : the plant, he tells us, is *' annual, erect, leaves 
superdecompound, with filiform leaflets, ridges and 
furrows of the seeds distinct and scabrous.** By 
Forskahls account, the plant is named in Egypt 
chcelle. (See his Flor. Egypt. Arab.) The seeds are 
much employed by the veterinary practitioners in 
India, in diseases of horses and cows. The Persians 
place them amongst their Muffettehat cX^^'JS^ (Deob- 
struentia. ) 


There is a plant which grows wild in the Coim- 
batore country, and which I beheve is a variety of 
the sison ammi ; the natives call the seeds of it coodrie 
womum (Tarn.), which signifies horse womum ; and 
suppose them to be an efficacious remedy for the gripes 
in horses. The ligusticuvi ajauaiiiy with another spe- 
cies, the ligusticum diffusum or htm qjouan^ (Hind.) 
grow in the botanical garden of Calcutta. (See 
Hort. Bengalensis, p. ^Jl.) 



Muntylum i q.-^ttt:^! iCtx-) 'o (Tam.) Boomie tylnm 
(Sans, and Tel.) Minnia tanna (Malay.) Ippoo 
(Sumatran.) Kesosonoabra (Japanese.; ^^fi !a£3 
(Arab.) Miittie ka tail j^^j U l*^ (Duk. and Hind.) 
also Kuffer aUeJiood r^^^Ji is (Arab.) Bitiime de 

Judee (Fr.) 

Bitumen Petrolium. 

The bitumen family, as Mr. Nicholson justly ob^ 
serves, includes a considerable range of inflammable, 
mineral substances, of an oily or resinous nature ; 
burning with flame in the open air, without being 
converted into an acid like sulphur, or into an oxide 
like the metals : they are of different consistence, 
from a thin fluid to a solid. 

The bitumen naptha is the most fluid when found 
pure, as it issues out of white, yellow, or black clays 
in Persia and Media; it is a fine, white, colourless, 
thin, fragrant oil, inclining occasionally to a pale 
brown tint. It is also brought to England of a very 

D 4 


superior quality from Monte Ciaro, near Piacenza in 
Italy. Analyzed, it is ascertained to consist of carbon, 
hydrogen, and a little oxygen ; it is very inflam- 
mable, and dissolves resins and the essential oils of 
thyme and lavender. A much less pure article, and 
properly speaking the mineral oil, or bitumen petro- 
liiim of the shops, is procured from Monte Festino, 
not far from Modeno, and is, I presume, nearly the 
same in its nature and appearance as our Indian arti- 
cle, which is brought to India from Ava,"^ the Sooloo 
islands, Japan, Sumatra, and Borneo.f It is of a red- 
dish or somewhat dark brown colour and unctuous feel, 
with rather an unpleasant odour, and pungent, acrid 
taste ; it is not soluble in alcohol, and looks like that 
finer sort of petrolium naptha rendered thicker and 
browner by exposure to the atmosphere ; it burns 
with a blueish flame, and is composed of carbon, hy- 
drogen, and oxygen. Both species combine with 
fat, resins, essential oil and camphor ; with alkalies 
they form soapy compounds, and sulphuric and nitric 
acids change them into solid resins. 

The bitumen petrolium is called earth oil, also rock 
oil, in India, from the circumstance of its having 
been found dropping from rocks in wells in the 
Birman dominions. It is also a product of Armenia, as 
Capt. Macdonald Kinneir X has stated, and according 
to Hanway, § is an export from Bussora, procured 
from Baku, on the west coast of the Caspian Sea; 
it may also be obtained from a lake in the Island of 
Trinidad. Capt. Macdonald Kinneir || speaks par- 

* See Symes's Embassy to Ava, vol. iii. p. 263. 
t In Barunyan in Borneo, (see Dr. Leyden's Sketches of Bor- 
neo in the 7th volume of the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 
J See his Geographical Memoir of Persia, p. 319. 
§ See his Travels in Persia, vol. i. p. 263. 
\\ See his Memoir, pp. 38, 39, 40. 


ticularly of this substance, and observes *' there are 
two kinds of naft or naptha found in Persia, the black 
and white : the first is the bitumen so famous in the 
Babylonian history, it resembles pitch, and is used 
for besmearing the bottoms of most of the vessels that 
navigate the Euphrates and Tigris ; and by the Rus- 
sians, for burning instead of oil/' The white kind, 
which may be the bitumen candidum of Pliny, is of 
a much thicker consistence, and is somewhat in ap- 
pearance like tallow ; this last has no resemblance to 
pitch, but emits a better light, and has not so unplea- 
sant a smell. The most productive fountains of the 
black kind are in the vicinity of Kerkooky Mendali^ 
and Hit on the banks of the Euphrates. The only 
fountain of the white sort, appears to be at the foot 
of the mountains of Bucktiari, halfway betwixt the 
city of Shuster and the valley of Ramhormouz. 

The Tamool doctors order rock oil as an external 
application in rheumatic complaints, as also in cases 
of epilepsy, hysteria, and palsy, in all which affections 
it is rubbed on the part with the hand in the form of 
a liniment. Dr. Fleeming has declared, that in chro- 
nic rheumatism he can recommend it from his own 
experience, as a more efficacious remedy than cqje- 
put oil. (See his Catalogue of Indian Plants, p. 56.) 
Mr. Jameson informs us in his System of Mineral- 
ogy, that in Piedmont, Japan, Persia, and other 
countries, mineral oil is used for burning in lamps in 
place of oil; it is also, he adds, occasionally employed 
instead of common tar, and sometimes as a varnish, 
and in the composition of fire-works. The bitumen 
naptha of Persia was lately accurately examined and 
compared with the naptha prepared from coal in 
Scotland, by the professor of chemistry in Glasgow. 


He found it colourless as water, its specific gravity 
0.75s, with exactly the same taste and smell as the 
article made at home; the two bitumens in fact, the 
professor observed, to resemble each other in all 
their chemical qualities, but he could not get that 
made from the coal, to be quite so light as the Per- 
sian naptha. (See Annals of Philosophy, No. 88.) 
The ancients, and especially Celsus, would appear to 
have considered bitumen as possessing medicinal 
qualities similar, or nearly so, to those of common 
storax. (See Celsus, lib. iii. cap. 5.) In France, accord- 
ing to Alibert, petrolium has occasionally been ad- 
ministered for the removal of ascarides ; in Egypt, 
the same author says, it is given in cases of taenia. 
(See Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. i. 

p. 391.) 

It would appear, that in a late improvement made 
in the steam engine by M. De Montgomery, purified 
bitumen after having served in the form of vapour, 
is turned to the double purpose of serving as a com- 
bustible substance. In the improvement alluded to, 
the fire-place, the pipe, and mechanism, are contained 
inside the boiler, which is itself enclosed in a double 
case. The vapour may therefore be raised to a very 
high degree of tension, without danger ; and this 
advantage renders the bulk of this new machine from 
40 to 50 times smaller than that of the present steam 
engines of equal power. 


BOLE ARMENIC. Simie kavikidloo ^"q^ld^ 

^rrcTxS^^cjoca^ (Tarn.) Ghildrmenie ^k^jyT 


(Pers. Diik. and Hind.) Stmie kavi rat (Tel.) Hejr 
urmenie ^J ^:^^ (Arab.) also ^X^J ^lo (Arab.) 
Goorookatta (Sans.) Bole d'armenie (Fr.) 

Bolus (Waller.) 

The bole that is commonly met with in India, is 
brought from the Persian. Gulph, and is that known 
in Europe by the name bole armeniaCy it being a pro- 
duct of Armenia ; it is soft, feels greasy to the touch, 
adheres strongly to the tongue, and is very frangible ; 
it is generally of a yellowish brown colour, though 
sometimes it is seen of a fine flesh red, and that sort 
is most prized by the native dyers and painters, who 
call it segdpoo kdvikul (Tam.), or red bole ; it would 
appear to be tinged by an oxide of iron. 

The Tamool practitioners prescribe bole armeniac 
as an astringent in fluxes of long standing, and sup- 
pose it to have considerable efficacy in correcting the 
state of the humours in cases of malignant fever, and 
particularly in allaying what they call vikkil (hiccup.) 
Its constituent parts are, silica 47.OO, alumina 19.00, 
magnesia 6.20, lime 5.40, iron 5.40, water 7-50. 

Mr. Jameson has made bole the fourth species of 
the soapstone family, and in speaking of its chemical 
characters, says, '' when immersed in water, it breaks 
in pieces with an audible noise, and evolution of air 
bubbles ; before the blow-pipe it melts into a green- 
ish grey-coloured slag. The French bole^ which is 
of a paler red, is still retained in the Materia Medica 
of the London College. 

The red bole of Constantinople (argile rouge), of 
which the Turks make their pipes, and also that va- 
riety called in Bengal the patna earthy with the other 
ingredients, contain a portion of silex. Some savage 


nations, such as the Otamaques of America, are in 
the habit of eating boles to relieve them from the 
pains of hunger ; and it is remarkable that they do 
not thereby become lean, at least according to the 
testimony of Fray Ramon Rueno^ a missionary. 

Baron Humbolt observes, however, that they do 
not eat every kind of clay, but select such eartlis as 
are unctuous and smooth to the feel. The same dis- 
tinguished writer assures us (as is quoted by the au- 
thor of Columbia, vol. i. p. 569), that Labbillardiere 
saw in the Indian Archipelago, little reddish cakes 
exposed for sale, called tanaampo ; these were of 
clay slightly baked, and which the natives eat with 
pleasure. Af. Leachenault has published some curi- 
ous details on the tanaampo of the Javanese^ which 
by his account, these people only take when they 
wish to become thin, and to have a slender shape. I 
shall conclude this article by remarking, that the in- 
habitants of New Caledonia to appease their hunger, 
eat great pieces of a friable lapis ollaris^ which by 
Baron Humboldt^s account, on being analysed by 
M. Vauquelin, was found besides magnesia and silex, 
to contain a small quantity of oxide of copper. In 
Germany, the workmen employed in the quarries of 
Kiffhcenser^ spread a very fine kind of clay on their 
bread instead of butter, and which they call stein 


BORAX. Velligarum also Vengdrmn Qo^^m 
^^CTLo (Tam.) Lansipooscara (Cyng.) Sohaga 
\Si^y^ (Duk, and Hind.) Patterie isyjij (Malay.) 


Buruk o^^^ (Arab.) Tunkar ljC;j' (Pers.) Boras 
(Dut.) Boraa: (Port.) also Piger (Malay.) Piger 
(Jav.) Piger (Bali.) Tunkana (Sans.) Chauldrya 
(Nep.) Borax (Ger.) Borate alcalinule de sonde 

Sub-Boras Sod^, 

This is a natural salt, found dissolved in many 
springs in Persia ; and Abbe Rochoii informs us, in 
his *' Voyage to Madagascar and the East Indies,'* 
that it can be procured of a superior quality in China, 
but it is much more plentiful in Thibet, where pre- 
vious to its being refined by the Dutch, who keep 
the process a secret, it is called tinkal^ and hence its 
Persian name tinkar. Tinkal is got from the bed of 
a lake in Thibet, about fifteen days ]ouvney from 
Tissoolomboo ; it is many miles in circumference, 
and the water of it, we are told, never freezes. * It 
is dug up in large masses, and sent to Europe in 
crystals of a greenish white colour, but mixed with 
sand and other impurities. 

Borax is too well known to require being particu- 
larly described here. It is without smell, and has a 
cool, styptic, and somewhat alkalescent taste. The 
native doctors of India consider it as deobstruent and 
diuretic ; the vytians especially, seldom fail prescrib- 
ing it in cases of what they call mdghddrum (ascites), 
and mootraykritchie (dysuria.)t They, like some of 
of the writers of old (Schroder, p. 290), administer 
it to promote delivery ; and also occasionally employ it 

* See Turner's Embassy to the Court of the Tishoohama^ 
p. 406. 

•f It is not now given internally in Europe ; the boracic acid was 
formerly used as a medicine, under the name of Romberg's seda- 
tive salt. 


as we do in apthous affections. Borax is sometimes 
adulterated with alum and fused muriate of soda. 

The Arabians and Persians, as we learn from the 
Ulfaz Udwiyeh, place borax amongst their Mulittifat 
^UkX^ (Attenuentia.) This substance consists, ac- 
cording to Bergman, of 34 acid, I7 soda, and 49 
water. It will be further noticed in that part of this 
work which is applicable to the arts. 


. CABBAGE. Kirnub ^ r (Arab.) Kelum AS 
(Fers.) Garten kohl (Ger.) Chou (Fr.) Kopee 

(Hind, and Beng.) 

Brassica Oleracea (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Nat. Ord. 

Cabbages grow well in every part of India, and 
are esteemed as perhaps the best qf all the pot herbs 
in that country, but the seed is brought regularly 
from the Cape. Various kinds are cultivated, but 
the small sugar loaf has the preference. Cabbage is 
considered as of a flatulent nature, and is therefore 
generally avoided by such as have weak digestions, 
but I believe in this there is a good deal of fancy. The 
ancients, Greeks as well as Romans, believed the cab- 
bage to possess peculiar virtues, the first people 
called it >copa[xS7^r}y the Latin name brassica, Mr. Phil- 
lips ingeniously supposes to come from the word 
prceseco^ because it was cut off from the stalk ; the 
qualities above alluded to are, that it prolonged life 
and cleared the brain w^hen intoxicated with wine ! 
properties very different indeed from those given 
by Lunan in his Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 130. 


The Arabians and Persians prize cabbage highly as 
food, and besides, consider it as powerfully suppu- 
rative ; the seeds ^^j SiWy^i they believe to be sto- 
machic. Turnip cabbage grows admirably in India, 
and is a great deUcacy at the tables of Europeans : it 
is the brassica congylodes (Miller). The red cabbage 
(brassica rubra), brocoli (b. botrytis cymosa), and 
caiiliflo'wer (b. florida), are also cultivated in India, 
but the latter only thrives in the more northern pro- 
vinces or in elevated situations, such as Mysore. 
Twenty-four species of brassica have been noticed 
by Wildenow. (Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 545.) In the 
botanic garden of Calcutta, four of these grow. 
Three kinds appear to have been only mentioned 
by the most ancient Greek writers, the selinas or 
crispedy lea^ and corambe. (Vide Pliny, book xx. c. 19), 
also Phillips's Cultivated Vegetables, a work I can- 
not sufficiently call to the attention of the curious.^ 

CACAO-NUT. Theobroma Cacao. 

CI. and Ord. Polyadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Cdlumniferae. Walvier caca. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

This article, properly speaking, should not have 
had a place here, but that I understand the tree, 
which is peculiarly handsome, with lanceolate ob- 
long leaves and a brown bark, grows well at Bour- 
bon, whence its produce is an export ; and we learn 
from De Comyn in his " State of the Philippine 
Islands,'V (p. 23.), that it is now much cultivated in 
those countries, and the chocolate made from the 
nut, particularly in the island of Zebu, is esteemed 


even superior to that of Guayaquil, in America. In 
Java there is simply sufficient grown for the con- 
sumption of the European colonists. 

The cacao or chocolate tree might in all proba- 
bility thrive well in sheltered situations in Lower 
India, and would no doubt be a great acquisition. I 
perceive, by Dr. W. Wright's Observations on the 
Medicinal Plants of Jamaica, that it now grows well 
in all the French and Spanish islands. There is this 
peculiar to the theobroma cacao, that it is the only 
plant of its class and order. 

Cacao is of two kinds, that made from the whole 
nut, and that from the shell j they are both much 
lighter, though perhaps a little less nutritive than 
chocolate. The cacao prepared from the shell, I 
have known to agree with weak stomachs when many 
other things were rejected ; both this and that pre- 
pared from the whole nut, should in such cases be 
made thin and clear. Chocolate, Mr. Tweed in his 
Observations on Regimen and Diet, informs us, is 
a safer drink for such as are subject to flatulence 
than any thing prepared of farinaceous substances. 
(See his work, p. 189.) It is a kind of paste pre- 
pared with the triturated nut, after having been 
roasted, and several other ingredients, the chief of 
which are Vanilla sugar and a little cinnamon. Most 
foreigners prefer the Spanish chocolate ; but the Eng- 
lish is made with more care and is much less oily. 

CAMPHOR. Cdrpoorum also Soodun ^/v;^ 


ijT) (Tam.) Cdpooroo (Cyng.) Kdfoor ^^i\S (Arab. 


and Pers.) Kaqfitr (Malay.) iiTz/poor^^ (Hind. j 
Kdmper (Dut.) Alcamfer (Port.) Kdpur (Bali.j 

^^"^ (Sans.) Camphre (Fr.) Kampher (Ger.) 

DiiYOBALANOPs Camphorje (Colebrooke.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria, Monogynia. Nat Ord. 

Camphor, which has lately be6n ascertained by 
chemists not to be a resin, but a vegetable principle 
sui generis, is very much in use amongst the native 
practitioners of India, who prescribe it externally as 
we do in cases of sprains and rheumatism. The vy- 
tians suppose it, when given internally, to possess the 
power of shortening the cold stage of an intermittent 
fever, and to be highly useful as a stimulant in the 
disease they call ktstnah doshum (typhus fever). The 
modern Arabians place it amongst their Mohewyat-dil 
(Cardiaca). The ancient Arabians conceived it to 
be refringent. OrMa places camphor amongst his 
poisons, and tells us, that three or four drachms of it 
divided by an oil, and given to a dog, is quickly 
taken into the circulation, strongly excites the brain, 
and soon kills. (Traite des Poisons, vol. ii. part ii. 
p. 19.) 

The greater part of the camphor, as well as 
camphor oil, that is found in the Indian bazars, is 
not the produce of the laurus camphora which grows 
m Japan ^ and in China f, but is brought to India 
from Sumatra I and Borneo. % The camphor of 
Baroos on the east coast of Sumatra, (and which the 

* See Thunberg's Travels, vol. iv. p. 91. English translatioa,, . 

f See Barrow's Travels, p. 535. 

\ See Mr. Macdonald's Account of the Products of Sumatra, 
in voKiv. of the Asiatic Researches. 

§ See Dr. Leydon's Sketches of Borneo^ vol. vii. Trans, of tlie 
Bat. Society^ 

VOL. I. E 


Malays call kafoor or kapur-baros,) is reckoned very 
good, but that of Borneo, Dr. Leydon says, is the 
finest in the world ; and which is brought, accord- 
ing to Mr. Hunt's account in his Sketch of Borneo, 
from the Morut country. The method of obtaining 
it is well described by Pere d'Entrecolles in his 
Amoenit. Exotic, p. 772. 

Mr. Macdonaldj in his Account of the Products 
of Sumatra (in vol. iv. of the Asiatic Researches), in- 
forms us, that the tree from which camphor is there ob- 
tained differs considerably from the laurus camphora. 
Indeed, Kaempher ( Amoen. Exotic, p. 773), had long 
ago suggested the idea, that the article brought to 
Europe from Sumatra and Borneo, was not procured 
from the laurus camphora; and thanks to the enlight- 
ened research of Mr. H. T. Colehroke^ it is now fully as- 
certained to be from a tree of a different genus, the dry- 
obalanops camphora, which grows to a great height in 
the forests on the north-eastern coast of Sumatra, and 
especially in i\ie\Acimty of Tapanooly. (See Asiatic Re- 
searches, vol. xii. p. 539.) To procure the oil, which is 
even more esteemed than the camphor itself in eastern 
countries, it is only necessary to wound and pierce 
the tree, when it exudes from the orifices so made. 
To get the concrete camphor, the tree must be cut 
down, when it ivill be discovered in small white 
flakes, situated perpendicularly in irregular veins, in 
or near the centre of the tree. 

Camphor, it is now well known, may be procured 
from many different j9/an^5*, such as thyme, marjoram, 
ginger, sage, &c. There is a species of the last com- 
mon in India, Salvia Bengalensis (Rottler), the leaves 

* See Sir Humphry Davy's " Elements of Agricultural Che- 
mistry," p. 99; also see '^Virey's Histoire Naturelle dgs JMedica- 
mens," p. 175. 


of which smell so powerfully of camphor, that they 
have got the Dukhanie name of kqfoor ka pawt, or 
camphor leaves ; there is no doubt but that they 
contain a great deal of camphor. The Cyngalese 
sometimes prepare a kind of camphor from the roots 
of the cinnamon tree. Mr. Thomson, in his new 
London Dispensatory, has given an excellent botani- 
cal account of the laitrus camphora^ as well as the 
dryobalanops camphora^ and has described the various 
qualities of the article itself Correay in his Account of 
Borneo, tells us, that the shorea robusta of Roxburgh 
(Cor. PL vol. iii. fig. 212.), yields a camphor superior 
to that of Japan or China; which is noticed also, I see, 
by Virey,in his "Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens,'* 
(p. 163.) The camphor tree is growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta, introduced by M. Cere 
in 1802 ; its Sanscrit name is kurpoora. 

Camphor is prescribed by the native Indian prac- 
titioners in doses of from three to fifteen or twenty 
grains. Amongst European practitioners in that 
country, it is chiefly valued for its virtues in obviat- 
ing the irritating effects of mercury, and at the same 
time, rendering it more certainly efficacious ; other- 
wise it is employed as in Europe with indefinite 
effects, in typhus fever, gout, rheumatism, and hys- 
teria. I shall conclude this article by observing, 
that a substance has lately been prepared artificially 
by M. Kind, a German chemist, which seems to re- 
semble camphor in most of its properties; it is made 
by passing a current of muriatic gas through the oil of 
turpentine. (See Dr. Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclo- 
pedia, vol. xiii. part i. p. 344.) 

E 2 

.'iiii MATERIA INUICA. P.fltT I. 


CAPILLAIRE, SIRUP OF. Strop de capillairc 

Adiantum Capillus Veneris. 

CI. and Ord. Cr}^togamia, Felices (Lin.) Fj^aii* 
eiihaar krnUfarni. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. 
Plant. Willd. vol. v. p. 449. 

This sirup, which is brouglit to India from the is- 
land of Bourbon, is prepared with the leaves of the 
ad. cap. ven., but at the same island it is also made 
with the leaves of another species of maidenhair, the 
ad. caudatum, which grows on the Courtalum hills 
in the southern part of India, also on Ceylon ; both 
plants are natives of Cochin China, but do not appear 
to be there considered as medicinal. The first is 
also found at Amboina, and is the micca miccan iiltan 
of Rumphius. (Amb. lib. t. 25.) It is also to be 
met with on Java, as Dr. Horsiield informs us. The 
adiantum cap. ven. is the TrspiyrT^o^a^i ;^o/vov of the 
modern Greeks, who employ the sirup of it in chest 
complaints ; it is no doubt pectoral and slightly as- 
tringent, though its decoction, if strong, is a certain 
emetic. Sirup of capillaire is much prized amongst 
the French and Portuguese inhabitants of India, as a 
medicine in catarrhal complaints, but is little souglit 
ftfter by the English. 


dersie sry\:'^^ (Tarn.) Yaylakooloo (Tel.) Erh 



sal (Cyng.) Ehil ^^\ (Arab.) Kakeleh seghar u 
^'li (Pers.) Capalaga Ul jLli* (Malay.) ^^j (Sans.) 
Eeldchie ^i^j (Duk.) Cardamomos (Port.) Carda- 
momen (Dut.) Elettari (Rheed.) Kapol (Jav.) 
Gyjarati elachi (Hind.) also Heelbuya Syj^jji (Arab.) 
Petit cardamome (Fr.) Kleine kardamomen (Ger.) 

Elettaria Cardamomum. 

CI. and Ord. Monandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitamineae (Lin.) Maton. Trans, of the Linnaean 
Society, vol. x. part ii. 

The plant which produces the lesser cardamom seedj 
has lately occasioned the establishing of a new genus 
(elettaria), and which has been so named from the 
Mdledlie word, elettari^ the appellation given to the 
plant on the Malabar coast, where cardamoms are 
produced in great abundance, and are in common 
use amongst the native practitioners as a warm and 
agreeable carminative and stomachic, prescribed in 
doses of from eight grains to half a drachm in con- 
junction with other medicines. 

Cardamoms are also a product of the Wynad moun- 
tains, of Cochin China, of Siam, of Camboja^ and 
Ceylon. Elmore^ in his Directory to the Trade of 
India, speaks of three sorts of cardamom, the first 
(he says, the greater^ grows in Africa, and the second 
in Java, the pods of which are rather long, and more 
triangular than round ; his third sort is our present 
article ; the grains of it are small, hot, spicy, and 
pleasant to the taste. 

The elettaria cardamomum is described by Rheed 
in vol. ix. of his Hortus Malabaricus ; and a good 
description of it has been given by Mr. Thomson in 
his new London Dispensatory. On the Malabar 
coast the plant is called ailum cheddy. 

E 3 


The Arabians place cardamoms amongst their 
MokeiLj/at'dil (Cardiaca). In Java the plant grows 
wild in the woods, and is there called kdpdluga ; but 
its produce is much inferior to the cardamoms of 
Malabar. There is a wild kind of cardamom, the 
amomum aronaticum (Roxb.), found on the eastern 
frontiers ot* Bengal^ where it is called monmg elachiy 
the fruit of which is used as a spice and medicine by 
the natives. (See Flora Indica, p. 44.) For a scien- 
tific account of the cardamom of the Malabar coast 
bv Dr. D. White of the Bombav establishment, the 
reader is referred to the 10th vol. of the Linnsean 
Transactions. There is now o-rowino; in the botani- 
cal garden at Calcutta another amomum, the amo- 
mum maximum (Roxb.), the seeds of which possess 
a warm, pungent, and aromatic taste, bv no means 
unlike that of the true cardamomum. The amomum 
cardamomum (Lin.), or what Rumphius distinguished 
by the name of cardamomum miims (Amb. 5. p. 15i2. 
t. (i5.), is that species, the seeds of whicli come 
the nearest in taste and \'irtues to the officinal article, 
and which are used as a substitute for them by the 
^lalays ; the plant is a native of Sumatia and other 
islands to the eastward of the Bav of Beno-al, and 
was sent, as Dr. Roxburgh informs us, from Bencoo- 
len to the botanical oarden at Calcutta, where it bios- 
soms in April. (Flora Indica, p. 37.) 


kiile Kibbdrju^ ^\^ (Arab.) Hil kelan i^JX^=> JU^ 
(Pers.) Burrie eelatchi/ ^\^\ c>^ (Hind.) or Desi 


elachi (Hind.) Cardamongoo (Port.) Kapulaga 
(Malay, Jav. and Bali.) 

Amomum Granum Paradisi (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord, 
Scitaminas (Lin.) Paradies ingwer. (Nom. Triv.' 

What has been called the grains of paradise seeds, 
or greater cardamoms^ are much larger than the fore-^ 
going, more pungent, and less aromatic ; they are 
rarely exported from India or Ceylon. 

In what respects the plant producing the greater 
cardamoms differs from the elettaria cardamomum^ I 
cannot say. WilldenoWj in speaking of the amomum 
granum paradisic says, " Scapo ramoso laxo, foliis 
ovatis, planta etiamnum obscura *, habitat in Mada- 
gascar, Guinea, et Zeylona, in umbrosis uliginosis ad 
radices montium.'' (Spec. Plant, vol. i. 4. 11.) Dr. 
Francis Hamilton, in his Account of Nepaul, speaks 
of a large kind of cardamom he found there, as yet 
not described by botanists. (See his work, p. 74.) 
The dose of the tinctura cardamomi is from one to 
three drachms, that of the tinctura cardamomi compo^ 
sita from one drachm to half an ounce. 

The Arabians place cardamoms amongst their 


CARP, COMMON. Sayl kundS Gf^avG9><5TOr 
22)i_ (Tam.) Sayl ^j^ (T>\xk.) Tambara (Malay.) 

* See Syst. Lin. Cur. Willdenow^ vol. i. part i. p. 9» 

E 4 


Suhree c^j^m (Hind.) Ghenday lampa (Tel.) Rahoo 
(Sans.) Kool j^ (Arab.) Carpe (Fr.) 

Cyprinus Carpio (Var.) 

This species of cyprinus * is to be met with in 
many of the slow running rivers and ponds of Lower 
India, and is much prized both by Europeans and 
natives in spite of its numerous bones. The carp is 
noticed by Dr. Pearson in his Materia Alimentaria, 
as being at once sweet and nutritious: it is best 
stewed. Dr. F. Hamilton, in his Journey through 
Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, informs us, that he 
found in a clear stream, called the Vedaivatij near 
the village of Heriuru, three species of cyprinus 
(carp), which he scientifically described, t Their names, 

1. Karmuka (Tel.), cyprinus carmuka (Buch.) ; 

2. Kincla minu (Tarn.), cyprinus ariza (Buch.) ; this 
in Telingoo is arija^ and in Bengalese hangan hatta ; 
S. Bendelisi (Tel,), cyprinus bendelisis (Buch.) The 
first of these is about three feet long, the second a 
foot long, and the last not longer than the finger. 

The cyprinus was well known to the ancients, and 
is noticed by Pliny. (Nat. Hist. lib. xxxii. cap. 11.) 
The physicians on the Continent recommend broth 
made of carp fish in consumptive cases, 


CARROT. Carrot kdlung e7/-rrrLL(^f^L_i?.nL-@: 
(Tam.) GazerragMda (Tel.) Gajur ^!<^ (Duk. 

* Beckman seems to have clearly proved that our carp was the 
cyprinus of the ancients ; he supposes that this fish was first found 
in the southern parts of Europe, and conveyed thence to other 
countries. It was by all accounts not known in England in the 
eleventh century. (History of Inventions, vol. iii. p. 133.) 

f See his work, vol. iii. pp. 344, 345. 


and Hind.) Jezer j^ (Arab.) Zerdek S:i^j\ (Pers.) 

5T^^ (Sans.) Carotte (Fr.) Karotte (Ger.) 

AoLifxog (Greek.) 

Daucus Carota (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria, Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellatae (Lin.) Gemeine morrube. (Nom. Triv. 

Carrots, which in the low provinces of the southern 
parts of the Peninsula, are only reared in the gardens 
of Europeans, and in those of a few rich natives, 
are cultivated in great abundance in the Mahratta 
and Mysore countries, where they are of a very fine 
quality, and are much eaten by the inhabitants. 

The Arabians place carrots amongst their Mobe^ 
Jiyat (Aphrodisiaca), a proof that they never could 
have supposed them to be indigestible, which they 
have been by some reckoned ; the fact is, when 
well boiled, they are of peculiarly easy digestion, and 
very nutritious ; they are employed by European 
practitioners in the form of a poultice to correct the 
discharge of ill-conditioned sores. In Europe, the 
seeds which are carminative and diuretic, were be- 
lieved at one time to be efficacious in gravel, given 
in doses of half a drachm bruised ; and the red flowers 
in the centre of the umbels were formerly prescribed 
in epilepsy. Carrots appear to have been first intro- 
duced into India from Persia. Pliny tells us (b. xxv. 
c. 9.)> that the finest kinds of carrots were, in his days, 
supposed to be those of Candia and Achaia. In 
England they would not seem to have been known 
previous to the reign of Elizabeth. Celsus mentions 
that the seeds of the carrot of Crete were an ingre- 
dient in the famous mithridate, which secured the body 
against the effects of poison. (Lib. v. pp, 231, 232.) 




wanga puttay c5V)a^^a^'9>LLjLJiJ«o:2)'._- (Tam.) //a- 
vanga (Malealie.) c^^ (Sans.) Mookalla (Cyng.) 
Seleekeh ^^^jXm* (Arab.) Titj g-j (Hind.) Darchinie 
' ix^ b (Duk.) also Mota darchinie (Duk.) Hout- 
kassie (Dut.) Cassia lenhosa (Port.) Kayu-manis 
(Jav.) Kayu-legi (Malay.) Kayu-mdnis (Bali.) 
Sing rowla (Nepaul.) Casse (Fr.) Casia (Ger.) 

Laurus Cassia (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Enneandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Oleraceae (Lin.) Cassien lorbeer. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 477- 

This bark, the odour of which is very like that 
of cinnamon, but fainter, is a favourite medicine of 
the Mahometan as well as Tamool medical prac- 
titioners, who consider it as a grateful and useful 
stomachic and cordial ; and the bark of the root is 
little inferior in aromatic virtues to cinnamon itself. 
Great part of the cassia bark that is met with in In- 
dia, is brought from Borneo *, from Sumatra (chiefly 
produced in the Batta country, inland from Tappa^ 
nooly\ and from Ceylon ; it is also a natural product 
of Lower Hindoostan, as the tree grows in the woods 
of Ca7iaraf and Malabar, in which first-mentioned 
country it has got the name of ticay ; and Dr. Bu^ 
ckanan thinks, that with cultivation it might be ren- 
dered equal to the China article. 

* See Capt. D. Beckman's Voyage to Borneo, 
f See Dr. Buchanan's Journey through Mysore, Canara, and 
Malabar, vol. iii. pp. 59, 161, &c. 


Colonel Kirkpatrick saw the plant thriving in Ne- 
pauly where it is called sing rowla; it is common on 
Ceylon, and was there distinguished by Burman by 
being termed ** Cinnamomum perpetuo florens, folio 
tenuiore acuto.'* It is the carua or carna of Rheede 
(Mai. i. p. 107.)^ ^i^d grows to the height of fifty or 
sixty feet, with large spreading horizontal branches 
almost as low as the earth, and leaves triple-nerved 
and lanceolate. It would appear that it has lately been 
found growing on the Himalaya mountains. 

Cassia bark may, generally speaking, be known 
from cinnamon by being thicker in substance, less 
quilled, it breaks shorter, and is more pungent to the 
taste. Avicenna tells us, that the best in Arabia is 
considered to be the red ; the worst, the black j the 
leaves the Arabians call sddiidge '^{^ (See Avicen. 
218.), and place them, with the bark, amongst their 
Mokewyat'dil (Cardiaca.) The narrow-pointed elip- 
tical leaves of the laurus cassia^ as well as the oblong, 
ovate, shining leaves of the cinnamon tree, are sold 
in the Indian bazars under the names of lawangapd- 
tery (Tam.), and tejpat (Hind.), from a notion that 
they are only the leaves of the laurus cassia. They 
are, when dried and powdered, prescribed by the na- 
tive doctors, in cases requiring stimulants and cordi- 
als. In commerce these leaves are called Folia Indica 
or Malabathra^ a name, however, w'hich more espe- 
cially applies to the leaves of the laurus cassia. Dr. 
F. Hamilton, in his excellent Account of Nepaul, 
informs us, that he found in that country the leaves 
of the laurus japonica of Rumphius, sold under the 
name of tej-pat: they were aromatic in taste and 
smell, but differed widely from the tej-pdt of Rang- 
pour. (See his work, p. 84.) The tree is the sinkauri 
of the Hindoos. 


Cassia buds have got the following names in India : 
Lawanga thooler also Sirnagapoo * (Tarn.) Naghe- 

cMraloo (Tel.) ^T^T^T (Sans.) Tejpat ha 
konpul (Hind.) Kubab-chinief i^ ^Ixf (Duk.) 
Kassielblomen (Dut.) Flores de cassia (Port.) 

They are of a dark brown colour, and somewhat 
resemble a nail in shape, with a round head sur- 
rounded with the hexangular calyx, which gradually 
terminates in a point. With them the vytians and 
hakeems (Mahometan doctors), prepare a stomachic 
infusion, one of their favourite remedies in many 

This species t of laurus, with seven others, are 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, all ori- 
entalplants, but two of them only natives of India. 
Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says, " Cal. o. calycina, 6 partita. Nect avium glan- 
dulis tribus, bisetis, germen cingentibus. Filamenta 
interiora glandulifera. Drupa, l.sperma.'* 


CASSIA FISTULA. Konnekai also Sardkonnd^ 
hai G^rrobrsAJTrr^^rruLj (Tam.) Amultas ^UJul 
(Duk. and Hind.) Khyar sh^mber ^x^ \^^ (Arab.) 
Khyar chember jj^ J^ (Pers.) Dranguli (Jav.) 
also Toong'gooli (Jav.) Rayla-kdid (Tel.) Mentus 
("Malay.) Suvdrnakd CTq"0][gF: (Sans.) Cakay (Can.) 

* A name probably taken from Sirinaguvy the capital of Cash- 
f The same name is given in Hindoostanee to CuBebs, 
j Both Pliny and Galen (De Med. Simp.), speak of cassia as 
distinct from cinnamon ; the first especially mentions, that it grows 
in mountainous situations, and alludes to it •* crassiore sarmento." 
(See lib. xii. cap. 19.) 


Ahilla (Cyng.) Pykassie (Dut.) Cassia purgante 
(Port.) Sonali (Beng.) Casse (Fr.) Rohnkassie 

Cassia Fistula (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentaceae (Lin.) Rohrenfruchtige cassie. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 18. 

The cassia Jistula pulp is considered by the native 
practitioners of India, as a most valuable laxative, 
and is prescribed by them in the form of an electuary, 
(in doses of two or three drachms), in cases of habi- 
tual costiveness. The beautiful, long, pendant, yel- 
low, fragrant flowers of the tree, are also given in 
decoction, in certain affections of the stomach. The 
fruit (which is common in most bazars), is a brown- 
ish-coloured pod, about the thickness of the thumb, 
and nearly two feet in length ; it is divided into nu- 
merous cells (upwards of forty), each containing one 
smooth, oval, shining seed. The pulp of the fruit 
is somewhat viscid, and of a sweet mucilaginous 

The tree is a native of India and also of Ceylon. 
(Flor. Zeyl. 149.) In Upper Hindoostan it is called 
sundarqj (Hind.) It is the conna of Rheed (Hort. 
mal. i. p. 37. t. 22.), and rises frequently to the height 
of fifty feet, with leaves pointed, and of a singular 
pale green colour, and flowers of a golden tinge, 
placed on long pendant, terminal spikes. The reader 
may find it well described by Rumphius. (Amb. 2. 
p. 83. ta. 21.) 

Cassia Jistula appears to have been long known in 
eastern countries. Avicenna speaks of it under the 
name of jJl?? L^ (P* 271. )> ^^^ ^^ fi^^ ^^ mentioned 
by Serapioy under the appellation of eiara: amber^ 


Prosper Alpinus* notices the tree in his work ^^ De 
Plantis Egypti'' and at the same time speaks of its 
sweet-smelling flowers. The modern Arabs place 
cassia fistula amongst their Moosildt sufra i^ ^.U^^vw* 
(Cholagoga.) Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle 
des Medicamens/' (p. 276,), observes, that the cassia 
emarginata of the Antilles^ and the cassia marilandicay 
both purge like senna, and that the root of the cassia 
occidentalis of America, is aperient and diuretic. No 
less than thirty-four species of cassia were growing in 
the botanical garden at Calcutta in the year 1815, all 
of which (six or seven excepted), are oriental plants. 


CASTOR. Ash'butchegdn /.^IJCstj Jl\ (Arab.) 

Goondheyduster •ji^^j.j^lS (Pers.) Beevergeil (Dut.) 

Castoreo (Port.) Castor eum (Fr.) Kastoreum (Ger.) 

Castor. Fiber. (Jonst. Quadr. p. 147.) 

Castor appears to be known only by name to the 
Mahometan doctors of the lower provinces of India ; 
in the more northern tracts of Hindoostan, it may 
be presumed, that it is occasionally met with, as I 
perceive it has a place in the Ulfaz Udwiyeh. The 
Arabians consider it as hot, dry, attenuant, and dia- 
phoretic, and sometimes call it i*^;^ jJU^ jild me- 


. Castor is procured from the beaver, an amphibious 
quadruped common in the northern parts of Europe, 
Asia, and America, and is contained in the two 
largest of four follicles, situated betwixt the anus and 
external genitals of the animal : it feels slightly unc- 

* Catp. ii* lib. c. 


tuous, and is of a dusky brown colour, having a 
heavy but somewhat aromatic smell, not unlike 
musk, and a bitter, nauseous, and sub-acrid taste. 
It is considered as antispasmodic and emenagogue, 
and has long been recommended in Europe in low 
fevers, epilepsy, hooping-cough, hysteria, and ner- 
vous affections (in doses of from eight grains to a 
scruple). Celsus prescribed castor and pepper com- 
bined in cases of tetanus. (Vide Cels. lib. iv, cap. 3.) 
Pliny informs us, that in his days the best castor 
was brought to Rome from Galatia and Africa ; and 
that it was considered as a useful medicine in sooth- 
ing and procuring sleep, and in cases of tetanus. 
(See his Natural History, lib. xxxii. cap. iii. p. S94* 
also lib. xxxii. cap. viii. p. 413.) Celsus recommends 
it as one of the things that might be smelt to rouse 
from lethargy, and also proposes it as one that may 
be poured into the ear in cases of deafness. (See 
Celsus, lib. vi. p. 316.) 


CATECHU. Ciitt (Can. and Hind.) Cachou 
(Fr.) Katechu (Ger.) Catch (Port.) 

AcAciA Catechu (Willd.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia, Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentacese (Lin.) Catechu acacie. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 1079. 

This extract was formerly known by the name of 
Terra Japonica^ and was supposed to be an earthy 
substance brought from Japan, a mistake that has 
been corrected by Mr. Kerr *, who ascertained that 

* See Dr. Fothergill's works (vol. ii. p. 296.), also Dr. Buchanan's 
Journey through Canara, &c., vol. iii. p. 177. 


it was obtained by boiling and subsequent evapor- 
ation, from the brown-coloured and inner part of the 
wood of the acacia catechu^ which grows in the fo- 
rests of C^/zara and in Behar ; in the first mentioned 
country the tree is called kheirie^ and in Behar ^ kdiray 
also M^j/er (Hind.) In Coorgh it has got the name 
of cagali; the Sanscrit appellation of it is khadira; 
the Cyngalese, khehiree ; and the Tellingoo, podceU 

There are two sorts of catechu now exported from 
India to Europe, a pale kind from Bengalj and 
another of a yellowish brown colour from Bombay ; 
the first being the produce of Canara, the second 
of Behar. It would appear from experiments made 
by Dr. Davy, that there is but little difference 
betwixt the two varieties ; either is almost entirely 
soluble in the mouth, their solutions in water inodor- 
ous, and slightly red in tincture of litmus. From 
200 grains of the Bombay catechu. Dr. Davy pro- 
cured 109 of tannin, 68 of extractive matter, IS of 
mucilage, and 10 of earths and other impurities. 
The same quantity of Bengal catechu afforded 97 of 
tannin, 73 of extract, 16 mucilage, and 14 impuri- 
ties. Besides these two sorts of Indian catechu, I 
must observe that this extract is also, by Colonel 
Kirkpatrick*s account, an export from Nepaul. * 

Catechu is well known to be a very valuable medi- 
cine : its taste is more or less bitter and astringent, 
with at the same time a certain mawkish sweetness. 
It has long been considered in Europe as one of our 
best and safest astringents, and employed with ad- 
vantage in cases oi jiuor albuSy gleet j dysentery, and 
diarrhoea, in doses of from ten grains to two scruples 
or more. 

* See Col. Kirkpatrick** Account of Nepaul, p. 205. 


Besides the true catechu, there are sold in many 
of the bazars of Lower India, two other substances 
which are similar in their properties to it, and are 
used for the same purposes by European as well as 
native practitioners. The first is called cuttacamboo 
in Tamool, kanser in Tellingoo, and crabcutta in 
Dukhanie, also achacutta ; the second is called in 
Tamool, cashcuttie. These are two different prepar- 
ations or extracts from the nut of the betel-nut tree 
(areka catechu.) The cuttacamboo (Tam.) is brought 
of the first quality from Pegu ; it is of a light brown 
colour, slightly bitter taste, and is powerfully as- 
tringent.* The better sort of natives chew it w^ith 
their betel leaves. The cashcuttie (Tam.) is of an in- 
ferior quality, it is almost black in colour, hard, 
extremely bitter, and is much less astringent than the 
cuttacamboo ; the poorer sort of natives chew it with 
their betel leaves ; a great deal of this last kind comes 
to India from Acheen^ but is also an export from 
Pegu. Both the cuttacamboo and cashcuttie are now 
made, but of inferior quality, in Mysore, and are 
prescribed by the Vytians in bowel complaints, and 
are also used by them as an external application in 
cases of the bad ulcer they call pooderie pandshee or 
sphacelous ulcer ; a common and most destructive af- 
fection in India, but which, as the author of this 
work had some years ago the good fortune to discover, 
could be instantly arrested in its progress by the ex- 
ternal application of the balsam of Peru, t 

It may be proper before concluding this article, 
to say something respecting the tree which yields 

* It is this substance which has long been confounded with the 
real catechu of the acacia catechu. 

t See an account of the use of the external applicaition of the 
balsam of Peru in sphacelous and phagedenic affections, in Nos. I* 
and II. of the Asiatic Journal for January, 1816. 

VOL. I. F 


the catechu. It grows in great abundance in the 
woods of KmihanUy and seldom exceeds twelve or 
fourteen feet in height, covered with a rough, thick 
bark, and towards the top dividing into numerous 
branches, on the younger of which the leaves are 
placed alternately, and are composed of fifteen or 
thirty pairs of pinna?, about two inches long, each 
having nearly forty pairs of leaflets beset with small 
hairs : the flowers are hermaphrodite and male, and 
the fruit a lanceolate, compressed, smooth pod, 



CHALK. Simie chundmhoo ^0T5:LDe=^(5OTT ig7o 
lIom (Tarn.) Velditie chunna U^:^ i^^^ (Duk.) Si- 
ma sooniim (Tel.) Tyn ahyaz ^^^j j^ (Arab.) 
Gil sifid js^.i^jj (Pers.) Khurrie mutiie (Hind.) 
Ratta hoonoo (Cyng.) Capoor engrees (Malay.) 
Craie (Fr.) Kreide (Ger.) 

Carbonas Calcis. Creta Alba (Edin.) 

The chalk that is met with in India is brought from 
England, or perhaps from some of the islands of the 
Mediterranean Sea, where it i^ found. * Dr. Heyne\ 
tells us, that he observed a chalk of a yellow colour 
in his tour from Samulcotah to Hydrabadj which ef- 
fervesced strongly with acids but did not stick to the 
tongue, and was too hard to mark with, having there- 
fore, it would seem, little affinity with the red chalk 
got in Hessia and Upper Lusatia, so valuable for 
making crayons, and which we know, is reckoned 
amongst the iron ores ; it is the reddle of Jameson 
and the roethel of Werner. I have been informed 

* It is found in Crete (Candia), and hence some suppose its 
name is derived. (See Jameson's Mineralogy, vol. ii. p. 128.) 
f See Heyne's Tracts on India, p. 272, 


that a sort of red chalk is occasionally picked up in 
the upper provinces of India, and that the Sanscrit 
name of it is geireya. Chalk will be farther noticed 
in another part of this work. 

In speaking o^ creta, Celsus says, " Simul reprimit 
et refrigerat, sanguineni supprimit/* (See Cels. lib. ii. 
p. 93, also lib. v. p. 206.) 


CHAMOMILE FLOWERS. Chdmaindoo poo 
e=rrLX)r5g^LJt^ (Tam.) Baboone ka phool \^ I-5Cxj ^U 
(Duk.) Ehdaklmirzie ^j^^jJoU^I (Arab.) Baboo* 
neh gaw ^\S aJ^jL (Pers.) Camomille Romaine (Fr.) 
Camomilla Romana (Ital.) Roemische hamiller (Ger.) 
Avflsju./^ (Greek.) 

Anthemis Nobilis (Lin.) 

CL and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Compositae Discordea^ (Lin.) Romische chamille. 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. 
p. 2180. 

Chamomile flowers are occasionally brought to 
India from Persia, where they get the name of babu* 
neh*^ from growing near the village of Babuniah in 
Irac Arabi ; they are also occasionally cultivated in 
Hindoostan in the gardens of wealthy Mahometans ; 
but they do not appear to be used medicinally by the 
native practitioners. The Arabians and Persians 
give them a place amongst their Muluttifat c^litJLo 
(Attenuentia), Mudorrat (Stimulantia), and Moheli- 
tat (Discutientia). The herb is the auSs[xis of Dios- 
corides, and the ai/Qs[xou of Theophrastus. 

^ See Bibliotheque Orientale par D'Herbelot, p. 147. 

F 2 


The pleasant smelling, bitter, aromatic, and slightly 
warm flowers of the anthemis nobilis, which is too 
well known to require a description here, have long 
been considered as a valuable medicine bv the medi- 
cal men of Europe. They are supposed to be tonic, 
carminative, and to a certain degree anodyne, though 
a strong infusion of them operates as an emetic ; the 
ancients considered them to be diuretic and useful 
in nephritic complaints. They have been chiefly 
employed in intermittent fever, dyspepsia, chlorosis, 
and flatulent cholic, and also in preparing antiseptic 
fomentations and anodyne injections. The infusion 
and extract are supposed efticacious in cases of ob- 
structed menses ; the dose of the latter is from ten 
grains to a scruple ; the powdered flowers have been 
given in doses of from half a drachm to a drachm 
and a half. 

There was but one species of anthemis growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta in ISli, the an- 
themis cota, a native of Southern Italy. Dr. R. 
James has written quite an eulogium on the \drtues 
of chamomile. Boerhaave considered it is as highly 
efficacious in worm cases ; and jMr. Phillips seems 
to be of opinion, that no simple of the Materia Me- 
dica, is possessed of a quality more friendly to the 
intestines. (See his work on Cultivated Vegetables, 
vol. i. p. 139.) 


CHARCOAL. Addpoo cu?Tie £i|(ij^LL'L_,^c5^rp 
(Tam.) Lippe anghooroo (Cyng.) Poi-bogooloo 
(Tel.) Khoijla \y,^ (Duk. and Hind.) Araug 

^\j (Malay.) Fuhn chobie ^^ ^^ (Arab.) Ze- 


gal chobie ^^:^ ^Uj (Pers.) Charhon de bois purifie 

(Fr.) Reine kohle (Ger.) Carbon de lena (Span.) 

Carbo Ligni (Lond.) 

I cannot find that charcoal is used as a medicine 
by the native Indians ; like other nations they em- 
ploy it in the preparation of gunpowder, and have 
some singular notions respecting it, supposing that 
obtained from particular trees, to be best suited for 
particular purposes j for instance, the goldsmiths in 
Lower India prefer the charcoal got from the ossilin 
mdrdm and avary mdrdm (cassia auriculata) ; the 
blacksmiths in the northern circars, say, that the best 
for their work, is that prepared from the sanra chettoo 
(Teh), a species of mimosa, and which in all proba- 
bihty, differs little from that made from the paramba 
of the Canarese, mimosa tuggula (Roxb.), which the 
blacksmiths of Mysore commmonly use. In the 
Carnatic, the charcoal in the greatest request amongst 
the blacksmiths, is that of the karoovelum mdrdm 
(acacia Arabica), pooU'mm mdrdm (tamarindus In- 
dica), and vum-mdray mdrdm^ swietenia chloroxylon 

Charcoal has been found to correct the foetid odour 
of putifrying animal and vegetable substances, and 
destroy the odour, taste, and colour of others. It 
is no doubt an antiseptic, and is sometimes prescribed 
internally to correct the putrid eructations of some 
kinds of dyspepsia ; it has also been advantageously 
employed, when mixed up in powder, with boiled 
bread, or linseed meal and water, in preparing a 
poultice for foul ulcers and gangrenous sores. Char- 
coal will be found further noticed in another part of 
this work. 

F 3 



CHINA ROOT. Pdringay puttay LJAon^^aTiJj 

LJiL<2^\ (Tarn.) Chob chinie ^^^ ^.^^^ (Duk. and 

Hind.) China alia (Cyng.) Choob cliiny ju^^ ^:^ 
(Pers.) Esquina (Port.) China "wortel (Dut.) Khusb 
sinie ^y^^ ^..Ji^ (Arab.) Squine (Fr.) 

Smilax China (Lin.) 

C5 . 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Hexandria. Nat. Ord. Sar- 
mentacese (Lin.) China smilajc. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 778. 

This is a large, tuberous, knotty root, of a dark 
reddish, brown colour on the outside, and reddish 
white within. The native Indians, like the Japanese, 
suppose it to have considerable efficacy given in de- 
coction in old venereal cases; the first especially, 
believe it to be of great use in what they call may- 
gum vdivoo, a complaint in which the limbs are stiff 
and contracted. What is found in the bazars of the 
Peninsula is brought from China, where it grows in 
great abundance in the province of Onansi. The 
plant, however, I believe, is now cultivated in Upper 
India. * The Abbe Rochon, in his " Voyage to 
Madagascar and the East Indies,'' informs us, that 
the Chinese often eat this substance instead of rice, 
and that it contributes to make them lusty. 

The China root has of late years been much neg- 
lected by European practitioners, though Woodville t 
seems to think favourably of it, from its containing 

* See Remarks on the Husbandry and Internal Commerce of 
Bengal, p. 205. 

t Medical Bolany, vol. iv. p. 67. 



a considerable share of bland nutritive matter ; by 
Aikin's * account, a proportion amounting to half 
the weight of the root. Dr. Fleming, from his own 
experience in Bengal, says, that either as an auxi- 
liary to mercury, or for improving the general health 
after the use of that remedy, he believes it at least 
equal to its congenor sarsaparilla. 

Two drachms of the root have been given twice 
daily in a decoction of the same root, in cases requir- 
ing antiscorbutics and diaphoretics. 

The smilax pseudo-china, muheisa (Hind.), is 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, intro- 
duced from Silhety by Mr, M. R. Smith, in 1810. It 
is the ciirri'kong'Cunn of the Chinese who frequently 
use its roots in place of the true China root. 

Ten other species are growing in the same garden. 

Before concluding, it may be proper to add, that 
according to Willdenow, the generic character of 
smilax is, 

Masculi, Cal. 6 partitus. Cor. 

Feminei, CaL 6 partitus. Cor. Stylus 

3 fidus. Bacca. 3 locularis infra. Sem. 2. 

Browne, in his History of Jamaica, informs us, 
that the plant is common in the more cool, inland 
parts of that island ; rising from a thick porous root, 
and climbing by a rather slender rigid stem to the 
top of the tallest trees ; the root, which is often as 
thick as the arm, is crooked and jointed, with knots 
at each joint ; and is held in great repute in Jamaica, 
where it is observed to be not inferior in quality to 
that of the East Indies ; it is considered as of a very 
sheathing nature ; sometimes it is found to yield a 
gum, which the natives call tzitili^ and which they 
chew to fasten the teeth. The reader is referred to 

* Aikin's Lewis Materia Medica, vol. ii. p. 331. 

F 4 


the work above mentioned, and to Barham's Hortus 
Americanus, (pp. 40. 198.) 

tutes for, 

Cinchona Lancifolia (Mutis.) 

See article Febrifuge Swietenian in this chapter. 


CINNAMON. Kdrruxm putt ay ^^cji^ilLj 
Q^\_ (Tarn.) Kulmie darchinie ^x:?>^h ^^i (Duk.) 
Darchinie ^a:^,!^ (Pers. and Hind.) Kurundu 
(Cyng.) Sdndlinga putta (Tel.) Kdimanis (Malay.) 
Darasita (Sans.) Cancel (Dut.) Canella (Port.) 
Z)(2mm TxA^b (Arab,) Candle (Fr.) Kanohl (Ger.) 

Kii^a[xQu (Greek.) 

Laurus Cinnamomum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Enneandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Oleracese. Zimml lorbeer. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 477. 

This fragant, pleasant tasted, and pungent aroma- 
tic bark, is a favourite medicine of the native prac- 
titioners of India, who consider it as tonic, cordial, 
and stimulant, and give it in doses of from eight 
grains to a scruple. 

From the bark there is prepared by maceration 
in sea- water and then distilling with a slow fire, an es- 
sential oil, which on Ceylon is considered as of great 
efficacy as a rubefacient in cases of sprains. 

'J'he greater part of this aromatic bark which is 
brought to India, is the produce of Ceylon, where 
it grows in great abundance in many parts of the 
island ; it is also now an article of trade from several 


of the eastern islands, especially Borneo.^ It is cul- 
tivated at Quang-sy in China, and of a very fine 
quality in the central mountains of Cochin Chi?ia. (See 
Voyage a Pekin par M. de Guignes.) It has lately 
been found to arrive at tolerable perfection in shel- 
tered t situations in Lower India; and De Comyn 
says, in his " State of the Philippine Islands,'' that 
the cinnamon plant is. found in its native state in the 
interior of Peru, and whea carefully cultivated not 
inferior to that of Ceylon (see work, p. 25.) ; and it 
is well known that the plant in the same dominions 
is quite common in the woods of Mindano. Niev- 
hoofF found it in China in the Province of Quangsi, 
in the year 1655. 

There are ten varieties of cinnamon known on 
Ceylon, but of these the Scholias only bark four, viz. 
the rasse kurundu^ nai kurundu^ kapuru kurunduy and 
cabette kurundic^ the first is reckoned the finest, and 
the cabette the worst. 

The tree seldom rises above the height of fifteen 
feet ; the leaves stand in opposite pairs on short pe- 
tioles, and are from four to seven inches long, ob- 
long, pointed, and tri-nerved j the flowers which are 
in axillary and terminal panicles, are white, but with- 
out odour. 

The laurus ciniiamomum with six other species are 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta; it is 
the katu karua of Rheed (Hort. Mai. 5. p. 105, t. 53), 
and is described in the Flor. Zeyl. 145, and Eurm. 
Zeyl. (62, t. 27.) 

Sifitoky Dr. H or sfield tells us, in his "Account of 
Java Medicinal Plants," is the Java name of a spe- 

* See Leydan's Sketches of the Island of Borneo, vol. vii. 
Transactions of the Batavian Societv. 

f At Courtalum in the Tinnivelly district. 


cies of lauruSj which in taste is an agreeable aromatic 
mixture of the clove and cinnamon ; the best comes 
to Java from the Moluccas. 

It would appear that cinnamon was in former 
times not confined * to Asia, much less to the island 
of Ceylon. Pliny informs us (lib. xii. cap. 19), that 
it grew in Ethiopia, and we know ** that Vespasian 
on his return from Palestine, dedicated to the God- 
dess of Peace in one of the temples of the capitol, 
garlands of cinnamon inclosed in polished gold ; and 
that in the temple built on Mount Palatine by the 
Empress Augusta in honour of Augustus Caesar her 
husband, was placed a root of the cinnamon tree set 
in a golden cup.^' (See Phillip's History of Culti- 
vated Vegetables, vol. i. p. 152.) Celsus recom- 
mends that it should be given **per potionem.*' 
(lib. V. p. 261.) In the Philippine Island there is a 
tree called cali?igadf the bark of which tastes exactly 
like cinnamon. (See De Comyn's State of those 
Islands, p. 27.) 


CLAY, POTTER'S. Kali mumiu ^(jsrr'\jo6^ 
(Tam.) Chicknie muttie j;ji^ ^^Sj>^ (Duk.) Banka 

munnoo (Tel.) Krishna mirtika ^blJ|W^frf^(Sans.) 

Argilla Figuli (Van) 

This is found in several parts of Lower India, but 
is more common in the higher tracts of Hindoostan j 
and is used for nearly the same purposes by the na- 

■* Hippocrates notices cinnamon, lib. ix. cap. 5. Theophrastus 
in his Hist. Plantar, lib. ix. cap. 5. So does Uioscorides, lib. i. 
cap. 13. 


tives that it is in Europe. It varies in colour, being 
greyish, greenish, and sometimes of a blue cast, re- 
sembling in a great measure what has been called 
the earthy potter* s clay^ which is the erdiger topfer- 
then of Werner. It feels a little greasy to the touch, 
and adheres strongly to the tongue : a finer kind of 
it, a sort of pipe clay^ is also to be met with, and is 
what the different casts of Hindoos employ for mak- 
ing the distinguishing marks on their foreheads ; and 
moistened with water, they often too apply it round 
the eye in cases of opthalmiaj as well as round broken 
limbs, to keep them in their proper forms till the 
bones are knit. The Indian names of pipe-clay are 
the following : namiim (Tarn.), hhurrie ^^^f (Duk.), 

su^eta mritika ^^^rf 5Tfr[^l' (Sans.), mickkool matie 

(Cyng.) The slaty variety I have not seen in India. 
The English patterns earth analysed by Kirwan, con- 
sists of silica 63.00, alumina 37-00 ; and that of the 
best quality is found in Dorsetshire. 


CLOVE. Craiimhoo ^^Co\-, (Tam.) Laong 
^^ (Duk. and Hind.) Warrala (Cyng.) Lavdnga 

^^3^ (Sans.) Chankee (Malay.) also Biiah larca?ig 
CMalay.) Laxcaiigim (Tel.) Kerenful ^^^ (Arab.) 
Mykhek Ji^f< (Pers.) Cravos da India (Port.) 
Kruid nagelon (Dut.) Thenghio (Chinese.) Woh^ 
kayu krdcang (Jav.) Bu-xcah-laxcang (Bali.) Clou.v 
de girqfle (Fr.) 

Eugenia Caryophyllata (Lin.) 


CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Hesperideae (Lin.) Gewurznaglein tambusenbaum. 
(Norn. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. 
p. 965. 

Cloves, which are the unexpanded flowers of the 
tree quickly dried, are brought to India chiefly from 
Amboyna^ Honimoa^ and Moiissalaut ; they are also 
a produce of the island of Celebes *, but those of 
Amboyna are reckoned the best ; though small and 
black, they have a strong fragrant, aromatic odour, 
and a warm acrid and aromatic taste. The cultivation 
of the clove was introduced into Sumatra, by Mr. 
I. Lumsdain^s Account, in 1778 ; but it would not 
appear to be well adapted to that island. (See Asiatic 
Journal for November, 1823.) 

The native doctors of India employ cloves in such 
cases as require stimulating aromatics, in doses of 
from three to twelve grains. The clove tree, which 
was originally confined to the Molucca Islands, is 
now cultivated in many of the western parts of the 
Archipelago of India, where, according to Mr. Craw- 
ford, five varieties are distinguished. Rumphius, 
in speaking of the clove treef, says, *^ it appears 
to me to be the most beautiful and precious of all 
known trees ;*' in form it resembles somewhat the 
laurel, with a smooth bark like the beech, and straight 
trunk ; he adds, that it is not partial to large islands, 
and does not answer well at Geloloy Ceram, and Ce- 
lebes. Cloves, within the last fifty years have grown 
at the Mauritius, but of an inferior quality. The 
Eugenia caryophyllata is now thriving in the botani- 
cal garden of Calcutta ; its Bengalie name is chota 

* See Beckman's Voyage to Borneo, 
t Herbarium Amboi. tarn. ii. p, 1. 


jamb. Twenty-seven other species of Eugenia are 
in the same garden. 

The Arabians place jiJ^i* (cloves) amongst their 
Mokewyat-meoadeh ^^x^ oLLX^c or tonics. 

European practitioners occasionally order cloves 
in dyspeptic complaints, particularly in habits re- 
quiring a more than ordinary degree of stimulus. 
The clove is an article of the famous electuarium gin- 
givale of the French Pharmacopeia for preserving 
the gums and teeth. 



Cocos NuciFERA (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Hexandria. Nat. Ord. 
Palmae. Gemeine kokospalme. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 400. 

The first is a liquor contained within the kernel of 
the cocoa nut while it is yet growing, and is refresh- 
ing and extremely pleasant to the taste, particularly 
in hot weather. It may be drank to almost any 
quantity without injury, and is considered by the 
native doctors as a purifier of the blood. As the 
kernel approaches to maturity the liquor is dimin- 
ished in quantity, becoming somewhat more sharp 
and a little aperient, in its best state it has the ap- 
pearance of water with a small admixture of milk 
in it. 

The kernel, which has much the taste of the fil- 
bert, is a common ingredient both in the curries of 
Europeans and natives ; the latter considering it to 
be peculiarly nutritious, and to have the power of 


rendering the body corpulent. By scraping down 
the ripe kernel of the cocoa 7iut and adding a little 
water to it, a white fluid is obtained by pressure, 
which very much resembles milk in taste, and may 
be used as a substitute for it. The cocoa nut tree 
is common almost every w^here within the tropics, 
and is ceitainlv one of the most valuable in the w^orld. 
It grows to a great height, the stems being composed 
of strong fibres like net- work, w hich lie in several 
laminas over each other, out of w^hich come the 
branches or rather leaves, which grow twelve or four- 
teen feet long; but w^e will not enter into a minute 
description of the cocos nucifera here, but refer our 
readers to Roxb. Corom. I. p. 52. t, Ixxiii. Of the 
genus, Willdenow says, ** iVIasculi, Cah triphyllus. 
Cor. tripetala. Feminei, CaL 2 phyllus, Cor. 6 pe- 
tala. Styl. 0. stigma fovea. Drupa fibrosa."' Our 
species is distinguished by '^ inermis frondibus pin- 
natis, foHolis replicatis ensiformibus/' 

Its names in eastern countries are, '^jf^^^ 
yiarikela (Sans.), tayyiga d^'-Kju^rr^Lj (Tam.), naril 
y,^\j (Duk.), tenkciia (Tel.), tclngha (Malealie), 
calappa (Rumph. Amb. I. p. 1), tenga (Rheed, Mai. I. 
p. i), kalapa also iiyor (Malay), narjihle yi^J6 

According to Sprengel, in his Hist. Rei Herbariae, 
the first particular notice taken of this tree is in ^^Itine- 
rario Abuzeid^^ (Avicen. Relat. p. 2. iii.), w^herein 

is especially observed the great variety of uses to 
which the different parts of this palm are appUed. 
(See Hist. Rei, &c., pp. 268, 269.) 

With regard to the oil of the cocoa nut (which in 
Tamul is taynga unnay^ in Dukhanie naril ka taylj 

in Teh teixkai monay, and in Sanscrit ^T\^\^^nari- 


kaila). I have to observe that the vytians employ 
it in preparing certain plasters, and for softening the 
hair. In some parts of the Indian Peninsula it is 
used for culinary* purposes. In the more northern 
and eastern districts, it is chiefly employed for burn- 
ing in lamps. In the Indian islands it would appear 
from Mr. Crawford's account, that it is for the pulp 
of the nut this palm is particularly grown, the oil 
made from it being there too expensive for burning, 
is almost entirely used for eating. The dried kernel 
of the cocoa nut (copra), is a great article of export 
trade from Canara. For cocoa nut toddy, see arti- 
cle toddy in this chapter. For some account of the 
nar, or fibrous husk of the cocoa nut, the reader is 
referred to Part ii. of this work. 


COCHINEAL. Cochineel poochie Qu^rru^^r^ 
o\^LJt^e=^ (Tam.) Kermizi faringhie ^Siiji y,^ 
(Duk.) Conclwnilje (Dut.) Cochenilha (Port.) Co- 
chenille (Fr.) 

Coccus Cacti. 

The inferior sort of cochineal now prepared in 
India, was introduced by Capt. Neilson in 1795, who 
brought the insect from Rio de Janiero ; it was not 
at first known which insect it was, whether that pro- 
ducing the grana Jina cochineal, or that which pro- 
duces the grana silvestra. On discovering, however, 
that the little animal would neither eat the cactus 
cocciiiellifer nor cactus tuna^ but voraciously devoured 

* It is then prepared with great care by boiling the bruised 
kernels in water : for other purposes the oil is simply expressed. 


the cactus Jicus Indica (Lin.), ndgdtdlle-lculli (Tarn.), 
it was ascertained to be that from which the inferior 
or grana silvestra is prepared. The granajina insect 
is known (or rather supposed) to feed only on the 
cactus coccinelHfer. This, however, is much doubted 
by Baron Humboldt, at least he thinks the grana 
Jina made by the Indians of Oaxaca * may not be from 
that plant. The grana Jina insect is nearly double 
the size of the grana silvestra^, and contains almost 
twice the quantity of colouring matter. 

Cochineal has a heavy faint odour, and bitter aus- 
tere taste ; it has lately been recommended in Eu- 
rope as an antispasmodic and anodyne in hooping 
cough, but I fear its virtues in that respect are not 
great. Scarlet was till of late years, produced ex- 
clusively with the colouring matter of cochineal, the 
nature of which, Mr. Brande informs us, has been 
investigated by M. Pelletier, who found it united in 
the insect with a peculiar animal matter, fat, and 
some saline substances, from which, by a chemical 
process, they succeeded in separating it, thereby 
procuring the pure colouring matter, which Dr. John 
has proposed to call coccineUin. The silvestra cochi- 
neal of Bengal when compared with the grana fina 
sort of South America, as to the relative quantity of 
colouring matter, was from 9 or 11 to 16. fSee Te- 
nant's Indian Recreations, vol. ii. p. 227.) 

I mentioned above, that till of late years scarlet 
could only be produced by means of the cochineal 
insect j but it would appear that a more beautiful and 

* See Baron Humboldt's Political Essays on the Kingdom of 
New Spain, vol. iii. pp. 70, 71, 72. Eng. Trans. 

f Of late years, I understand, but little cochineal has been 
prepared in India, and no carmine has ever been yet made from 
it, the plants having been nearly all devoured by the insects. 


lasting colour can be obtained by using the lac insect. 
(See another part of this work.) 


# ■ 

COFFEE, Cdpie cbttay ^'Ge^-nrL-^^) 

(Tarn.) Boond jj^ or jj^^ (Duk.) Bun j (Arab.) 

Copi cottd (Cyng.^ Kcvwa (Malay.) Tochem Mweh 

»3.^5j^:sr^* (Pers.) Kqff^ (Dut) Cqffe (Port) Chaube 

(Turk.) Eleave (Egypt.) Cafe (Fr.) Kaffe (Dan.) 

CoFFEA Arabica (Liu.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Stellatag. Gemeiner coffe. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) See 
Spec. Plant. Willd. vol.' i. p. 973. 

This valuable berry was first used in the way it 
now is, in Arabia;, in the ninth year of the hegira * 
(fifteenth century). The tree is properly a native of 
Yemen, where it is called bun, and where the fresh 
seeds are considered as diuretic and tonic ; in other and 
more eastern provinces it has got the name of kahiv^f^ 
and in some parts kischer. It is now cultivated, 
however, with great success in the southern extre- 
mity of the Indian peninsula, in the Mysore country, 
in Javaty and of a very superior quality in Bourbon 
and Luconia. (See De Comyn's State of the Phi- 
lippine Islands, p. 22.) The coffee tree in India 
seldom rises higher than twelve or fourteen feet, and 

* See Folhergill's works, vol ii. p. 286. 

f See Niebhur's Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. pp. 228, 229. 

:j: Particularly in the territories of Cheribon and Jaccatra, (See 
Sketches, Civil and Military of the Island of Java.) Mr. Craw- 
ford, in his Indian Archipelago (vol. i. p. 4-86.), tells us, that cof- 
fee was first introduced into Java in 1723, by the Dutch governor 

VOL. I. G 


is extremely beautiful ; the leaves are from three to 
five inches long and about two broad, opposite, ovate- 
lanciolate, with waved borders, and of a singular 
glossy appearance ; the flowers which are white, are 
produced in clusters at the base of the leaves, and 
have a pleasant odour. Our article, with two other 
species are growing in the botanical garden of Cal- 

The Mahometans of India use a great deal of cof- 
fee in the same way that we do, with this exception, 
that they take no milk with it ; they believe it to 
have the effect of soothing and allaying nervous irrii» 
tability, and prescribe it to stop vomiting in dank- 
lugna UUCJJo:^ (cholera morbus) ; for a similar pur- 
pose it is often employed by the Spaniards at Manilla^ 
and with the greatest success. There are various 
accounts of the first discovery of the virtues of cof- 
fee, and its introduction into use in eastern countries. 
Niebhur says it is a native of Yeinen ; Abbe Raynal, 
in his History of the East and West Indies, (vol. i. 
p. 336), informs us, that it was first noticed in Upper 
Ethiopia, and that a Mollach named Chadely^ was the 
fortunate man, who found out its virtues in raising 
the spirits, tranquillizing the mind, yet keeping off 
sleep, and dissolving crudities in the stomach. 

Coffee, by some medical men, is supposed to be 
more especially suited for those who are advanced in 
years. The abuse of it impairs digestion, and when 
too strong, it stimulates, heats, and produces watch- 
fulness. As a medicine, it has been found useful 
in asthmatic affections, diarrhoea, and intermittent fe- 
ver (see Dr. Pearson's Materia Alimentaria, p. 110) ; 
and some imagine it to possess the power of counter- 
acting the narcotic effects of opium. (See Fischer 
de Potus Coffee Usu et Abusu.) My own opinion 



is, that taken in moderation, not too strong, and 
without milk, it aids digestion, comforts the stomach, 
and cahns the spirits. Bun-kawa is the Bengalie 
name of a wild kind of coffee, coffea Bengalensis, 
(Roxb.) : it is an erect shrub, flowering in the hot 
season, and yielding its fruit in the cold season. Va- 
rious substitutes are used for coffee in India, perhaps 
the best is toasted rice. In Europe, Mr. Gray in- 
forms us, that the seeds of the yellow water flag (iris 
pseudacorus), come nearer the real article than 
anything else that has yet been tried. (See his Sup- 
plement to the Pharmacopoeias, p. 2370 Murray, 
in his Apparatus Medicaminum, notices as substi- 
tutes for coffee, common barley, the root of the ci- 
chori, or scorzonera, &c. (vol.i. p. 564, Latin edition.) 
Within the last few years a great many people in 
England have had recourse to parched wheat and 
rye as substitutes for coffee : these were first, I be- 
lieve, particularly recommended by Mr. Hunt ; they 
are in their nature and qualities very similar to the 
article prepared with rice. As a beverage for the 
dyspeptic, those kinds of coffee, if they can be so 
called, are altogether safe, and I have met with seve- 
ral delicate women, who assured me that they found 
them agree with them better than the Turkey coffee.* 


COLOQUINTIDA. Peycoomutikdi also Varrie* 
coomutie hat (2LJu^^G^n-LX)Ljc5^i— L«i?.^e5-rrLij 

* It appears from the Archives de Descouverts, that a method 
has lately been discovered at Venice, of composing a fine un- 
changeable emerald green colour ; a precipitation by means of pure 
soda from a decoction of decayed coffee in river water ; the green 
thus obtained resists the action of acids, light, and moisture. 

G 2 


(Tarn, ) Indrawunkaphul y^^ASi^^SjO^ 1 (Duk. ) Mak- 
hal (BengalevSe.) Pootsakdia (Tel.) Indravdruni 
^F^q'^ofj" also Vishala f^^^J (Sans.) Indrdin 

.|^j^3! (Hind.) also Indraini (Hind.) Hunzil JU-;-. 
(Pers. and Arab.) Bitterappelen (Dut.) Colo- 
quintidas (Port.) Titta commodoo (f^yng.) ^jai> 
also Daliak (Egypt.) Makhal (Ben.) Coloquinte 
(Fr,) Coloqiiinter (Dan.) 

CucuMis CoLocYNTHis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia, Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitaceae (Lin.) Coloquinten gurke. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 6lL 

The plant which produces the coloquintida may 
be found in many parts of Lower India, particularly 
in sandy situations in the neighbourhood of the sea; 
the fruit is a greenish striped gourd or pepo, which, 
however, on ripening becomes of a pale yellow co- 
lour, and is about the size of an orange. 

It would appear from what is said of this article 
in the " Moofurdatee Secunder^^^ that coloquintida 
is a Syrian word ; the author speaks highly of the 
virtues of the medicine in cases of sukkata (cata- 
lepsy.) The vytians prescribe the bitter pulp of the 
fruit, dried, in cases requiring brisk and powerful 
cathartics. The Arabians and Persians place it 
amongst their Mooselat belghem ^yj c^\y^,^^ (Phleg- 
magoga.) To the pulp of the fruit, the Arabians 
have given the name of shehemhunzel jJajL-.^^^^ the 
Persians that ofmughz hunzel yl^:=. vi-o The simple 
dried fruit the Arabians call hudij • j,^ the Persians 
hunzel khoosk jCi;^ J.IaJL-. D^^* R- Pearson thinks 
colocynth is of so drastic and irritating a nature, that 
it is scarcely applicable in any other cases besides 
melancholy, lethargy, certain dropsical affections. 


and worms. The dose of the dried pulp may be 
from four grains to eight or ten ; that of the extract, 
colocynth. composit. is from five to fifteen grains. It 
is a powerful cathartic. 

Many attempts have been made in Europe to cor- 
rect the virulence of this medicine by acids and astrin- 
gents, it may not therefore be superfluous to add here, 
that by Thunberg's account (Travels, vol. ii. p. 171 )? 
the gourd is rendered so perfectly mild at the Cape 
of Good Hope, by being properly pickled, that it 
is eaten both by the natives and colonists. 

The coloquintida of the shops in Europe, though 
inodorous, has an extremely bitter and nauseous 
taste. It is brought from Turkey where the plant 
grows, but it is also, TVilldenow says, a native of the 
Cape; and Gerarde tells us, that it is common on 
the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Orfila places 
coloquintida amongst his poisons, and supposes its 
bad quality is equally in that part which is soluble in 
water, and not soluble. (See Traite des Poisons, 
vol. ii. parti, p. 18.) For the opinions of the Per- 
sians respecting coloquintida, the reader may consult 
a celebrated Persian work on the Materia Medica, 
by Secunder, entitled cf^jaJC^ olii^i^ originally writ- 
ten in Syrian by Yahiakoort. 

Our article, with nine other "species of cucumis, 
grow in the botanical garden of Calcutta, all Indian 
plants, except the melo^ which is a native of Persia. 
(See Hortus Bengalensis, p. 70.) 

Burchell, in his Travels in Southern Africa (p. 126), 
informs us, that he saw a great many of the colo- 
cynth melons scattered on the ground near the Breed 
river, in the district of Roodezaiid ; and we know 
that Burckhardt saw them lying in profusion on the 
ground in the desert of Nubia, called Wadyom-gat. 
(See his work, 4to. p. 184.) 

G 3 


Murray, in liis Apparatus Medicaminum, (vol. i. 
pp. 587j 588), recommends colocynth in the form 
of tincture in cases of gout, rheumatism, violent head- 
aches, and palsy, in doses of fifteen drops morning 
and evening,* 


COLUMBA ROOT. Columboo *vayr (^^rrc^rrrLO 
\_jQo\jrj- (Tam.) Kalamhoo khoo (Cyng.) Cohim- 
bakejur ^^ TLjLS (Duk.) Kalumb (Mosambiquee.) 
Colombo wortel (Dut.) Raiz de columba (Port.) Co- 
lomba (Fr.) 

CalumBuE Radix (Lond.) 
Menispermum Columba (Roxb.) ?t 

The plant of which this is the root, was long sup- 
posed to be a native of Ceylon, and it was Thimberg \ 
who first declared that it was not so, but was brought 
to the town of Colombo from the coast of Malabar : 
there is no doubt but that its proper Mosambique 
name Kalumb^ having been mistaken for Colombo on 
Ceylon, has led to this mistake. 

It has been ascertained that the plant grows natu- 
rally, and in abundance, in the thick forests that are 
said to prevail about Obio and Mosambique^ on the 
Zanguebar coast of Africa ; a discovery we owe to a 
Mr. J. F. Fortin, a French gentleman settled at Ma- 
dras, who brought to that place with him from Mo- 

* We are told by Vauquelin in the Journal of Science, Litera- 
ture, and the Arts (No, xxxvi, p. 400.), that colocynth treated 
with alcohol yields the bitter substance he has called the colocyn~ 
tine which is slightly soluble in water. 

f See Hort. Beng. p. 72. 

i See his Travels, vol. iv. p. 185. 


sambique, in September, 1805, an entire offset from 
the main root of a larger size than usual, from which 
a plant was raised in Dr. Anderson's garden at 
Madras ; but the genus could not be determined from 
a want of female flowers. From a drawing in the 
possession of the Linnagan Society, it has been con- 
jectured to be of the natural order of menosperma?, 
but I understand that Willdenovv, from accounts 
he had received, supposed it to be a bryonia, and it 
is a certain fact that the root of the Bryonia epigcea 
(Rottler), resembles it much in its natural qualities. 
(See article kolung kovay kahmg (Tam.), in Part ii. of 
this work.) 

A plant discovered some years ago in America by 
Mr. Wm. Bartram, and termed Fraseri xvalteri has 
been found to possess similar virtues with the Mada- 
gascar plant ; the root being a pure and pow^erful 
bitter, without aroma ; it is of the class tetrandria, 
and ord. monogynia, and nat. ord. gentianse ; he has 
named it American Columba. (See Barton's Veget- 
able Mat. Med. of the United States, vol.ii. p. 109.) 

Columba root is very subject to decay and become 
perforated by small worms ; when good, it breaks 
with a starchy fracture, looks bright and solid, and 
has a slight aromatic odour and bitter taste. It is 
considered as a powerful antiseptic and tonic, and 
to possess astringent qualities, which have occasioned 
it to be often recommended in diarrhoea, general debi- 
lity, cholera morbus, and in certain stages of phthisis ; 
it has also been supposed to be efficacious in allaying 
nervous irritability, and strengthening the digestive 
organs. It is no doubt an excellent medicine, and 
may be given in powder, in doses of from fifteen 
grains to half a drachm, though we think the infusion 
is the best preparation ; this is very mucilaginous, a 

G 4 


quality to which, perhaps, the root owes much of its 
virtue. For further particulars see Dr. A. Berry's 
account of the male plant, which furnishes the medi- 
cine called columba root in England, as it appears in 
the tenth volume of the Asiatic Researches. 

I perceive by the Hort. Bengal, (p. 72.), that the 
plant whose root is the officinal columba root, was 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, 
under the scientific name of menispermum columba 
(Roxb.), cl. and ord. dioecia, pentandria. Columba 
root is not unfrequently employed by the French and 
Portuguese in preparing the famous droga amara 
when the creyat plant cannot be procured. (See ar- 
ticle Creyat in this chapter.) 



Vepprdei G^Tvj 1^1 L_' LOLL? 2/^!) (Tam.) Coddgd pdla 
(Mai.) Pala codija also Manoopdld (Tel.) Curayia 
also Curaija \:^'fSS (Hind.) Cheeree also Kiitqja 
(Sans.) Conessie (Fr.) 

Nerium Antidysentericum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Contortae (Lin.) Riihrstille7ider oleander. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1236. 

The bark of the oval-leaved rosebay having lately 
been admitted into the British Materia Medica, un- 
der the name of conessi barky I have been induced 
to give the conessi a place here. The bark is called 
palapatta on the Malabar coast by the Hindoos, and 
corte-de-pala by the Portuguese ; both of whom have 
long considered it as a valuable tonic and febrifuge. 



On the Coromandel side of India it seems chiefly to 
be given in dysenteric affections, prescribed in de- 
coction, to the extent of 2oz. twice or thrice daily. 
The milky juice of the tree is used as a vulnerary. 

The seeds * which in Tamool are called Vepprdei 
ariseCy in Persian Ahir ^]^ in Arabic Lissanul asa- 

feer ^sIa^I/^LmJ, in Dukhariie and Hindoostanie, 

Inderjoxv ^-i^jvji and in Sans. T?5"S[^ Indrayavctj 

have a pleasant taste not unlike that of oats, which 
they also resemble somewhat in appearance ; but are 
longer and more slender ; an infusion of them, they 
being previously toasted, is prescribed as a safe and 
gentle restrainer in bowel complaints ; the decoction, 
Rheed tells us, in his Hortus Malabaricus, is em- 
ployed in ardent fever, as also in gout and worm 

The tree grows to a considerable height, with 
leaves about three or four inches long, and one broad, 
ovate, opposite, and pointed : it is the codaga pala 
of Rheede (Hort. Mai. 1. p. 85, 86. t. 47); it also 
grows in Cochin Chinas and in some parts of the 
Russian empire. It is the echites antidysenterica 
(Roxb.) who has given it the English name of 
TelUcherry bark. 


CORAL. Pdvdlvm i_icr^y>LX) (Tam.) Pdghd- 
dum (Tel.) Pocdum (Malay.) Bubdlo (Cyng.) 

* They are contained in round, slender, pendalous follicles, 
each about 9 inches long : two of which are often joined together 
at both ends. The seeds are covered with a kind of co7na or 
downy tuft, somewhat resembling the down of the thistle. 


Goollie JS (Duk.) Moonga lC^^ (Hind.) Bdsed 
j,^ (Arab.) Merjdn ^^^U^ (Pers.) Vidrumd, 
fgf-rJI" also Prdhald q"^J^ (Sans.) Koralen (Dut.) 
Coral (Port.) Corail (Fr.) 


It has been said that red coral, the only kind 
employed in medicine in Europe, was no where to 
be found, but in the Mediterranean sea : it would 
appear, however, by Thunberg's account, that it is 
common in Japan, and there called sangadin^ and I 
believe it is also found on the west coast of Sumatra ; 
where corals of many different colours grow with great 
rapidity ; the yellowish white *, however, is met with 
in the greatest plenty. As an ornament the black 
is most esteemed. De Comyn says, in his " State of 
the Philippine Islands,'' (p. 3d.\ that both the red 
and black coral are found near the islands Samar 
and Bissayas (see Travels, vol. ii. p. 240.) The red 
sort is the gorgonia irobilis^ which according to 
Brande, is composed of a cartilaginous matter with 
carbonate and phosphate of lime, (see his Manual 
of Chemistry, vol. iii. p. 215.) 

We learn from Niebhur (see Travels, vol. ii. p. 240.) 
that the Arabian Gulf is almost filled up with coral ; 
in Europe the most profitable fisheries are those of 
Majorca and Minorca ; on the coast of Sicily ; and 
on the shores of Provence, from Cape de la Couronne, 
to that of St. Tropez. Coral has sometimes been 
employed as an absorbent. The Tamool practi- 
tioners prescribe it when calcined, in cases of Neer 

* This, according to Brande, consists entirely of carbonate of 
lime, with a minute quantity of gelatinous matter. See his Manual 
of Chemistry, vol, iii. p. 21 1. 


Alivoo (Diabetes), and moola cranie (bleeding piles). 
The Arabians place it amongst their Kabizat cA^aJ[3 
(Astringentia,) and Mokewydt-dil j^vi^LJu) (Car- 


Tavernier, in his Indian Voyages (bookii. chap.xx.) 
tells us that there are three places where coral is fished 
on the coast of Sardinia ; viz. at Arguerre, at Boza, 
and at St. Peter : there are also fisheries on the coast 
of France, Sicily, Catalonia, and Majorca. Celsus 
notices corallium amongst those substances which 
harden the body, " Veratrum, album et nigrum, 
corallium, cantharides, pyrethrum, adurunt.^* (Cels. 
Lib. V. p. 208.) The corallium alburn^ a hard, white, 
brittle, calcareous substance, is the nidus of the ma- 
drepora oculata^ class vermes, order lithophyta ; 
it is sometimes exhibited as an absorbent earth. The 
corallium rubrum^ already mentioned, is a hard, 
brittle, calcareous substance, resembling the stalk of 
a plant, and is the habitation of the isis nobilisy class 
Vermes, order Zoophyta : it is given as an absorbent 
in powder, to children. What is called the corallina 
Corsicanay or Corsican worm seed, is the fucus heU 
minthocorton of de la Tourette. This plant has got 
a great name for its power in destroying intestinal 
worms, and, according to Mr. Ure, the pharmacopoeia 
of Geneva directs a syrup to be made of it. 


CORIANDER SEED. Cottamillie G^rr^^LX) 
(ToonS" (Tam. and TeL) Meti/ (Malay.) Cotum- 
haroo (Cyng.) Dunya (Hind, and Beng.) Dhmu 
nian ^.U;^^ (Duk.) ^?2j"]q[^ Dhcinyakd (Sans.j 


Kezerch ^ j-f (Arab.) Kishneez vxixcvf (Pers.) 
D/uma (Guz.) Coriander (Dut.) Coentro (Port.) 
Cottimhiry (Can.) Coriandre (Fr.) Koriander 
Saamen (Ger.) 


CI, and Ord. Pentandria, Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellatag (Lin.) Gemeiver coriander. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol i. p. 448. 

This is an annual, with an erect stem about two or 
three feet in height, having compound leaves, and white 
or reddish flowers. The fruit is too well known to 
require a description here. 

The plant grows in abundance in many parts of 
India, where the seed is used by the natives as a 
carminative, grateful stomachic, and gentle stimulant; 
the dose from a scruple to a drachm. In Nepaul the 
plant is common, and is called danga. In Egypt, 
to which country it is carried from India, it is termed 
hurhara shamie ^li; 2^^.^ J? Celsus, speaking of corian- 
drum, says, '' cbriandrum refrigerat, urinam movet. 
(See Cels. lib. ii. p. 90, 91.) Murray in his Apparatus 
Medicaminum, vol. i. p. 406., recommends an infu- 
sion of the seed, in cases of quartan ague ; he further 
adds, *^ non spernendum ad flatus discutiendos, sto- 
machum roborandum et diaphoresin movendam.'^ 


COWHAGE. Poonaykalie L^syt^crr^^rroNS 
(Tam.) PeeUadiigookriila (Tel.) Kixvdch (Hind.) 

Kaunchkoorikebinge ^ij^ShSzs^'^^ (Duk.) 3iF^5TTT| 
Atmagiiptd also srfCTch^ KapikachUii (Sans.) 


Rawe (Jav.) Kosambiliwail (Cyng.) also Dewipag- 
hura (Cyng.) Cowage (Fr.) Kuhkratze (Ger.) 

DoLicHos Pruriens (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia, Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionacese (Lin.) Jicckende Jaseln. (Norn. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 1041. 

The dolichos pruriens, which is a perennial, 
climbing plant, is a native of India as well as several 
other eastern countries, also of America ; it is the 
cacara pruritus o^^nm^\\\\i^ (amb. vi. p. 393. 1. 142.), 
and the ndi cor ana of the Hort. Mai. (ix. p. 61. 
t. 35.) 

A strong infusion of the root, sweetened with 
honey, is given by the Tamool doctors in cases of 
cholera morbus ; but I do not find that the spiculae 
of the pods are used by them as an anthelmintic ; 
the pod, which is eaten by the natives like any other 
bean, is about four inches long, a little curved, and 
contains from 3 to 5 oval and flattish seeds ; the out- 
side of it is thickly covered with short, bristly, brown 
hairs, which, if incautiously touched, stick to the 
skin, and occasion intolerable itching. Syrup thick- 
ened with the hairs till it is of the consistence of honev, 
is prescribed by European practitioners as an effica- 
cious remedy in most worm cases ; particularly for 
expelling the round worm, lumbricus teres. The dose 
from one tea-spoonful (to a child) to 3 (for an adult) 
given on an empty stomach, to be continued for three 
days, and followed by a brisk purge. For further 
particulars respecting poonaykalie (Tam. j the reader 
is referred to the third part of this work ; 20 species 
of dolichos were growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta in 1814. (See Hort. Beng. p. 35.) There 
is no doubt but that it is simply by their mechanical 


effect that the hairs above mentioned act in worm 
cases ; for as Mr. Murray has justly observed, " neque 
tinctura, neque decoctum inde paratum, eundem 
effectum praestat. (Appar. Medicam. vol. i. p. 44L) 


CRAB, SEA. Kdddil Nundoo e5-L_c5V).n56TOT-(S^ 
(Tarn.) DewipagJmroo (Cyng.) Ccitdn (Malay.) 
Gndndd (Mai.) Samudrapoo Nandralcdia (Tel.) 

Sindhii Karlmtdkd f^^^^^^cfj' (Sans.) Diryalca- 
Iceynlcra l^jClx^lTlj^ (Duk.) Keynlcra (Hind.) 
Sirtan Qjli^^ * (Arab.) Khercheng tsJC;^^^ (Pers.) 
Bras de crevisse (Fr.) Klaua an Krabbe (Ger.) 
Mdundoo (Malealie.) 

Cancer Pagurus (Var.) 

The crab that is commonly met with in India 
differs considerably from what is called the black- 
clawed crab in England ; it is smaller and the claws 
are not so dark-coloured ; yet at the proper season 
the crabs on the Coromandel coast, are excellent 
and much sought after by Europeans ; no part of the 
crab is used by the natives in medicine. The Per- 
sians, it would appear, occasionally employ " crab's 
eyes,'* but more properly called crab's stones, as an 
absorbent, and give them the name of cheshm sirtan ; 
but whether they are exactly the same with those of 
the shops in England, which are concretions found 
in the stomach of the crawfish, {cancer astactcs) I 

* This is more properly speaking the Arabic name for the 
crawfish. To the sea crab the Persians not unfrequently give 
the appellation of ^iL g-I^ punj-paiyeh. 



cannot say. The crab's stones are said to be pro- 
cured in the greatest abundance at Astracan. 


CRESSES, GARDEN. Halim ^^ju (Duk.) 
Re shad j^ Ui^ ( Arab. ) Chunser ^^X:^ ( H ind. ) TureJu 
teziik ^-rj ^ji (Persian.) Halim (Beng.) Cresson 


Lepidium Sativum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia, Siliculosa. Nat. Ord. 
SiUquosae (Lin.) Garten kresse. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 435. 

Garden cresses are rarely cultivated by Europeans 
in India ; the common water-cresses, sisymbrium 
nasturtium (Lin.), are much prized and sought after 
by the Mahometans, who call them in Dukhanie 
loot putiah. Three species of lepidium grow in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta, our article and the 
thlaspi and bonariense. The thlaspi is, I believe, the 
lep. perfoliatum (Willd.) Spec. Plant, vol. iii. p. 43L 
Water-cresses, we are told by Mr. Crawford, were 
some years ago introduced into the eastern islands by 
the English, where they thrive in a most extraordi- 
nary manner, not only in the hills, but in the hottest 
plains. The European vegetables, he adds, which 
succeed best in that Archipelago, are peas, artichokes, 
and cabbages ; carrots which grow so well in India, 
there do not thrive. 

The Arabians place the seed of the garden cresses, 
which they call hurrif ^y^ amongst their Mokerchat 
cX^ji^ (Vesicatoria.) 


CREYAT. Kiridt n^rf^. i jrrg-^/ (Tarn, and Can.) 
Great ^LJ* (Duk.) Kairdtd ^JJ^ (Sans.) Calap- 

nath (Hind.) Kala-megh (Ben.) Nella-vemoo (Tel.) 
Attadie (Cyng.) Create (Fr.) 

JusTiciA Paniculata (Vahl.) 

CL and Ord. Diandria, Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Personatae (Lin.) Rispenblutige justicie. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 89. 

This plant was first brought to the southern parts of 
the Indian peninsula, from the Isle of France, where 
it is highly prized as a stomachic and tonic, and 
forms the basis of the famous French bitter tincture, 
called drogue amere.^ Dr. Fleeming, however, in his 
Catalogue of Indian Plants, informs us, that it is 
also a native of Bengal. The whole of the plant is 
used in medicine, and is intensely bitter, a quality 
which it yields equally to aqueous, vinous, and spi- 
rituous menstrua; it is the cara caniram of Rheed. 
(See Hort. Mai. ix. p. 109. tab. 56.), and is now cul- 
tivated with success in Tihnevelly, as well as in some 
more northern districts, where it occasionally gets 
the name of nella-vaymboo. It seldom rises higher 
than a foot and a half, and is stiff and four-cornered ; 
Vahl tells us that it mav be distin2:uished from all 

* This is much esteemed by the Portuguese inhabitants of 
India as a stomachic and tonic, a particular account of it may be 
found in an old work on the Diseases of Southern India, by a 
Portuguese writer Fra Paolino da san Bartolamee, it is there 
particularly recommended in the disease called, he tells us, shani^ 
or mordexirif also nicomber, and which would appear by its symp- 
toms to correspond with the spasmodic cholera of this day. The 
droga-amara is composed of mastic, thus, common resin, myrrh, 
aloes and creyat-root, for which last sometimes columba-root is 
substituted. Proper proportions of these being taken, the whole 
is steeped in a due quantity of brandy for a month together in the 
sun in dry weather, and then carefully strained and drawn off'. 


others of its genus, by having capsules, compressed, 
flat, and of the same breadth from end to end. For a 
description of the plant, see Flora Indica, p. 119* 
It is growing in the botanical garden of Calcuttci, 
and would appear by ForskahPs account to be com- 
mon in Arabia, and there called -^ Usar. (See his 
** Descriptiones Plant. Florae ^gyptiaco-Arabicae,'* 
p. 4.) 


CUBEBS. Veil mdldghoo (3\jrr(3VTLj5^C5VT@ (Tam.) 
Ciibab chinie i^,^ ^ixT (Hind.) Dumke mirchie 

z^j.^ h:^ (Duk.) Komoonkoos (Malay.) Salava- 
mirrialoo (Tel.) Kebdbeh ^J^jS (Arab.) Wal-gum- 

meris (Cyng.) Sugaiidhd marichu F3J«^^Jr"^^ 

(Sans.) Koebeben (Dut.) Cobebas (Port.) Ku- 
mukus (Jav.) Lada barekor (Malay.) Cubebes (Fr.) 

Piper Cubeba (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diandria, Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Piperitae (Lin.) Cubeben pleffer. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 159. 

The piper cubeba is a native of Java*, where it is 
called cumac, and grows in great luxuriance in the 
woods near tuntang^ and its produce thence sent all 
over Europe. It also grows in Nepault, and is there 
called timmiie and taizbul. It is a very smooth shrub, 
with a jointed flexuous stem, and leaves mostly ob- 
long, entire, and petioled. The cubebs of the shops 

* See Sketches Civil ^nd Military of the Island of Java, 
f See Col. Kirkpatrick*s Account of Nepaul, p. 79. 

VOL. !• H 


are the dried pedicelled berries, which grow in 
clusters on short, peduncled, sohtary spikes, they 
are called dumke merchie in Dukhanie, from the 
spiky tail that is at the end of each grain. This 
pepper resembles the black pepper in size, but is 
somewhat wrinkled ; in colour it is not quite so dark, 
and has less pungency, but not less of an aromatic 

Cubebs are used by the Indian practitioners as a 
grateful stomachic, carminitive, and seasoner : the 
Arabians place them amongst their oL^j^^ Mudorrat 
(Stimulantia.) The Mahometans not unfrequently 
employ them in cases of gleet, and it would appear 
that of late years in Europe, this medicine has been 
considered as powerfully efficacious in gonorrhsea *. 
Mr. Heniy Jeffreys has written on the subject ; his 
work is entitled, Practical Observations on the Use 
of Cubebs in the Cure of Gonorrhasa. He speaks 
highly of the virtues of cubebs, though they would 
appear in some habits to occasion headache and 
nausea ; they are given, he thinks, with the greatest 
success in the more inflammatory forms of the disease, 
nor is their use followed by any of those bad symp- 
toms which occasionally succeed to other modes of 
treatment. He conceives the agency of cubebs to 
resemble in a great measure that of the balsam of 
Copaiva ; they moderate, he adds, inflammation, and 
suppress the quantity of the discharge in a shorter 
time than any other remedy he is acquainted with. 
1'he common dose about half a drachm, or even a 
drachm or more, three times in the day, in the form of 

* See Edin. Medical and Surgical Journals, for January, 1818, 
and Januarj 1819, by Messrs. Crawford and Adams. 


powder. Mr. Crawford * in his History of the Indian 
Archipelago, says, that they are given in Malay 
countries with success in much larger doses, three 
drachms, and repeated during the day, for six or eight 
times. Ten species of piper grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, all oriental plants. 

Besides the virtues of cubebs in gonorrhasa, it 
would appear to have been lately discovered to be a 
most useful medicine, administered in cases of in- 
flammation of the miicits membrane of the intestinal 
canal, given in conjunction with oxyde of bismuth ; 
also in cases of chronic inflammation of the Eso- 
phagus in union with carbonate of soda. See Com- 
munications by Dr. J. Fosbrooke, in Number 102^^ of 
the Medical Repository, and in that for December, 
1822. In Number 100 of the same useful publication, 
p. 3475 the reader will find an account of the ana- 
lysis of cubebs, by M. VauqueUn^ by which they 
appear to contain, 1. a volatile oil, which is nearly 
solid : S. resin, resembling balsam copaiba : 3. a 
quantity of another coloured resin : 4. a coloured 
gummy matter. 

The German and other physicians on the conti- 
nent, at the time that Murray wrote, (at Gottingen 
in 1790,) do not appear to have been at all aware of 
those virtues which cubebs have since been found 
to possess. The distinguished writer just mentioned, 
thinks they may prove serviceable in certain dyspeptic 
affections, and the vertigo consequent on such com- 
plaints. (See Appar. Medicam. vol. v. p. 38.) 

* See his work, vol. i. p. A^65* 

H 2 



CUMIN SEED. Sirdgum ^^t^lo (Tarn.) 
Dooroo (Cyng.) Jeera (Beng.) Zira ^^j (Duk.) 
Zira x^. (Hind.) Kemun /^^^^ (Arab.) Zereh 
JU.J- (Pers.) Jtntan (Malay.) Gilakara (Tel.) 

Jirdkd ^ft"^^ 01' ^Ijdji 3r3TT3ft (Sans.) Jeerdgd 
(Can.) Komyn (Dut.) Cuminho (Port.) Cumin 
(Fr.) Ramischer Kumicl (Ger.) Kummen (Dan.) 

CuMiNUM Cyminum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria, Digynia. Nat* Ord. 
Umbellatae (Lin.) Feinblattriger kreuzlaimmeL 
(Nom. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. 
p. 1440. 

Cumin seeds are in very general use amongst 
the native Indians, equally as a grateful stomachic 
in cases of dyspepsia, and as a season er for their 
curries : they have a peculiar heavy, strong odour, 
and a warm bitterish taste. The plant is an annual 
which seldom rises above eight or ten inches high ; 
is, properly speaking, a native of Egypt, but is cul- 
tivated now in India, though I am inclined to think 
that the greater part of the seed found in the bazars, 
is brought from the sea ports of the Red Sea. The 
plant, however, is growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, introduced from Persia* 

In Malta, where cumin seed is very common, it 
is called cumino aigro^ to distinguish it from anise- 
seed, which they term cumino dolce. Celsus tells us, 
that it is given with advantage in cases in which the 
spleen is affected, " praecipue ad id valet vel trifolii 
semen, vel curainum, vel portulaca."" &c. (See Celsus, 


lib. iv. p. 183.) The French medical practitioners 
esteem these seeds as ^^ excitantes^ carminatives ei 
aperitiveSy^* and formerly considered them as diuretic 
and emmenagogue. * See Deslongchamp's " Manuel 
des Plantes,'* vol. i. pp. ^55^ ^5Q. 


cottay Gr5d^cji_jrrGV-r/iv(205-rrL-.a3)L-- (Tam.) Iii^ 
mat gota ^^f ^i^^ (Hind, and Duk.) Dund. jj^ 
(Pers.) Batoo ^l, (Arab.) Naypahim vittiloo 

(Tel.) Jayapala (Can.) Nepala 5=fq"j^ (Sans.) 

5ori (Malay.) Nepalam (Cyng.), also Dunti heeja 
(Sans.) Cheraken (^Jsiv.) Croton (Fr.) 

Croton Tiglium (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia, Monadelphia. Nat. Ord, 
Tricoccae. Purgier croton. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

These seeds, which were formerly known in Eu- 
rope, under the name of grana moliccca, are about 
the size of a small marble ; and of a convex shape 
on one side, and bluntly angular on the other, enve- 
loped in a thin shell; and are reckoned by the vy- 
tians amongst their most drastic purges j as such, they 
are frequently prescribed by them in maniacal cases, 
and on other occasions, when powerful cathartics are 
required. Their operation is rendered much less 
violent, when cleared of the thin filament in which 
each seed is closely enveloped ; then, the vytians say, 

* I have known the seed produce the happiest effects, when 
employed as an external application, in discussing indolent tu- 
mors in the form of a cataplasm. 

H O 


as much as one seed may be administered as a dose ; 
thoue^h it mav be safer to beo^in with a much smaller 
quantity, given intimately, blended with a little 
I^oney. My friend, Dr. Ingledew, informs me, that 
he gave this medicine in upwards of five hundred 
cases in the Mysore country, and found it a valuable 
and safe purgative ; his dose was seldom more than 
one grain, combined with two of camphor. He 
would not recommend it as a safe purge for children 
lender seven years old, nor for very old people, or 
delicate women. In the first edition of this work *, 
published at Madras, in 1813, I gave the sentiments 
of Dr. White, and Mr. Marshall, of the Bombay es- 
tablishment, regarding the purging croton ; and, 
perhaps, I cannot do better than repeat them now. 
Doctor White observes : — 

" Take the seed of the croton tiglium, after hav- 
*^ ing been each enveloped in a small ball of fresh 
^* cow-dung, about the size of a sparrow's egg, put them 
*.* on some burning charcoal, and allow them to remain 
*' till the cow-dung is burnt or toasted dry, then re- 
*'^ move them, and taking off carefully the shells from 
" the seeds, pound the nuclei, and divide into pills, 
*^ making two out of each grain ; two, or at most three 
*-^ of which are a sufficient dose for an adult ; half a 
** drachm of honey, to two drachms of the mass proves a 
" convenient medium for uniting it. The advantages 
*^ derived from the above mentioned process, are, in 
*^ the first place, it facilitates the removal of the shell ; 
*^ secondly, it renders the nucleus more fit for pound- 
*' ing ; and lastly, the gentle torrefaction it undergoes, 
*^ corrects in a great degree the natural acrimony of 

* In that first edition I was at particular pains to call the at- 
tention of the medical men of the East to this medicine, from 
finding that it was highly prized by the Hindoo doctors, and 
extolled in various sastrums. See Work, pages 95. 292, 293, 294. 


"the nut. The Tamool, Canarese, and Sanscrit 
'^ names W this nut, express its quality of liquefying 
" the contents of the intestines. An intelligent 
" loqui from Benares, tells me, that in his country, 
** they boil the seeds soft in milk, stripping them 
" first of their shells ; after which they pound them, 
*' forming the mass by means of lime juice, at the 
" rate of one pill from each seed; two of these mstking 
" an ordinary dose. A mode in Guzerate is still more 
" simple, consisting merely in pounding the kernels, 
" without any previous operation, and forming, by 
" means of honey, two pills from each nucleus, one 
" of which generally suffices for a strong purge ; at 
" the same time directing a gill of warm water to be 
*^ taken immediately after swallowing the pill : in 
" this preparation the inherent acrimony of the 
" kernel, makes up for the smallness of the dose, 
<* and the water drank above it ensures its speedy 
" operation. 

*^ The following directions are from a learned 
" Per^see vydia^ of Surat. 

" After having removed the shells from the seeds, 
*' tie the kernels in a small piece of cloth, like a bag ; 
*' then put thiis into as much cow-dung- water as will 
*' cover the, bag, and let it boil ; secondly, when 
** boiled, split the kernels in two, and take a small 
" leaf (filiment) from them, which is said to be poi- 
*' sonous; and thirdly, pound the whole into a mass, 
*' to which add two parts oi hatha (catechu), that is, 
" to one drachm of croton, add tw of katha^ and 
" divide into pills of two grains each ; two of which 
** are sufficient for one dose. The addition of tlie 
'^ katlia is said to correct its acrimony altogether, 
*^ and to prevent any griping from ensuing.'^ 

(Signed) D. White, M.D. 

H 4i 


Mr. MarshalPs sentiments on this subject, are the 
folio win Gj : — 

" As far as the employment of the croton nut, in 
** about two hundred instances, authorises me to 
" speak of its powers, I offer the following remarks 
^* as the result of my observation j the cases were all 
*^ those of European soldiers. 

" Two pills, in each half a grain of the mass, 
^^ given to a man of ordinary habit, produce a full 
" purgation, such as is necessary in usual practice, 
** in the beginning of fever ; I esteem this dose as 
" equal in power, to half a drachm of jalap, or to six 
*' grains of calomel. The operation is attended with 
*^ much rumbling of the bowels ; the stools are inva- 
<* riably watry, and copious. In about one case in 
^^ ten, the medicine caused griping, and in about 
" one in thirty, nausea ; but it is very probable that 
*[ similar effects would have arisen in these cases 
" from the operation of any other purgative of equal 
" power. If the patient be weakly, one pill often 
** produces the effects above mentioned ; but in a 
^' healthy subject, the operation of one pill seldom 
^^ affords a motion in less time than six, eight, or 
*^ more hours. In a case of general torpor and coma, 
^^ I produced numerous stools (and not very watry) 
" with three pills. The chief advantage of this 
" purge is, the smallness of the bulk necessary to 
^* obtain the desired effect. In the case of coma, 
"just noticed, it would have been next to impossible 
" to get the patient to swallow a sufficient quantity 
" of almost any other purgative. None of the 
" drastic purges are more certain, none so rapid in 
" their action, nor, I think, so little distressing by 
" griping or nausea. I found the dose of one grain 
" very useful in diseased spleen, where the patients 


*« were obliged to have their bowels daily emptied ; 
" an omission of this precaution being almost inevit- 
" ably followed by a paroxysm of fever ; by manag- 
" ing the exhibition of the medicine, so as to ensure 
" its operation an hour or two before the time of 
" the expected attack, it is almost certainly obviated. 

" To the field surgeon, it is no unimportant re- 
" commendation of this medicine ; that five hundred 
" doses may be contained in a small wafer-box, 
** and purchased for half a rupee/* 

(Signed) Thomas Marshall, Assistant Surgeon. 
Barrachie, near Stcrat, Oct. 28. 1812. 

The expressed oil of the seed called in Tamool 
nervdliim unnay^ is considered as a valuable external 
application in rheumatic affections ; as a piu^ge it has 
been of late years often resorted to in England, and 
is thought to have still more powerful effects as a 
hydragogue, than the torrefied seeds. Mr. Thompson 
tells us, that in some cases merely touching the 
tongue with a drop, has produced many loose stools j 
and in others, doses of one or two minims have ex- 
cited the most frightful hypercatharsis ; although 
some individuals have taken it to the extent of even 
ten minims without any very sensible effect ; he adds, 
from his own experience, that he would be very 
cautious in exhibiting the oil at first in larger doses 
than one or two minims, to adults : in apoplexy, con- 
vulsions, and mania, the croton oil is likely to prove 
a medicine of great value ; a very good mode of 
giving it, is, rubbed up with the mucilage of acacia, 
gum, sugar, and almond emulsion, by which means 
its acrimony is blunted. 

The croton nuts were known to the Arabian phy- 
sicians, by the name of j^// jj (Serap. c. 261.), and 
were formerly brought to England under the name 


oi^ molucca grains. Rumphius informs us, that the 
root of the plant is supposed, by the inhabitants of 
Amboyna, to be a useful drastic purge, in cases of 
dropsy, given rasped in doses of a few grains, or as 
much as can be held betwixt the thumb and finger^, 
and the same writer quotes a letter from Artus Gey- 
selSy one of the Governors of Amboyna, expressive of 
similar virtues in the root, in such affections. The 
last mentioned gentleman thinks, the best way of 
giving the dose above mentioned, is the following : 
" Rg.dix autem haec radenda est, quo subtilius eo 
" melius ac man^ cum vino vel potu arack adsumenda 
** est/^ On Java, the croton nut is well known, 
highly valued, and called by the Javanese cheraken. 
Rheede, who speaks of the plant under the name 
cJd^l avdndciif says, that the leaves rubbed and 
soaked in water also are purgative ; and when dried 
and powdered are a good external application in 
cases of bites of serpents, t Virey in his " Histoire 
** Naturelle des Medicamens,'* tells us, that the 
French call these grains, graines de tilly, and that 
the light wood of the small tree, which they term 
jyavane^ is of a bitter quality, gently emetic, and very 
powerfully sudorific, t 

Of the essential character of the genus, Willdenow 
says. /^ Masculi, cal. cylindricus. 5. dentatus. Cor, 
*' 5. petala. St am. 10. 15. Femineiy cal. polyphyllus, 
" Cor. 0. Styli 3. bifid. Caps. 3. locularis. Sem. 1. 
(Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 531.) 

Our article is a small tree, w^ith a few spreading 
branches, Willdenow observes of it, '' Foliis ovatis 
*^ acuminatis serratis glabris basi biglandulosis, pe- 

* Or it may be given in infusion in arrack. 

f Rheede, Hort. Mai. ii. p. 61. t. ^3. 

:j: See his work, p. 301. - 


*^ tiolis folio brevioribus, racemis terminalibus.'* Tlie 
Flora Zeylanica^ informs us that it has *' leaves ovate, 
*^ smooth, accLiminate, serrate, with an arboreous 
*^ stem/* The flowers are in erect, simple, termin- 
ating racemes, scarcely the length of the leaf; the 
lower ones female, the upper male, and pale co- 
loured. The croton tiglium is a native of China, 
Cochin China, and India, and has been noticed bv 
Laureiro and Gaertner, as well as those writers al- 
ready mentioned. 

No less than fourteen species of croton have been 
discovered in Jamaica, three of which, according to 
Lunan*, appear to be there considered as medicinal, 
viz. the crot. liniare (the powder of the dry leaves 
of which, Barham says, is a specific in colic and cold 
watry indigested humours) ; croton humile (which 
Browne says, in his History of Jamaica, page 347- 
c. 2. is of a very hot and pungent nature, and is fre- 
quently used in baths, and fomentations for nervous 
weakness) ; and lastly, the croton eluteria (the bark 
of which is well known to be the cascarilla bark of 
the shops ; one of the most valuable, if not tJie most 
valuable, of all our light aromatics and tonics, for 
delicate people, with weak digestions). 

The croton seeds and oil, have of late years at- 
tracted much attention amongst the practitioners of 
Europe. The following notices are amongst the 
best. By Dr. John Gordon in the London Medical 
Repository, for January, 1822. By TV. T. Iliff, in 
the same work and Number, page 16. By the same 
in the Number for December, 1 822. This last men- 
tioned gentleman, has analysed the kernels and oil, 
and found that one hundred parts of the first con- 

♦ See his Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 290, 291, 292. 


tained twenty-seven of acrid principle, thirty-three 
of fixed oil, and forty of farinaceous matter. The 
oil itself is composed of forty-five of acrid principle, 
and forty-five of fixed oil. Dr. Nimmo ascertained 
that the alcohol solution was the best vehicle for ad- 
ministering the active principle of the croton oil, and 
gives the following formula. 

alcohol, croton. ^ss. 
syrupi simpl. 
mucil. gum. arab. aa ^ij. 
aquae distillat. ^ss. misce. 

Dr. Carter has given us some excellent chemical 
experiments, on the eflfects of the croton oil, which 
may be found in number 98 of the Medical Repo- 
sitory, page 1. ; and in the Number 102, for June 1822, 
there is a paper I am sure the reader will be much 
pleased with, entitled, ** A Sketch of the Botanical 
Literature of the Croton Tiglium^^^ by John Frost, 
Esq. ; by which it appears that the first correct ac- 
count of this plant, is given in Jacob Robart's work 
called, " Plantarum Historia Oxoniensis Universalis,^' 
published in 1649. 

By an interesting communication which I have 
lately received from India, from Mr. Robert Daly of 
the medical store department of Madras, I learn that 
the croton seed had there proved to be in a singular 
manner emmenagogue : when prescribed by Mr. Un- 
derwood, in upwards of fifteen cases of obstructed 
menses, in the female asylum, it in all of them had 
the desired effect, of bringing on the catarnenia. 



DILL SEED. Saddacooppei ^rh&iLJ6^)LJ (Tarn.) 
Sattacooppa (Cyng.) Sole ^^ ^ (Duk.) Sowa (Hind.) 

Misreyd fsf^^f Sitdsivd gjf^f^q* Sdleyd SJJ^^f 

(Sans.) Suddapa (Tel.) Suva (Guz.) Moongsi 
(Jav.) Buzralshibbet^ C^xil^y (Arab.) 

Anethum Graveolens (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria, Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellat£e. (Lin.) 

This seed, which is sometimes sold in India under 
the name of caraway ; and which Dr. Pearson con- 
siders as a superfluous addition to the materia medica 
list ; is reckoned a very valuable medicine by the 
Tamool practitioners. It is given in infusion, as a 
stomachic, and also as a grateful cordial drink to 
women immediately after lying in. The leaves ap- 
plied warm, and moistened with a little oil, hasten 
suppuration ; the seeds have an aromatic, sweetish 
odour, by no means unpleasant, with a moderately 
warm and pungent taste ; and have been employed 
with success by European practitioners, in the flatu- 
lent colic of infants, in doses of fifteen or twenty 
grains of the powder, also to stop hickup or vomiting. 

To this plant, as it appears in India, Dr. Roxburgh 
has given the name of anethum sowa, considering it 
as a new species. Dr. Rottler, however, has seen no 
necessity for changing the name, and I have gone 
by his decision. Anethum graveolens^ is a native of 
Spain and Portugal, but is now cultivated in Hin- 

* This is more properly speaking the Arabic name for fennel- 
seed — anethum faeniculum. 


doostan ; where the seeds, called sometimes by the 
Brahmins of Lower India, Mishi (Sans.), are fre- 
quently sold in the bazars for caraway-seeds^ but 
they are considerably broader and flatter, and not 
quite so long. The a7iethum panmorium (Kox.)^ has 
a strong resemblance to the an. fceniculurriy and is 
common in Bengal; it is a warm aromatic, and is 
called in Hindoostanie mayuriy and in Sanscrit mad'^ 


DEER, SPOTTED. Pollee maun v^a^^-r" 
Lon-(5ur (Tam.) Sdrdga (Can.) Cheetul y^j,^ (Duk. j 
Doopie (Tel.) Zubbee j^ (Arab.) Gouzun (^o^J 

Cervus Axis (Var.) 

This beautiful species of cervus, is very commoti 
in many parts of India, and is sometimes called by 
writers on mazology, the gangetic stag ; it is com- 
monly about three feet and a half high, of a pale, 
rufous brown colour, spotted with white ; the horns 
are round, slender, erect, with bifid or trifid summits ; 
as venison, it is not worth much, unless when caught 
young and fed properly, then the flesh is delicious. 
The other species of the genus, to be met with in 
Lower India; are, 1. the cervus muntjac (Lin.) or 
rib-faced deer, this has horns rising from a cylin- 
drical hairy base, three-forked, and the upper fork 
hooked ; 2. the cerje des sardennes of Buffbn ; and 
3. the cervus cadaba (Buch. MSS.) which the Ca« 
narese call condagicruvi from its being usually found 
in mountainous situations. 


Of the antelope species. One, antelope orientalis 
(Var.), is verycommon in many parts of the lower pro- 
vinces of India, and is, I believe, not rare in Upper 
Hindoostan ; it is when full grown, a noble and beautiful 
animal, with spiral or lyre-shaped horns, body rufous 
above, and white beneath, with longish ears, and tail ter- 
minating in a tuft of hair ; in its form otherwise, it ap- 
proaches to the a. scripta of Pallas ; Turton has called 
it a. coromandcelieiisis. As venison, it is tough and 
insipid ; in Sanscrit it is 5T5T mriga. Maun (Tam.) 

Ginka (Tel.) Ahoo ^^\ (Pers.) Hitrn (Hind.), also 
tariya. Another species often seen in the Mysore 
country, is, the a. gazella, distinguished by its straight 
horns, which are tapering and wrinkled. A third 
species is the nylghau or white-footed antelope, it is 
the a. picta (Lin.), commonly about four feet in 
height or more ; and partaking in its appearance, of 
a mixture of the ox and deer tribe ; it is found in the 
interior tracts of Hindoostan ; in Tamool it is 
kadumbeij Neelghau ^\S).j3 (Duk.) A fourth spe- 
cies to be met with, is the a. oreas (Lin.), or elk 
antelope, of a grey colour, with tapering horns, 
spirally carinated. A fifth species is the a. trago- 
camelus (Lin.) or Indostan antelope, also grey, with 
a long flocky tail, and dorsal protuberance, it is very 

The musk deer, moschus moschiferus, is to be 
found in the Sirmoor or Nahan country, in Upper 
India. The beautiful small species m. pygmceus is 
common in Lower India. * 

^ It is not larger than a domestic cat ; of a bay colour with 
slender legs, and has a head large for the rest of the body ; its 
aspect is mild, and habits gentle ; the English in India sometimes 
call it improperly hog deer : it has rarely been known to survive 
a voyage to England. Mr. Elphinston, in his excellent Account of 



DITTANY OF CRETE. Bucklutulgezal \\y\s^, 

(Arab.) Dictame de Crete (Fr.) 

Origanum Dictamnus (Lin,) 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia, Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae (Lin.) Diptam dosten. (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) 

The dittany of Crete, 1 have never seen in India ; 
and have merely given it a place here, from finding 
that though now in a great measure exploded from 
our Mat. Med. it is still esteemed by the Arabians, 
and Persians, who class it amongst their Mokewyat- 
meoadeh^ ^.yj^^^jj^^ (Tonica.), and Mw^/orr^/ (Sti- 

mulantia.) It is a perennial plant, with a hairy stalk, of 
a purple colour, seldom more than nine inches high, 
and having thick, round, white, woolly leaves. The 
ancients prized it highly, and amongst others, Virgil 
sang its praises, and Cicero notices it in his work, 
" De Natura Deorum.^^ Celsus reckoned it em- 
menagogue, and alexipharmic ; the leaves have been 
given in substance from half a drachm to a drachm ; 
and in infusion, to the quantity of half an ounce for 
a dose. Dr. Thornton seems to think that the real 

Cabul, says, that the most remarkable animal of the deer kind he 
saw in that country, was there called patvzun / , y.lj distinguished 

by the great size of its horns, and the strong, but not unpleasant 
smell of its body. See his work, page 142.; and Dr. T. Hamilton, 
in his Account of the District of Puraniya, says, that he there 
met with the cerfe des sardennes of BufFon, MSS. 

* For the opinion of the Arabians on this subject, the reader Is 

referred to an Arabic medical work, entitled ^yw.Ax3 ^yi* 


virtues of this plant are hitherto but little understood; 
it is a native of Crete, and has a piercing, aromatic 
odour, and pungent taste. The bastard dittany, as it 
has been called by Gerarde, and which is the Jra^i- 
7ielle of the French, and the white dittany of Par- 
kinson, has been sometimes confounded with our 
article, but is altogether different ; it is the dictamnus 
albus (Lin.), CL and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. 
Nat. Ord. Multisiliquas. The whole plant when 
gently rubbed emits an odour not unlike lemon-peel; 
but when bruised has somethinsc of a balsamic scent. 
It is a native of Spain, and has been called by the 
Arabians ^^^ ^^LjCiLo being considered antiepileptic 
and vermifugey in doses of one scruple, twice daily. 
The common marjoram does not grow in India, but 
the species majorana or sweet maijoram is growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta ; the leaves and 
tops of it have a moderately warm bitter taste ; the 
plant itself is supposed to possess virtues in nervous 
affections. Mr. Phillips says, that Hartman declares, 
that it restores the sense of smelling when lost ; and 
cites Woodville for its successful application in 
cases of schirrous tumour. On the subject of the 
dittany of Crete, Celsus gives this singular opinion : 
" Infantum vero mortuum, aut secundas expellit 
*^ aquae potio, cui salis ammoniac!, p. xi, aut cui 
" dictamni cretici adjectum est.'* Cels. lib, v^ 
cap. XXV. 


DRAGON'S BLOOD. Kanddmoorgaritlinn 

57n-6rRT'._rrLl5^AQ/t^cr5"S"LO (Tam.) Catgavworgum 
VOL. r. I 


nitooroo (TeL) Cdtitkamrigarakta '^T^J^^PIT^ 
(Sans.) Damuldkhwain ^^^L:i (Arab, and Duk.) 
also idarumie ^r^Jt^S*^-^' (Arab.) Khunisydwashdn 
Q^Li^UA^.(^^3.^ (Pers.) Heraduky (Hind.) Sang- 
dragon (Fr.) Jaranang (Palembang.) 

Calamus Draco (Willd.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Tripetaloideae (Lin.) Drachenhlutgebender rotang 
(Norn. Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. 
p. 203. 

This dark-red coloured, inodorous, and insipid 
resin, would appear to be often confounded with 
kino by the native doctors of Lower India ; as both, 
on being presented to a hakeem, get the name of 
dumidackwaynj and both, on being shewn to a vytian, 
are called kandamoorgarittum ; they mutually con- 
sider it as a&tringent, which, however. Dr. Duncan, 
junior, tells us, the true dragon's blood is not. I am 
inclined to think, however, that genuine kino is but 
partially known in the peninsula of India. 

It w^ould appear that different trees yield dragon's 
blood. Mr. Thomson, in his London dispensatory, 
informs us, that it is got from the pterocarpus draco 
(Lin.), which is a native of South America *, it also 
exudes from the lingoa (Rumph.), which is the 
pterocarpus indicus (Willd.), and there is no doubt 
but that it is obtained from the calamus dracof of the 
eastern islands, by wounding the bark of the tree. 
The dragon's blood which is met with in Indian 
bazars is brought from Kang Kow, and also from 

* It appears by Dr. Horsfield's account of Java medicinal 
plants, that the pterocarpus draco also grows in Java, and is there 
called kayu-sonno or ansa?i ; the bark is an astringent. 

f It is the palmijuncus draco (Rumph.) amb. 5. p. 1 14. t. 5S. 


PassteVy on the coast of Borneo, where Mr. Elmore * 
says it is procured of a finer quality than in any other 
part of the world ; also from Macassar^ on Celebes ; 
but chiefly manufactured, Mr. Crawford tells us, 
at Jambij Palembang^ and Banjarmassin ; at the se- 
cond mentioned of these places it is called laranang. 

LangsdorfF, in his Voyages and Travels, p. 16., 
observes, that the tree which produces the dragon's 
blood is a native of the Canarv Islands ; and Nieb- 
hur mentions it as growing in Hydramautj a province 
of Arabia Felix. (Travels, vol. ii. p. IO7.) 

Dragon's blood having been ascertained not to be 
astringent, has been discarded as a medicine by Eu- 
ropean practitioners. Alibert in his " Nouveaux 
<^ Elemens de Therapeutique,'' (vol. i. p. 173.) says, 
** Toutefois il faut Pavouer sa reputation est un peu 
** d'echue.*' The Tamool doctors recommend a 
solution of it in arrack as an external application to the 
head and temples in cases of syncope. It is occasion- 
ally used in the arts in Europe for staining marble 
red, and may be distinguished from kino by being 
inflammable and fusible, and emitting an acid vapour 
like that of benzoin. 

The dalbergia monetaria (Lin.), a shrub and native 
of Surinam, yields a resin very similar to dragon's 

The Arabians give dragon's blood a place amongst 
their Kabizat ^Lajli- (Astringentia), and Avicenna, 

(p. 160.), tells us that its Arabic name signifies the 
blood of two brothers. 

See his Directory and Guide to the Indian Trade, p,^9. 
t See Beckman's Voyage to Borneo. 

I 2 



DUCK. Waat ^Q^\^(y^_^rr^^ (Tam.) Batoo 

(Tel.) Badak oj^ (Duk.) Mitrgdh ,Ji^y>, (Pers.) 
Awaz .J (Arab.) Vdrcitd ^T^ (Sans.) Canard 


Anas Domestica. 

The tame duck in India differs in nothing from 
the same animal in Europe ; as food, it is considered 
as nourishing and stimulating, too much so, perhaps, 
for such as are in delicate health. Of the wild duck 
there are many species * in eastern countries, several 
of which, I am inchned to think, nay know, have not 
hitherto been scientifically described ; the most prized 
in the Carnatic for the table, is a small variety of the 
anas boschaSy distinguished by much blue in the 
wings, and by being rarely in the slightest degree 
fishy to the taste ; its names are the following : — 
Neerwaat (Tam.) Neela batoo (Tel.) Jangalibadak 
o^Xj^XSCx^ (Duk.), and Siirkhdb ^^U^^ (Pers.) What 
is called the brahminy duck by the English on the 
Coromandel coast, is nearly as large as the Muscovy 
tluck (anas moschata), but is a much more beautiful 
bird, being in colour a brownish yellow, spotted 
with black, though this I have found to vary ; it is 
seldom brought to table, being somewhat strong in 
flavour. The Mahometans term it i^yi^,^ it is in 
Tamool, pdpdrdtdrd vdtj and in Tellingoo bdpdnd- 
batoo. The vytians suppose that the flesh of ducks 

* Dr. F. Hamilton found in the Piiraniyn district, the following 
species : songhas (anas clypeatus), dighong^ (anas acuta), and 
salmuriya (anas fciina.) MSS. 


has a tendency to produce flatulence and indigestion. 
I perceive that Aghastier in his Medical Sastrum, 
AgJiaslier Vytia AnyoiiroOy cautions the delicate 
against the use of it. 


EGG, YOWlJ^.KoraymootayQ^rri^^^i^Qiy) 
(Tarn.) Gooddoo (Tel.) Beejoo (Cyng.) A7idd j^-^ 

(Duk.) Bayzah a>^xj (Arab.) Tooldm ^^j (Pers.) 

^Anda '^^r:Z (Sans.) " (Eiif (Fr.) 


The eggs of the common fowl, are, perhaps, a little 
smaller in India than they are in Europe, but ex- 
cellent. There is, however, a large variety of the 
gallus domesticiiSj reared chiefly by the Moormen, 
which lays eggs as big as those of northern countries. 
The vytians consider fowls' eggs as aphrodisiac, and 
powerfully tonico See Aghastier Vytia Anyouroo. 

The Brahmins do not eat eggs, as they contain, 
the germ of life ; but many of the inferior casts of 
Hindoos do. Besides those of the common fowl, 
the eggs of the jungle fowl are much prized (gallus 
indicus)*; as are also those of the pea-hen (pavo 
cristatus), which are frequently brought from the 
woods in the northern circars. (See article. Fowl, 
Common, in this chapter.) An egg consists of the 
shell, which is composed of carbonate of lime 7^5 
phosphate of lime 2, gelatine 3, water 23 ; a thin, 
white, strong, membranous animal substance ; the 
albumen, which, from its coagulabiUty, is used for 

"* Gallus sonneratiij (Tern.) 

I 3 


clarifying liquids, and when beaten with alum, forms 
the alum used for inflamed eyes ; and lastly the 
yolk, which consists of an oil of the nature of fat oil, 
and which is used for rendering resins and oils dif- 
fusible in water. 


ELDER, COMMON. Uktee ^xi1 (Arab.), also 
Khamdn (.3U^ (Arab.) Sureaii ordinaire (Fr.) 
Fliederblumen (Ger.) Samhuco (It.) Sabuco (Sp.) 

Sambucus Nigra (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Dumosae. Gemeiner hollunder. (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1494. 

The elder tree is little known in India, though 
I perceive that it was growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta in 1815. The Arabians and Syrians 
appear to be well acquainted with it, and consider 
the inner green bark of its trunk as aperient and 
deobstruent ; the same part of the tree in the days of 
Sydenham, was given by the practitioners of Europe, 
in wine, in doses of from ten grains to half a drachm, 
in cases requiring hydragogue purges. * The sam- 
bucus nigra is a native of many parts of Europe and 
also of Japan. Dr. Horsfield, in his account of Java 
Medicinal Plants, informs us, that a species of sam- 

* The berries were in former times given in fevers, also in gout and 
rheumatism. The flowers, which have a peculiarly faint and sickly 
odour, are chiefly used in fomentations and cooling ointments. 
Alibert recommends them in infusion at the commencement of 
inflammation of the throat. Elemens de Therapeutic, vol. ii. 
p. 213. 


bucus grows in that island, and is there called patri- 
*wuldn; the natives use it as a diuretic. I perceive 
by Micliele^s Delia Corcirese Flora^ p. 39, that another 
species of sambucus, (s. ebulus,) common at Corfu, is 
supposed to possess virtues similar to those of the 
s. nigra, and to be more especially indicated in drop- 
sical cases. 

The elder tree is very bushy, with numerous 
branches, seldom rising higher than sixteen feet, 
with opposite leaves, unequally pinnate, and cream- 
coloured, sweet scented flowers. 


ELECAMPANE. Ussululrasun ^^SjSSy^l (Arab.) 
Bekhizanjabilishdmi woLiJ^AX^^j^^t- (Pers.) Inule 
aulnee fFr.) Alantwurzel (Ger.) 

Inula Helenium (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Compositae discoidese. See Spec. Plant. Willd. 
vol. ii. p. 2089. 

The Arabic and Persian names here given, are 
those of the root, the only part of the plant that is 
used in medicine ; it does not appear, however, to 
be at all known to the Hindoo doctors. The Ara- 
bians place it amongst their Advtyaheezeh A^oLxib^^j^l 
(Stomachica.) It also seems by Thunberg's account 
(Travels, vol. iii. p. 202.), to be considered as sto- 
machic by the Japanese. 

Elecampane root has an aromatic and slightly 
fetid odour ; when chewed, the taste is at first dis- 
agreeable, glutinous, and somewhat resembling rancid 

I 4 


soap, and then aromatic, bitter, and hot. Formerly it 
used to be prescribed in dyspepsia, pulmonary com- 
plaints, and palsy, in doses of from a scruple to a 
drachm ; of late years it is nearly discarded from the 
British works on the materia medica. The ancients ^ 
considered it as alexipharmic, and ordered it in 
putrid fevers. Dr. Pearson is of opinion, that it is 
the least efficacious of all the bitters. The French 
of these days, prepare with it a wine t (vin d'aulnee), 
which they occasionally give as a stomachic. 

The inula helenium, is a perennial plant, with a 
leafy, round stem, and seldom rises higher than three 
feet, having large, ovate, serrated leaves, solitary, 
golden coloured flowers, and a thick branched root 
of a greyish colour. 


EUPHORBIUM. ShadraykidUe paal g-^^^rr^ 
ejovnrovt^i— 'Ljrrov) (Tanl.) Bontcyemmodoopaloo 
(Tel.) Saynd ka dood ^^:^\:^^j,^ (Duk.) Akal nafsah 
^u^iJ j^ri (Arab.), also farfiyun qj^^ (Arab.) Z)a- 
lookgahehkerry (Cyng.), also according to Forskhal, 
gholak and kala ^\3 (Arab.) Nara-sJiij (Hind, 
and Beng.) Eiiphorbe (Fr.) Euphorhium (Ger.) 
Vcyrakshira ^^^"5[] vctjrdkdntakd ^^^P^"^ 

Euphorbia Antiquorum (Lin.) 

* This plant, according to PJiny (Nat. Hist. lib. xxi. cap. xxi.), 
first sprang from the tears of Helena. It is supposed, by his ac- 
count, to preserve beauty and make the skin fair, and also to pro- 
cure mirth and make the heart merry ! ! 

t See " Manuel des Plantes Usuelles/' vol. i. p. 291. 


CI. and Ord. Dodecandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricocc^ (Lin.) Wahre wolfsmilch. (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 881. 

The milky juice got by wounding the branches of 
the shadraykullie (Tarn.) is extremely corrosive, but 
when boiled with a small quantity of gingilie oil *, the 
native practitioners use it as an external applica- 
tion in rheumatic affections : they also employ it to 
deaden the pain of the tooth-ache: internally, a 
little diluted, it is administered by them as a purge 
in those cases of obstinate constipation, which are 
often troublesome when there is an enlargement and 
induration of the spleen or liver. 

It would appear that the milky juice of several 
species of euphorbia, when hardened, becomes the 
euphorbium of our shops. Miller seems to think 
that it is from the euphorbia canariensis (Lin.) that 
the drug now imported into England is chiefly 
taken. Linnaeus thought that the dried juice of the 
euphorbia officinarum should alone be used ; and 
this it would appear is the plant described by Mr. 
Jackson as producing the euphorbium in Morocco j 
and which Bruce in his travels mentions under the 
name of KolUQuall. Mr. Jackson t says that the 
Arabs and Sheilas call the plant dergmusey and 
that in the lower regions of mount Atlas, the inhabi- 
tants collect the concreted gum-resin, which they call 
fiurhidne^ in September. 

The euphorbia antiquorum X or triangular spurge, 
grows in many parts of India, rising sometimes to 

* Prepared from the seeds of the sesamum orientale. 

•)• See his account of the empire of Morocco, p. 81. 

X Pliny tells us that this plant was first discovered by Juba, 
king of Mauritania, wlio gave it the name of his own physician, 
EuphorbiiS) brother to the learned Musa, physician to Augustus 


the height of twelve feet, and sending out numerous 
irregular, spreading, twisting branches, in general 
three-cornered, but having some two, and others four 
angles ; at their extremities are several very minute 
roundish leaves, or rather tubercles, which soon fall 
off, and near these, come out now and then, a few 
crimson-coloured flowers, which have five gibbous, 
thick, truncated, whitish petals. The plant is the 
Schadidacalli of Rheede (Hort. Mah ii. p. 81.), and 
the Siidusudu of the Malays : one Sanscrit name of 
it in Lower India is Tidhdray and the Arabic one 
Zekoom -y^ it is common on Ceylon (Flor. Zeyl. 

199-); ^^ Bengalie and Hindoostanie it is called 

Euphorbium used formerly to be administered by 
European practitioners in dropsical cases, and Shro- 
der informs us (p. 780.), that he gave it in doses of 
from 5 to 10 grains ; but owing to its violent effects, 
it is now exploded or nearly so : diluted with any inert 
powder, it is supposed to be an excellent errhine in 
lethargy, amaurosis, palsy, &c. Orfila places eu- 
phorbium amongst his poisons.* The Arabians rank 
this substance amongst their Moosilat balgham 
^xL vi^^J^A/wwc (Phlegmagoga) and Mokerehat c^\jjio 
( Vesicatorid). See a Persian medical work intitled 

^jSi:^ ^T^^^W >?^' Tejur Jamasp Hawkim. The 
French writer Loiseleur DesLonchampst gives no less 
than six species of euphorbia which might be used 
as substitutes for ipecacuanha; the best would appear 

Caesar ; the juice of the plant in those days was considered as a 

valuable external application to the crown of the head in cases of 

bites of serpents, Nat. Hist. lib. xxv. cap. vii. 
* See ** Traite des Poisons" (vol. ii. part. i. p. 35.) 
f See "Manuel des Plantes UsuelleS; &c. vol. ii. p. 10. Premier 



to be the euph. gerardiana, the powdered root of 
which vomits easily in doses of eighteen or twenty- 
grains. Virey*, in his " Histoire Naturelle des 
MedicamenSy^^ says that the euphorbia heptagona of 
Ethiopa is a mortal poison, and that the natives of 
that country poison their arrows with the juice of it. 
For an account of the chemical analysis of the 
famous American emetic euph. ipecacuanha, the 
reader is referred to Barton's ^^ Vegetable Mat. 
Med. of the United States^^ vol. i. p. 263. appendix. 
Orfila supposes the poison of euphorbium to have 
a local action, capable of exciting inflammation, and 
equally operating on dogs and men. See his work 
vol. ii. p. 35. 


Gf^LDLo^LD (Tarn.) also Woomce mdrum (Tam.) 
Soimtdo (Tel.) LJy^j^j (Hind. Swamy (Can.) Pa- 
trdngd '^^J^ (Sans.) Rohun (Beng.) 

SwiETENiA Febrifuga (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Trihilatae (Lin.) Fieberrinden Mahagonibaum. 
(Nom. Triv. WiUd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. 
p. 557. 

The swietenia febrifuga, like all the other species 
of its genus, is a lofty tree, common in the Raja- 
mundry circars ; in the Cuddapa district, particularly 
near Chlttwail; and in Chunar ; it is also a native of 

* See his work, p. 299. 


Siam. The tree was first brought to the notice of 
European professional men by Dr, Roxburgh, who 
discovered that its bark was a good tonic in inter- 
mittent fever : given to the extent of four or five 
drachms in the twenty-four hours I have found it to 
be a useful medecine, but beyond that quantity, it, in 
every instance in which I tried it, appeared to me to 
derange the nervous system, occasioning vertigo and 
subsequent stupor. 

The bark is of a dingy red colour, and has a 
rather pleasant, bitter taste, with a slight degree of 
austerity ; it breaks easily, and is covered externally 
with a roughish, grey, inert epidermis ; its virtues are 
extracted by water, both in infusion and decoction ; 
but its tincture is, perhaps, the most valuable of 
all its preparations, when the bark is good as a 

Our article with three other species are growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta ; the tree is 
commonly known on the Coromandel coast under the 
name of red wood tree^ which its Tamool name im- 
plies ; it is, as already observed, large, with a straight 
trunk and numerous branches, leaves alternate and 
abruptly pinnated, leaflets opposite, very short and 
petiolated, with a panicle very large, terminating, 
diffuse ; it bears a great number of white, inodorous 
flowers : of the genus, Willdenow says, " Cal. 5. 
fidus. Petala 5. Nectar, cylindricum ore anthe- 
ras gerens. Caps. 5. locularis, lignosa, basi dehis- 
cens. Sem. imbricata, alata.'' For further par- 
ticulars regarding this new medicine, the reader is 
referred to Dr. Duncan's admirable inaugural disser- 
tation, published in Edinburgh in 1794, and also to 
an Essay on it by Mr. Breton in the Medico-Chi- 
rurg. Trans, vol. xi. p. 324. 


Various barks have at difFe^'ent times been recom- 
mended as substitutes for the cinchona of the shops ; 
in India the bark of the melia azadirachta has been 
ascertained to possess powerful tonic and antifebrile 
virtues (see article Vaypum puttay in Part II. of this 
work), as has also that of the cinchona excelsa 
(Roxb.) see article Pundharoo (Tel.) in the same 
part. The bark of the tuna tree (Cedrela Tuna*, 
Roxb.) is well known to have similar qualities, and 
is in great repute amongst the Hindoo doctors of the 
circars : it is extremely astringent, but not particu- 
larly bitter ; for the use of the flowers, and the wood 
of this tree in the arts, the reader is referred to 
another part (iii.) of this work. Mr. Gray in his 
supplement to the Pharmacopoeias (p. 69) informs us 
that the bark of the achras sapota is very astringent, 
and we know that it was at one time supposed to be 
the Jesuits Bark itself, though Mr. Miller says, its 
effects when given to the negroes were not such as 
to encourage repetition. The bark of the magmolia 
glaiicuy has sometimesbeenhad recourse to for a similar 
piu'pose. Humboldt, in his political Essays on the 
Kingdom of New Spain (vol. ii. p. 402), tells us that 
" at Mexico, it is believed that the Portlandia Mexi- 
" cana, which was discovered by M. Sesse, might 
^' serve as a substitute for the quinquina of Loxa ; 
" as is done in a certain degree by the Port, hex- 
'' andria, at Cayenne, by the bonplandia trifoliata 

* This a very large tree with an erect stem, which is smooth 
and grey, the leaves are alternate, abruptly pinnate, drooping and 
about twelve or thirteen inches long; leaflets from six to twelve 
pair, opposite or nearly so ; short, petioled : flowers numerous, 
small, white, and smell like fresh honey. (See Roxburgh's Cor, 

PI. vol. iii. p. 33.) The tree is Toonmarum (Tam.) Toon , ^^h 

(Hind.) Siireji (Malay) Ttinna^ Tuni (Sans.) It is common in the 
Islands of the Indian Archipelago. 



(Willd.) on the banks of the Oronoko, and the 
Swietenia febrifuga of Roxburgh in India/' 
The genus cinchona, of which twenty-four 
species have been described, Mr. Thomson, with 
much truth, observes is still involved in considerable 
ambiguity. Alibert, in his " Nouveaux Elemens de 
Therapeutique," notices no less than twenty-five 
species, those, however, which have hitherto more 
especially attracted the notice of medical men, are 
the three which supply the pale, yellow, and red 
bark, in other words the cin. lancifolia, cin. cordi- 
folia, and cin. oblongifolia. The component parts 
of the first, according to Pelletier's account, are 
I. Cinchonine a salifiable base combined with kinic 
acid. II. Green fatty matter. III. Red and yellow 
colouring matter. IV. Tannin. V. Kinate of lime. 
VI. Gum. VII. Starch, and VIII. Lignin. In the 
cin. cordifolia or yellow bark, Caveiitou discovered 
also a salifiable base, which he termed Quinine. In 
the red bark (an oblongifolia) the two salifiable bases 
are found to be united, viz. the cinchonine and 
quinine. The cin. lancifolia is supposed to be that 
which affords the real and original cinchona of Peru 
or pale bark ; it is now very rare, but it is power- 
fully febrifuge. The red bark, although it possesses 
great astringency and antiseptic qualities, is not sup- 
posed to be so directly febrifuge. The yellow bark 
(cin. cordifolia,) is not so austere as the last men- 
tioned, but is more bitter, and was considered 
by Mutis and Zea as only indirectly febrifuge; 
when good, however, all its varieties are excellent 

Before concluding I shall simply mention that for 
arresting intermittent fever. Dr. Finlayson found the 



three following roots in use amongst the Siamese,^ but 
of what plants it is not said, maudayngy Si fankJion- 
thei and Paak-faakj which last is supposed to be the 
root of the sappan wood. Of late years the rha- 
tany root has been much extolled for its virtues in 
intermittent fever, particularly by Doctors Reece, 
Marris, Nisbet, &c. some of whom are of opinion 
that it approaches nearer to the Peruvian bark than 
any other medicine ; of the extract five or ten 
grains are given twice daily ; of the powder the 
dose is from ten grains to thirty. The Peruvians 
esteem this root as tonic and stomachic, and call the 
tree Ratanhia^ (See Flora Peruviana, vol. iv. p. 61.) 
it is the krameria triandria, (Ruiz.). Whatever may 
be the medicinal properties of the root it would ap- 
pear that Mr. Peschier has lately discovered that it 
contains a distinct substance to which he has given 
the name of krameric acid. (Journal de Pharmacie, 
vi.) The Rhatanise radix we learn from that va- 
luable journal, the London Medical Repository (No. 
120, p. 498.) is not only employed medicinally by 
the inhabitants of Lima, but the Portuguese there 
use it for improving the colour, astringency and rich- 
ness of their wines. Dr. J. Curry of Guy's Hos- 
pital found the tincture of this root of great efficacy 
in diarrhoea. According to Vogel, it consists of 
tannin 40. gum. 1.5. fecula 0.5. ligneous fibre 48. 
water and loss 10. 

* I mention this in the hope, and with a most sincere wish, that 
interesting and minute research may soon be made respecting the 
medicinal plants of Siam and the adjacent countries, which hold 
out a fair and ample field for valuable discoveries. 



e^QCD^s^rrejLD (Tam.J Nulla gilakdra (Tel.) 
Kaloodooroo (Cyng.) Krishna-jiralca ^i^iTT^ftl^^ 
(Sans,) Kolunjen ^xXf (Dak.) Krda lira (Hind.) 
SJioonez ^J^xi (Arab.) Seeah-dcinah ^S:^ jiU^ (Pers.) 
Gemein Nigelle (Ger.) 

NiGELLA Sativa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Pentagynia. Nat. Ord. 
Multisiliquas (Lin.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. 
p. 1248. 

These small, dark-coloured, aromatic, pleasant- 
tasted seeds, somewhat resemble large grains of gun- 
powder, and are used by the natives as a carminative 
in cases of indigestion, and in certain bowel com- 
plaints ; they are also prescribed as an external ap- 
plication, mixed with gingilie oil, in eruptions of the 
skin : the natives use much of this seed as a seasoner 
for their curries, ^nd have a notion that when it is 
put amongst linen, it keeps away insects : another 
Hindooie and Sanscrit name for the plant or seed, is 
mugrda. The nigella sativa is, by ForskahPs* account, 
a native of Egypt, and is there called s^^A^ ^^.:^ Hdhb 
Saiide. There is a species of nigella (N. Indica), a 
native of Hindoostan, the seeds of which nearly re- 
semble those of tlie N. sativa in appearance and 
natural qualities, and the same names are given to 
both ; this with another species are growing in tlie 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

* See his Medicina Kahirina. 




gum Gl-j€5'^^^^ld (Tarn.) Dewadooroo (Cyng.) 
Pedda^gillakdra (Tel.) MMhurikd^^fK^^ (S^im.) 
SonfUu^ (Duk.) Mayuri (Hind.) Bddeeyan (j^L*^Ij 

(Pers.) Razeeanuj ^^^ij^j (Arab.) Adas (Jav.) 
Fenouil (Fr.) 

Anethum Fceniculum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. Urn- 
bellatae (Lin.) Fenchel Dill (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1469. 

The fragrant, warm, aromatic seeds of the sweet 
fennel, the Magaflgoi/, of the Greeks, are much used 
by the native practitioners as a carminative and sto- 
machic ; they are, however, very apt to be confounded 
with the anise seed, (which is not common in tlie 
southern parts of India,) and get indiscriminately 
the same name ; in like manner they are often called 
by the French, Anis douce. The plant is cultivated 
in Bengal, and has had the scientific name of Ane- 
thum Panmorium bestowed upon it, by Dr. Rox- 
burgh, who believed it to be a new species ; Dn 
Rottler, however, considers it as only a variety of the 
Anethum Foen. 

Dr.Thornton tells us that these seeds* are supposed 
to be efficacious in promoting the secretion of milk ; 
a late writer on the mat. med. (Mr. Gray t), informs 

* They were in great repute at one time amongst the French 
physicians, who considered them as aperient, sudorific, and 
diuretic. See Deslongchamps Manuel des Plantes Usuelles, vol. i. 
p. 271. 

•j" See his Supplement to the Pharmacopeias, p. 92, 93. 

VOL. I. K 


US, that the root is aperient and the leaves diuretic ; 
naj, indeed, we know that the root is one of the five 
opening roots as they were once called. Mr. Philips, 
in his work on cultivated vegetables, informs us, that 
tlie leaves in decoction have been said to strengthen 
weak eyes; Boerhaave thought that the virtues of 
the root corresponded wdth those of ginseng ; the 
Romans took an infusion of the seed in wine, as a 
remedy for scorpions' stings. Celsus seems chiefly to 
dwell on their virtues as a carminative and diuretic. 
*f * Feniculum vero, et anethum, inflationes etiam le- 
vant: urinam autem movent, apium, ruta, anethum.*' 
Vide Cels. lib. ii. cap. xxv. xxxi. 


FENUGREEK. Vendium G^unsg-LuLO (Tam.) 
'Mentuloo (Tel.) Oolowa (Cyng.) Mentia (Can.) 
Helbeh ^uS^ (Arab.) Shemlit J^xJ^ (Pers.) ATe/yie 
^^^^xA) also Moothee (Duk. Hind, and Sans.) Al/br- 

vas (Port.) Menta Soppu (Can.) Metheeshak 
(Beng,) Fenugrek (Fr.) 

Trigonella Fosnum GRiECUM (Liu.) 


CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papihonaceae (Lin.) Gemeiner KuhJiornk (Nom.Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 1398. 

The seeds of the fenugreek have rather an un- 
pleasant odour, with an unctuous farinaceous taste, 
accompanied with a degree of bitterness ; they are 
much used by the native practitioners of India in 
dysenteric complaints ; and are commonly given in 
infusion, having been previously toasted. The plant 


is indigenous in India, and by Forskahrs account, is 
much cultivated in the neighbourhood of Cairo. 
The modern Arabs consider the seeds as suppurative 
and emoUient, preparing with them poultices and 
fomentations. The Helbeh seeds are frequently 
brought to the Malabar coast as an article of trade 
from the sea ports of the Red Sea ; and grow abun- 
dantly in Barbary, Spain, and France. Of the genus 
Trigonella, Willdenow says shortly, '^veMllum et 
alae subsequales, patentes, forma corollse tripetalse." 
The species in question is an annual, rising with a 
hollow herbaceous, branching stalk, with oblong, 
oval indented leaflets, and white flowers, coming out 
singly at each joint from the axils, it is growing with 
another species, the Piring (Beng.) trig, cornicu- 
lata, in the botanical garden of Calcutta. Sonnini, 
in his Travels in Egypt (chap, iii.), informs us, that the 
inhabitants of Rosetta prepare a kind of coffee, by 
toasting the seed of the fenugreek, to which they 
add a little juice of lemon. 


FIG. Simie at tie pulhnn ^OT)IjD£ij gr g^L-' L-'Ovo-lo 

(Tam.) Maydipoondoo (Tel.) Urijeer ^^j\ (Pers. 

and Duk.) Teen ^^xJ (Arab.) Rata Atttka (Cyng.) 

Udumvdrd 32"5^^"^ (Sans.) Vygen (Dut.) Figos 

(Port.) Figue (Fr.) 

Ficus Carica (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord. 
Scabridae. Gemeine Feige (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 1931. 

K 2 


The figs which grow in India, though they are 
sufficiently sweet and palatable, are very inferior in 
richness of flavour to those of Turkey, or the south- 
ern parts of Europe ; nor are the natives in the habit 
of drying or preserving them. The vytians pre- 
scribe figs in consumptive cases ; the Arabians place 
them amongst their Mobehyat ci^^^jyo ( Aphrodisiaca) 

and Munzyat cA^^^ (Suppurantia.) The tree is 
called Doomoor in Bengalie, and is too well known to 
be botanically described here ; it, with thirty-four 
other species, are growing in the botanical garden of 

For the opinions of the Persians regarding this 
fruit, the reader may consult a medical work, written 
by Ismael Ben Hussein, Ben Mohamed Jorany, en- 
titled ^Li ^fj^y=^ 2ij^^^ Zekhireh Khuarizm Shahi/y 
the preface gives a description of the kingdom of 
Khuarizm, its climate, products, water, and soil. 


klioree (5\^n-^'^Q,u^rr\^ (Tam.) Chenookodi (Tel.) 

Otis Campestris (Leach.) 

Floriken is a name commonly given by the Eng- 
lish inhabitants of the lower provinces of India, to 
a small sort of bustard, which, except in being a 
little less in size, appears to me not materially to differ 
from the otis tetrax of Linnaeus, or what Leach calls 
Otis campestris ; it is a beautiful, speckled, greyish- 
coloured bird, with a straight, conical, compressed 
bill, legs with three toes, connected by a membrane 
at the base, and wings of moderate dimensions, 



being commonly about sixteen or eighteen inches 
in length. It has got its Tamool name from 
being frequently found in the Warroogoo fields, 
(paspulum frumentaceum), and has obtained a place 
here from being considered as a great delicacy ; when 
dressed for the table, at certain seasons (September) 
it is particularly prized by the Mahometans. The 
common bustard, or rather a variety of it, otis Ben- 
galensis, is not unfrequently met with in the Mysore 
provinces, but it is extremely difficult to get near 
enough to kill it. 


FLOUR OF WHEAT. Godumhay mcLo 
(?e5-cr^L053)LJLO^^ (Tam.) Tringoo pittay 
(Cyng.) Geunkd ata \3\ iC^x^ (Duk.) Godoma- 

pindie (Tel.) Godhuma-pishtu STtyTf fxj'^ (Sans.) 

Tritici ^stivi Farina. 

Of the various uses of this most valuable substance 
I need say nothing here. 

Several kinds of wheat are now cultivated with 
great success in many parts of India ; two varieties 
of the triticum aestivum are now commonly reared 
in the interior and northern provinces of Hindoostan, 
during the cool season : this species is called in Sanscrit 

jftyJT Godhuma, in Ben. Gom, in Hind. Gioon, 
in Pers. Gundum ^i>jS in Arab. Bir jj Of the trit. 
hybernum (Lin.) two varieties, by Dr. Roxburgh's 
account, are also cultivated : Dr. Buchanan (now 
Hamilton) informs us, that in some parts of Mysore 

K 3 


he found that the triticum monococcum was common, 
and there called Jiivigodi. The triticum spelta is 
also to be met with in some of the northern tracts of 
Hindoostan, and would seem, by ForskahPs account, 
to be that species chiefly cultivated in Arabia, and 
there called ^^i also lal^. The natives of India eat 
wheat, but they have many other grains which they 
like better ; in the same way that the natives of 
Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, according to 
Niebhur*, give their Dourra the preference to all 
other grains, and will even sell their wheat to pur- 
chase it ; it is the holcus saccharatus (Lin.) to be 
further noticed in another part of this work. In the 
Carnatic the climate is too hot to grow wheat with 
agricultural advantage, neither does it appear that 
the climate of Mysore is very favourable for its 
culture J the wheat of Upper India is excellent, t 


FOWL, COMMON. Koli Ce^n-L^ (Tam.) 
Kodi (Tel.) Moorghe ^j,^ (Duk.) Murgh ^^ 

(Pers.) Kuhkuta ^^^^ (Sans.) Volatile (Fr.) 

Gallus Domesticus (Steph.) 

* See Niebhur's Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 293. 

f According to Pliny, the wheat of Italy was in his day the 
best in the world. (Nat. Hist, book 18. chap, vii.) It appears 
by the book of Ruth, that wheat was cultivated in Syria 3000 
years ago. Sicily is supposed to have been the first country 
in Europe in which grain was cultivated, if we may judge from 
the worship of Ceres in that island. Pliny speaks highly of the 
great fruitfulness of the African wheat. When it was first intro- 
duced into England it may be difficult to say, Caesar found corn 
growing there ; it w^as not cultivated in America, till about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 


Fowls, as they are purchased from the natives, are 
by no means desirable food, being commonly badly 
fed ; but when shut up for some time and properly 
taken care of, they are excellent; affording a light 
and nutritive aliment. There are several varieties 


as already noticed under article egg ; some of which^ 
are particularly prized by the Moormen for their 
courage, others for the large size of the eggs the hen 
lays, &c. The wildfowl or Jungle-fowl is a very de-^ 
licate bird to eat, when not too old ; it differs but 
little in form from the domestic animal, but is smaller, 
and is more uniform in its colour, its comb is toothed, 
mouth wattled beneath, the feathers on the neck are 
elongated, spotted with white and fulvous, with 
membranous tips ; the throat, breast, and abdomen/ 
and also the back are grey striped with white ; the 
wing-coverts are of a reddish chesnut ; the hen is 
much less than the cock, and has neither comb nor 
wattles. The Jungle-fowl (gallus Indicus) of 
Leach, is common in most of the Indian 
w^oods, it is Adiwie kodi (Tel.) Cat Iwli (Tam.) 
and Junglie ka moorghie (Duk.J Make beyabanie 
^jIjLj ^U (Pers.) and Caudu-caidi. (Can.) The 
House, or domestic hen, is Dujqj (Arab.) Huekree 
(Hind.) and Makeyan (^^IxTU (Pers.) The g. 
giganteus (Tem.) is, I believe, not to be found in 
India, but is common in the forests of Sumatra, 
where Mr. Marsden tells us that such is its height, 
that it can with its bill reach food that is placed on 
a common dining table ; in its domestic state I have 
seen it at Mantua and Padua. 

K i 



FRANKINCENSE. Koondricum(s^^t5^^\s:> 
(Tarn.) Coondoor ji^^xf^Duk.) Coonder^^S (Pers.) 
KoondooroosJaim (Tel.) Bistig ^^^ (Arab.) Hoon- 
da googool (Cyng.) Encens (Fr.) Kundu ^^T 


BoswELLiA Glabra (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
MiscellaneaB. (Lin.) 

The substance called koondricum by the Tamools, 
is very common in the Indian bazars, and is used as 
an incense in religious ceremonies, especially by the 
Hindoos and Portuguese ; being, though not quite 
of so grateful an odour, much cheaper than benzoin ; 
it is supposed by the Mahometan doctors to be a 
species of olibanum, and they give nearly the same 
name to both, but it is very unlike olibanum in its 
appearance, being always seen in pretty large agglu- 
tinated masses, composed of light brown, and yellow- 
ish tears ; and having a strange stony kind of hard- 
ness when pressed between the teeth, whereas oli- 
banum, at least the Arabian, is in separate, small 
roundish balls, or large grains, which do not give the 
same sensation on being chewed ; on the contrary, 
they, when warm, are adhesive and stick to the 
teeth.* Koondricum is besides much less pungent and 
bitter, and is more perfectly soluble in spirit of wine 
and ether, nor does it burn with the same brilliant 
light that olibanum does. 

Koondricum is brought to India from Madagas- 

* See Benyowsky's Travels, vol. ii. p. 321. 


car, from Borneo, from Socotora, from Arabia*, and 
also from Pedir on the coast of Sumatra; the tree 
which yields it, is common in many of the eastern 
islands, and was there found by Rumphius, who 
called it canarium odoriferum ( Amb. ii. t. 50.) ; it is 
also a native of the Circar mountains, and may be 
found particularly well described by Dr. Roxburgh 
in his Coromandel plants (vol. iii. p. 4.) : it is a very 
tall erect tree, covered with a greenish ash-coloured 
bark, and called in Tellingoo Gugulapoo4schittoo ; the 
leaves, about the extremities of the branchlets, are 
alternate, unequally pinnate, from six to twelve 
inches long, leaflets sessile from six to ten pair, op- 
posite, broad lanceolate, obtuse and one inch and a 
half long. Flowers numerous, short pedicelled, 
small, white, the wood is heavy, hard and durable ; 
from wounds in the bark a large quantity of resin 
exudes, which soon becomes hard and brittle, and 
is often used as a substitute for pitch, and named 
sometimes by theTellingoos, on the Coromandel coast, 
Googil. Dr. Roxburgh informs us, that to soften it 
and render it fit for use, a portion of some low-priced 
oil is boiled up with it. Besides its two uses already 
noticed, viz. as an incense and pitch, the vytians 
prescribe it mixed with ghee (clarified butter) in 
cases of gonorrhoea, they also employ it in what they 
term Ritla KaddapoOy which signifies flux accom- 
panied with blood. A second species of boswellia 
grows in the Balla-gaut mountains, which Dr. Rox- 
burgh conceives to be the canarium odoriferum 
hirsutum of Rumphius. (Amb. ii. t. 51.) I have 
called this article frankincense, not knowing well by 
what other name to distinguish it, and considering 

* See Tavernier's Travels, part ii. book ii. 


the purposes to which it is peculiarly applied ; but it 
differs widely in many respects from the common 
frankincense of the shops, which is well known to 
be an exudation from the bark of the Norway spruce 
fir (pinus abies) ; it is what the ancients called 
Thus : the common turpentine on the other hand is 
an exudation from the Scotch Jir (pinus sylvestris), 
and the Venice turpentine is from the larch (pinus 
larix). From the common turpentine is procured 
by distillation with water, the oil of turpentine^ and 
the common or yellow resin is nothing else than the 
residue of that distillation ; but we shall say more 
about these under the head of Turpentine. See ar- 
ticle Olibanum. 


FUMITORY. Shahtra ^yS^^ (Pers. and Duk.) 
Pitpapra (Hind.) Bucklutulmelic jCX^H XUj (Arab.) 
Fumeterre (Fr.) 

FuMARiA Officinalis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Hexandria. Nat. Ord. 
Corydales. (Lin.) Gemeiner Erdrauch (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iii. p. 867. 

The Tamool practitioners do not appear to be ac- 
quainted with this medicine, and of course have no 
name for it. I found, however, the dried plant in a 
native druggist's shop at Trichonopoly ; and on 
showing it to an intelligent Mahometan doctor, he 
immediately told me that it was ^jji^\.x;* Shahtra^ which 
is the Persian name of the plant. Tlie hakeems 
consider it as diuretic, and as useful in maniacal 


cases, and the modern Arabians place it amongst 

their Mufuttehat d^''^ (Deobstruentia), andikfoo^^/- 
tat sufra \y^ c^"^^*^^ (Cholagoga). 

Dr. Cullen says, that fumatory is tonic, and Dr. 
Thornton is of opinion, that it is extremely useful in 
leprous * affections. The ancients prized it much, 
particularly Galen, who in speaking of it has these 
words, " urinam biliosam multam provocat ; sanatque 
jecinoris obstructiones et debilitates.'* The juice of 
the green leaves have been given to the quantity of 
two ounces twice daily, but the virtues also remain 
in the dried plant, particularly the leaves, which in 
their succulent state have a saline and bitter taste : 
with all this, I perceive, that it has no longer a place 
in the London Dispensatory; Alibert too has ne- 
glected it in his " New Elements of Therapeutics''; 
Deslongchamps, however, still retains it in his " Ma- 
nuel des Plantes Usuelles," (vol. ii. p. 54<.) and speaks 
of its virtues in glandular obstructions. Fumi- 
tory is too well known to require a botanical de- 
scription here ; it is a common weed in our corn- 
fields ; and like many other medicines has had its 
day of good repute. Hoffman preferred it to many 
others, as a sweetener of the blood, and Boerhaave 
had faith in it in obstinate jaundice. What the 
Arabians thought of it in former times the reader 
will find, by perusing the *^ Canons of Avicenna,'* 
under its proper Arabic title c^kl! ^ (^»jLi*. 

Murray in his Appar. Med. speaks fully of the use 
and virtues of fumatory in scabies, herpes, lepra, 
&c. See vol. ii. p. 580, 581, see also Leidenfrost's 
Dissertation '^ de succis lierharum expressis.^\ 

* See Family Herbal, p. 61. 



CL-icra'5"OT)©^ (Tarn.) Doombrastdcum (Tel.) 
Mdhd kdlooa (Cyng.) Khusroodaroo ^^U^^a*^ 
(Arab.) Khoolinjm (^^U:^?>^ (Hind, and Duk.) 
Galanga (Vori.') Laiiquas (Mai.) Sugdndhd FXpF^f 

Alpinia Galanga (Lin. Spec, Plant. Ed. Willd. 
i. 12.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitamineae. Galgant Alpine (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 12. 

GALANGAL, LESSER. Sittarittie ^^grn-g- 
ggpgr (Tam.) Pmlcejur ^ ^^ (^^_ (Duk.) Kooda- 
kalooa (Cyng.) Sauna Doomprastaciim (Tel.) 
Kust tiilk Ji\ls l=L^ (Arab.) Rastma (Sans.) Lan- ^ 
quaS'kitsjil (Mai.) 

The plant now fixed on, as the alpinia galanga, 
by Willdenow, was the maranta galanga of Lin- 
naeus, but removed into the genus amomum from not 
agreeing in general with maranta as described by 
Linnaeus. Swartz first suggested that it was properly 
an alpinia, and Willdenow confirmed the opinion. 

After a minute examination of the root called 
sittarittie by the Tamools, and sanna doomprastacum 
by the Tellinghoos, I think there is no doubt but 
that it is what has been called lesser galangal, and 
which we are told by Geoffroy, differs considerably 



from the greater galangal, " minor, odore aromatico 
fragrante ; sapore acri aromatico, subamaricante, 
pungenti et fauces exurente, piperis aut zingeberis 
modo — MAJOR, est odore et sapore longe debiliore, et 
minus grato/* 

The lesser galangal, which is the Lanquas-kitsjil 
of the Malays, besides being more warm and fragrant 
than the greater, is more highly prized by the Indians, 
as a stimulant and stomachic, and may moreover be 
distinguished by its colour, on the outside being 
browner and in the inside reddish ; whilst the greater 
galangal root is brownish on the outside and of a 
dirty white within, and is covered with rings about 
one fourth of an inch distant. The two galangals 
are natives of China *, where the lesser is called lauan- 
don ; and both grow in the province of Xanxy : as 
medicines they are there held in high estimation, 
particularly the lesser, which the natives of that 
country consider as an antidote to poison. They 
also grow, according to Marsden, in Sumatra f, and 
they are much prized and cultivated in Java. J They 
are both common in the Indian bazars, and are pre- 
scribed by the native doctors to warm the habit in 
cases of dyspepsia ; they moreover consider them as 
useful in coughs, given in infusion. 

The alpinia galanga, whose root has now been 
fully ascertained to be the greater galangal, or the 
galanga major of Rumph. ( Amb. 5. t. 63.) the reader 
will find very well botanically described by Dr. 
Roxburgh in his Flora Indica. (p. 5.) It is a peren- 
nial plant, with sessile leaves, broad lanceolavj pan- 

* See Voyage to Madagascar, &c. by Abb^ Rochan, p. 361, 

f See Marsden*s Sumatra, p. Y5. 

X See Arom. Hist. Garcia ab Horto, p. 159. 


nicle terminal, lip oblong, unguiculate, ajpea: bifid, 
capsule obovate, smooth, seeds few. The roof, the 
part used in medicine, is tuberous, possessing a faint, 
aromatic smell, and strong pungent taste, like a 
mixture of pepper and ginger : so much for the 
greater galangal root, which by the w^ay appears to 
have been first sent fresh to India from Bencoolen 
by Dr. Charles Campbell for the botanical garden of 
Calcutta ; and where the plants now thrive well, and 
are in blossom during half the hot season. In a 
note at the end of the article alpinia galangal in 
the Flora Indica, the enlightened Mr. Colebrooke 
observes, *' that the root of this plant being no doubt 
the galanga major of the druggists, it is in conse- 
quence the cuUrijan of the Hindoos, or rather, in 
Hindee.'* But then the question comes to be, of 
what plant is the lesser galangal the root ? for it is 
an article of ten times more value than the other, at 
least in India : is it the root of a costus ? an amo- 
mum? or what? Forskahl, in his materia medica 
kakirini, places galangal which he calls ^^lic 
l^^>^ amongst the aphrodisiacs ; as he also does 

another medicine which he terms ^U yj\ ^iy\ Loiifa 
ahunafu. Eight species of alpinia are growing in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta, where they thrive 


GALBANUM. Beerzud :^^j.j.j (Pers.) Barzud 
:ij,L (Arab.) Bireeja (Hind.) also m (Hind.) 
Galbanum (Fr.) Mutterharz (Ger.) 

BuBON Galbanum (Lin.) 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Umbellatae (Lin.) Galban Bubon (Norn. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 1439- 

I hesitated some time about giving galbanum a 
place in this work, on finding that it did not appear 
to be at all known to any description of native me- 
dical men on the coast of Coromandel ; I have since 
learnt, however, that it is brought from the Cape of 
Good Hope or Syria, to Bombay * as an article of 
trade, whence it is sent to China ; it has besides got 
a Hindooie name, which proves that it has found its 
way to the higher provinces of India. 

Galbanum is got by wounding the stem of the 
plant, when the cream-coloured gum resin flows 
out of it ; it has a peculiar strong odour not unlike 
that of turpentine, and a somewhat nauseous bitter 
taste. " The plant is perennial, rising to the height 
of thirteen or fourteen ieet^ with lower leaves nearly 
tripinnate on vaginant foot-stalks ; the uppermost 
almost simple, trilobed, thickish, irregularly serrated, 
and of a greyish colour : the flowers are all fertile ; 
the petals yellow with inflected tips.'* 

Dr. Cullen speaks of galbanum as having been re- 
commended for favouring the suppuration of inflam- 
matory tumours, a virtue also noticed by Celsust; it 
is deobstruent, antispasmodic, and expectorant, Mr. 
Thompson thinks ranking betwixt gum ammoniac 
and assafoetida, it is no doubt a most valuable stimu- 
lant of the intestinal canal and uterus, and is found 
to allay that nervous irritability which often accom- 
panies hysteria. The dose from ten grains to a 
drachm, in pills. 

♦ See Elmore's Directory to the Trade of India, p. 223. also 
Macgill's Travels in Turkey, vol. ii. p. 173 
f Vide Cels. lib. v. chap. iii. 



PART 1. 

The Arabians have placed galbanum amongst 
their discutientia c^'^y^-^ D'Herbelot* informs us, 
that the tree which produces galbanum in Persia is 
there called Ghiarkhust Ck^^J^s. it was by the Greeks 
named Metopion or rather by the Pastophori ; and 
also Mendesium t from the city of Mendes : it is 
amusing to remark the different opinions that are 
given of the same thing in different countries ; how- 
ever highly, and I believe justly, valued galbanum is 
in England, the learned and much respected Alibert:j:, 
in speaking of it, says, that he has but little faith in 
the various opinions given of it by many authors. 
The ancients considered galbanum, in addition to its 
other virtues, to possess peculiar qualities, *' Nam si 
cantharidas aliquis ebibit, panaces cum lacte contusa, 
vel galbanum vino adjecto dari, vel lac per se debet/* 
(VideCels. lib. v. cap. xxvi.) Pliny tells us that it was 
useful in painful labours, but that it was pernicious in 
strangury. (Nat. Hist. lib. xxiv. cap. v.) Murray, in 
his admirable work on the materia medica, in speak- 
ing of galbanum, says, " Viribus proxime ad gummi 
ammoniacum accedit : sed galbanum calidius est 
magisque stimulat. (Appar. Med. vol. i. p. 388.) 


GALLS. Machdkdi LDrre=g=67^rrLlj (Tam.) 
Mdphitl ^^^ (Duk.) Afis oaic (Arab.) Mdzu ^^\^ 
(Pers.) Galhas (Port.) Majouphul (Hind.) Md- 
chikdi (Tel.) Maju-phal (Sans.) Massaka (Cyng.) 
Noix de Galles (Fr.) Gallapfel (Ger.) Galla (It.) 

QuERCUs Infectoria (Oliv.) 

* See his Bibliotheque Orientale, p. 175. 

t See Diosc. lib. i. c. 71, 72. 

X See his Elemens de Therapeutique, vol.ii. p. 556* 

C^JrtAP• t* MAtERlA INDICA* 145 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Polyandria. Nat. Ord* 
Amentaceae. Farbei^-etche (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

It would seem to have been that distinguished 
traveller Olivier, who first distinctly pointed out that 
it is from the quercus infectoria, that galls are ob- 
tained ; and are a kind of vegetable wen produced 
by the morbid excitement, occasioned by the maggot 
insect (cynips quercus folii, Lin.). The quercus 
infectoria may be found growing throughout all Asia 
Minor. Captain M. Kinneir * says, that the tree is 
common in Kurdistan and Armenia : and I see by a 
valuable little work, entitled Remarks on the Hus- 
bandry and Internal Commerce of Bengal, that 
galls might be furnished, as an article of trade, from 
India to England. Pennant t speaks of them as a 
product of Moultan ; and we know that Gen. Hard- 
wicke t, in the narrative of his journey to Sirinagur, 
found this quercus growing in the neighbourhood of 
Adwanie. I am, notwithstanding, much inclined to 
think that the greater part of the galls found in 
Indian bazars grow in Persia, and are brought to 
the Peninsula by Arab merchants j though it would 
appear, by what Forskahl says, that they are not a 
product of Arabia : what are called the Aleppo galls 
are the best. Captain Kirkpatrick, in his account of 
the kingdom of Nepaul (p. 20.), informs us, that he 
found at Jurzhoory^ in that country, a sort of gall, 
of very powerful astringency, growing on a tree re- 
sembling the ash. 

The species infectoria seldom rises higher than six 
feet, the leaves are smooth, obtusely toothed, and of 
a bright-green colour on both sides ; it has an elon- 

* See his Geographical Memoir of Persia, p. 258. 
, f See his View of Hindoostan, vol. i. p. 37. 

^1 See Asiatic Researches, vol. vi. p. 374. 

VOL. I. L, 


gated acorn, two or three times longer than the cup 
which is sessile, downy and scaly ; the gall comes out 
at the shoots of the young boughs, those that come 
out first, Mr. Virey * tells u^ are the best, they are 
known in trade by the terms, blacky blue, or green 
galls ; those afterwards gathered are inferior from 
being pierced, and are called white galls. 

Galls are prescribed by the native practitioners in 
India, in dysentery and diarrhoea ; they are also 
given as tonics in intermittent fever : the powder 
moistened with a little water is applied to chopped 
nipples, and made into a soft ointment : it is a useful 
application to blind piles. Internally, galls have been 
given in doses of from gr. viii. to 9i. Eleven species 
of quercus were growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta, in 1814, all oriental plants except two, the 
Robur and JPhellos. No natural substance, that we 
are acquainted with, contains so large a proportion 
of tan as the gall-nut, amounting, according to the 
experiments of Sir H. Davy, to about three fourths 
of the soluble parts of the nut. See Philos. Trans, 
for 1805, p. 233. For further and curious inform- 
ation respecting galls, the reader is referred to Cu- 
vier's celebrated work, " Regne Animal,'* p. 132. 

The ancients believedgalls to have the effect of purg- 
ing or purifying the skin, when given in conjunction 
>vith honey. " Cutem purgat mel, sed magis si est cum 
galla j'* in another part Celsus says, "Misy quoque et 
galla, si paribus portionibus misceantur, corpus con- 
sumunt/' (Cels. lib. v. cap. xvi. xxii.) 

* See Hlstoire Naturelle des M^dicamens, p. 315. 



GAMBOGE. MuTcM lo^^ (Tarn.) Ossdra 
rewund aJ^^ \J^>£ls. (Arab.) Gokkatoo (Cyng.) 
Passapoovenny (Tel.) Gomme gutte (Fr.) Goma- 
rom (Port.) Gutte gum (Dut.) Gummigutt (Ger.) 
Gomma gotta (It.) 

Stalagmitis Gambogioides (Koenig.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccae. Indischer Guttabaum (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv. p. 280. 

The gamboge which is found in the Indian 
bazars, but for which I have not been able to get a 
Sanscrit name, is no doubt an imported drug fromSiam, 
from the kingdom of Macassar (according to Beckman, 
voyage to Borneo), from the province of Kiangsi * in 
China, or from Ceylon, where it is got from the 
gambogia gutta (Blackwal, tab. S9S) ; and it is 
more than probable, that it was from a description of 
the tree in the last mentioned country, that Koenig 
composed his genus stalagmitis. At Siam> we are told, 
that this gum resin is obtained from the tree which 
produces it, by breaking the leaves and young shoots; 
in Ceylon, on the other hand, the bark of the tree is 
said to be wounded with a sharp stone j it is also an 
export from Cochin-china. 

It is well known that there are several trees which 
yield yellow gum-resins, resembling much the gam- 
boge of the shops j such as gambogia gutta (Lin.), 

* See Abbe Rohan's Voyage to Madagascar, p. 3 2. 

L 2 


garcinia celebica (Lin.), hypericum pomiferum'^ 


I have given the stalagmitis gambogioides (Koenig) 
as the tree from which the gamboge is procured ; as 
it would appear to be that recognised as such by 
several high authorities ; but there seem to be still 
just doubts on the subject. Dr. S. Dyer, when 
garrison surgeon of TelUcherry, a gentleman to 
whom I owe much useful information, regarding the 
products of Malabar, told me that he some years 
ago actually obtained the true gamboge from a tree 
growing on the^ Cottady ghaut ; and amongst the 
mountains of Wt/nade ; and that he was the first 
who transmitted this valuable substance to Dr. Rox- 
burgh : it has since been ascertained, that gamboge 
trees are to be met with, not only throughout the 
whole extent of Malabar, but in the Bulam country, 
and all along th^ ghauts which skirt Canara. I da 
not find that any botanical description of the tree 
has yet been distinctly given. The much to be la- 
mented Dr. White, of the Bombay establishment, 
was inclined to bestow on it the scientific appellation 
of gambogia guttifera. I have never seen it, and 
have only been informed by Dr. Dyer, that it is 
nearly two feet in circumference ; that the branches 
grow mostly near the top, in a conical form ; that 
the leaves which are about four or five inches long, 
oval, and pointed, when cut across, give out the yel- 
low juice, and that the Canarese name of the tree is 
hunda-poonar^ the flower is small and yellow. 

It is a curious fact, that the natives, previously to 
Mn Dyer's calling their attention to it, had not par- 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. vi. 


ticularly noticed this substance * ; the tree would 
appear to grow in the thickest jungles, and generally 
at a great distance from the villages of the inha- 

Gamboge, though inodorous and nearly insipid to 
the taste, is one of the most drastic cathartics we 
have. It is prescribed, by European practitioners, 
as a hydragogue in dropsies, and for the ex- 
pulsion of worms, in doses of from three to fifteen 
or twenty grains triturated with sugar, or made into 
pills with soap, calomel, or bitter extracts. Orfila has 
given gamboge a place amongst his poisons* Before 
concluding this article, I must observe, that there 
had long existed a strange mistake that the koorka- 
poolUe of D'Acosta, or the caddam pulli of Rheed 
(garcinia gambogia, Willd.), was the tree which pro- 
duces the true gamboge ; that this is not the case, 
however, was clearly proved by Dr. White, whose 
account of the koorka-poollie was published in the 
Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal. 

There is but one species of the genus stalagmites, 
which is our present article : of the genus, Willde- 
now says, ^'liermaph. caL 4-phyll. cor. 4-petala. 
stam. SO, receptaculo quadrangulo carnoso inserta, 
^tyl. crassus, stigma quadrilobum. hacca. 1 locul. 
stylo coronata trisperma.'* *^ Masculi. col. cor. et 
stamina hermaphrod.'* 

The gamboge-tree of Siam, is a middling sized 
one, with dusky-coloured green leaves, which are 
ovate, opposite, entire, even, and on short petioles : 
the riaale flowers, being either in distinct clusters, or 
.mixed with the hermaphrodite, which are axillary j 

* Since writing the above, Colonel Wilks informs me^ that this 
yellow gum resin had been previously noticed by the pioneers 
of Lord Wellington's army. 



the hermaphrodite, as Mr. Thompson informs us, in 
his excellent account of the plant, are in axillary 
whorls, or on the joints of the smaller branches, 
sometimes mixed with the male flowers, sometimes in 
opposite gems ; the fruit is a smooth, round berry, 
whitish, or roscrcoloured, and containing several 
long triangular seeds. I perceive in Orfila, this 
opinion regarding gamboge, that its poisonous quality 
does not depend on absorption ; but upon its " action 
locale energiqueJ^ (See vol. ii. p. 24.) ^ 


GARLIC. Vulhy poondoo Q(Tua\rr^fsvr\^\^6(sr5v(S' 
(Tam.) Soodooloonoo (Cyng.) Velligudda (Tel.) 
Bavangpootie (Malay.) Belluly (Can.) Ldssun 
^^^! (Duk. and Hind.) Seer jj^ (Pers.) Soom ^y 
(Arab.) Loshun (Beng.) Ldsund ^^^ (Sans.) 
Ail (Fr.) Knoblauch (Ger.) Ajo Sativo (Span.) 
Bawang (Jav.) Kesun (Bali) S^ogoSov (Gr.) 

Allium Sativum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat, Ord. 
Spathaceae (Lin.) Starlcriechendes (Nom. Triv, 
Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. ii. p. 68. 

The strong-smelling, pungent, acrimonious bulbs 
of the allium sativum, form an almost constant in- 
gredient in the curries and other dishes that are used 
by the native Indians. As a medicine, the Hindoo 
doctors prescribe garlic to promote digestion, quicken 
the circulation, and warm the habit j they also con- 
sider it as a useful expectorant, particularly in that 
kind of asthma which they call mandara cdshiim ; 
which signifies the asthma of cloudy weather. 


Garlic is sometimes used as a rubefacient by Eu- 
ropean practitioners ; and is no doubt a useful stimu- 
lant, expectorant, and diaphoretic, and may also be 
considered as anthelmintic and diuretic. In the 
Dublin Pliarmacopoeia there is a preparation of it, 
syrupus aliiy which given in doses of two drachms is 
an excellent remedy in pituitous asthma. Dr. Rush 
supposed garlic had some effect in preventing the 
yellow fever; the Arabians place it, ^y amongst 
their c^LikX^ attenuentia. Garlic is a native of Si- 
cily, where it grows wild, it is now cultivated in 
Hindoostan, and thrives admirably in Nepaul*; our 
article with six other species grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta. For much curious and classical 
information regarding garlic, the reader may consult 
Mr. Phillips's work on Cultivated Vegetables, vol. ii. 
p. 21. I shall merely here state before concluding, 
that in a climate like India, where dyspepsia is fre- 
quent, and perhaps rendered still more so amongst 
the natives, by their living so much on a vegetable 
diet, garlic, by supplying a gentle and grateful 
stimulus to the stomach, is highly useful : the Ro- 
mans had an idea, that it in a peculiar nlanner gave 
strength to the human frame ; and Sir William Tem- 
ple in his Treatise on Health, observes, that of all 
plants, garlic affords most nourishment, and supplies 
spirits the best to those who eat little flesh. Celsus 
gives garlic a place amongst those things, which 
Avarm the habit and open the] belly. (Vide Cels. de 
medicina, lib. ii. cap. xxvii. xxix.) The Hindoos 
are in the habit of preparing a kind of expressed oil 
from garlic, called in Tamool vullay poondo unnay^ it 
is of a stimulating nature, and ordered internally in 
agues, and externally in palsy and rheumatism. 

* See Captain Kirkpatrick's Account of Nepaul, p. 1^9. 





GINGER, DRY. Sookkoo ^e?© (Tarn.) Sont 
(Duk. and Hind.) Inghuroo (Cyng.) Alia 
(Malay.) Jai-aldng (Jav.) - Jahetuh (Bali.) Sonti 
(Tel.) Zungebeel ^ju^b (Pers.) Sonty (Can.) 
Gengibre C^Span.) TVo or aka (Ternsit.) Gora (Tidov.) 
Siwe (Amb.) Sohi (Band.) Sunt hi JIU^^ (Sans.) 
Zenzero (It.) Gingembre (Fr.) 

GINGER, GREEN. Injie u£^^ (Tarn.) 
Ammoo Inghuroo (Cyng.) Udruch Sj^\ (Duk. and 
Hind.) Ullum (Tel.) Ardrdkd ^H^^ (Sans.) 
Zingebeel rutb ^^^ y^j^b (Arab.) Dsdiey (Jav.) 
Zungebeel tur y J^aa^O (Pers.) Gingembre (Fr.) 
IngXfoer (Ger.) Zenzero (It.) Ada (Beng.) 

Amomum Zingiber (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitamineae. Aechter Ingwer (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 
See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. i. p. 6. 

The ginger plant is a native of many eastern 
countries, but is no where to be found of a finer 
quality than on the coast of Malabar, it is the ischi 
of the Hort. MaL (11, p. 21. t. 12.) and the zingib. 
mqjuSy Rumph. (Amb. 5, p. 156. t. ^Q. f. 1.) 

The root is too well known to require particular 
description here ; it has a pleasant aromatic odour, 
biting taste, and is considered by the native doctors 
^s a valuable carminative and stimulant j they also 


recommend it as an external application, mixed with 
arrack, in paralytic and rheumatic affections ; it be- 
sides forms an almost constant ingredient in the 
cushdiums (decoctions), which they prescribe for 
arresting the progress of intermittent fever : dose 
from g. X to 3ss. Europeans in India, of delicate 
nerves, frequently use an infusion of ginger in place 
of common tea ; this is either prepared with dry 
ginger or the green root, cut into thin slices ; our 
article with many other species are growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. 

The Greek name for ginger ^lyyiSsp was, in all pro- 
bability, nay certainly, was taken from its Persian 
appellation J.xa^-'j- It is indigenous in China, and 
Mr. Phillips *' imagines, as it is common at Gingi 
in that country, that hence may be its name ginger. 

In Sir J. Sinclair's Code of Health, (vol. i. p. Q33,), 
we are informed of the virtues which ginger possesses 
in keeping off the gout, as instanced in the case of 
Lord Rivers, who took it in large doses for more 
than thirty years with the happiest effects. The 
Arabians set a high value on ginger, as do the 
Persians, supposing it to have the property of clear- 
ing the brain ; they consequently, in all their works 
on the Materia Medica, place it amongst their cepha- 
lica ^Lo^ c^LyLo. 

Much dry ginger is sent to the Coromandel coast 
from Cochin and Bengal ; it is also an export from 
Nepaul, (See Kirkpatrick's account of that country, 
p. 205.) 

* See his work on Cultivated Vegetables, p. 210. 



GINSENG. Yansam (Chin.) Garantogues 
(Americ.) Orhota (Tart.) Ginseng (Dut.) Gin-- 
sao. (Port.) Ginseng (Fr.) 

Panax Quinquefolium (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord. 
Hederaceae. Funblattrige Krafftwurz (Nom. 
Triv. Willd.) See Spec. Plant. Willd. vol. iv, 
p. 1124. 

This root, which had formerly a place in the 
. British materia medica, but which now, perhaps, is 
justly discarded, is sometimes, though rarely, brought 
to India from China, in pieces about the thickness 
of the little finger, and three or four inches long, 
which are forked and tranversely wrinkled j it has 
little or no smell, but a mucilaginous and sweetish 
taste, accompanied with some warmth, and a very 
slight degree of bitterness. We are told that the 
Chinese physicians, ascribe most extraordinary 
virtues to ginseng, and have written volumes on it : 
they allege, that it nourishes and strengthens the 
body, stops vomitings, clears the judgment, removes 
hypochondriasis, and all other nervous affections j in 
a word, gives a vigorous tone to the human frame> 
even in old age. * 

The plant is a native of Chinese Tartary, where it 
has been cultivated from time immemorial, and Mr. 

*The reader will find a full and curious account of the virtues 
of ginseng in a work entitled "Description General de la Chine."^ 
It is a translation from the Chinese, by Joseph Anne Marie de 
Moyriac de Mailla. Tome xiii. p. 767. 


Cutler says, that it grows plentifully in New England, 
and some of the neighbouring states ; but Loureiro 
has expressed a doubt whether the Chinese ginseng, . 
be the same plant with what the American Indians 
call garantogiriy and which the French in Canada 
use for asthmatic complaints, as a stomachic, and to 
promote fertility in women : notwithstanding, gin- 
seng has no longer a place in our dispensatory, the 
French* writers still retain it, chiefly, perhaps, on the 
authority of Jesuit missionaries ; it would appear, by 
Thunberg's account, to hold to this day its high re- 
putation amongst the Japanese. The reader will 
find the plant well described by Woodville in his 
medical botany and by Bernard Jussieu j it has an 
erect smooth stem, with leaves which arise with the 
flower stem, from a thick joint at the extremity of 
the stalk, the flowers are of a yellowish-green 
colour, the berries are at first green but afterwards 
turn red, inclosing two hard seeds. In such esti- 
mation was the ginseng root held in China in the year 
1709, that the Emperor sent an army of 10,000 
, Tartars in search of it, on condition, that each 
soldier should give him two catties of the best, 
and sell the rest for its weight in silver, by this 
means the Emperor gained 20,000 catties in one 
year. See Brewster^s Edinburgh Encyclopedia, 
article Ginseng. 

* See Alibert's " Nouveaux El^mens de Therapeutique," vol.i, 
p. 100. 



GOAT. Vuladoo (Tarn.) Buhra V^L also Chela 
(Duk.) Buz yj (Pers.) Khussee ^^ (Arab.) 
Chittoo^m^ka (Tel.) Aada (Mai.) Ajd ^^ (Sans.) 

Capra Hircus (Lin.) 

Goat's flesh is tough and tasteless, though much 
eaten by the native Indians. The kid is, however, 
excellent. Goats give a great deal of milk of good 
quality. See article Milk. ^ 


GRAPE. Kodimoondrie pullum Q,^ rr\ p.(^^r?)g^ 

rf^LJi— 'L-PLD (Tarn.) also Dividatst-pullum (Tarn.) 
Drachupimdoo (Tel.) Booangoor (Mai.) Ungoor 

* The vytians have a notion, and it is a strange one, that the 
flesh of the goat has virtues when eaten in cases of incontinence 
of urine. What is called the toild or mountain goat, or bouquetin^ 
some have ventured to say was of a different genus from the capra^ 
and a link betwixt the deer and goat ; but that this is not the case 
is maintained by Mr. Kendal, in a communication to be met with 
in the Asiatic Journal for March 1823. (p. 229.) The animal is 
common in the Hymalaya mountains, where it is called Pheir^ and 
is the capra ibex of Linnaeus ; the Germans term it steinbock, and 

the Persians ^•^^ yi Buz-kouhee* In outward form it much re"- 
sembles the common goat, but is larger, with a smaller head in 
proportion to its body, and large round fiery eyes ; the horns, 
which are also large, are flattened before, and round behind, and 
the legs slender ; it is peculiarly active, and the flesh of the young 
is much esteemed as an article of food. A variety of the goat, 
which is of a red colour, is called menda on the Malabar coast. 


^^3Cj1 (Pers. and Duk.) Draksha 5^T^T (Sans.) 
Dakh (Hind.) Wdl moodika gheddie (Cyng.) 
Inub 4-Ufi (Arab.) Raisin (Fr.) 

ViTis ViNiFERA (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. 
Ord. Hederaceae. 

Grapes of various kinds grow in abundance in 
many parts of India; particularly in the higher 
tracts and upper provinces ; and are considered by 
the native doctors as cooling and aperient. The 
French at Pondicherry, in spite of the great heat of 
the Carnatic, are particularly successful in cultivate 
ing them ; but no wine is made in India, nor is the 
fruit dried into raisins as in Europe and Persia. The 
Arabians and Persians, particularly the latter, though 
they are forbid wine by the Koran, bestow much 
pains on the cultivation of the grape ; and suppose 
that the different kinds possess distinguishing medi- 
cinal qualities. The juice of the grape, before it is 
made into wine, they call ^^^aa^Iju)! (Arab.) and j^CJ 
^,^ v_»l (Pers.) ; the large black grape, which the Ara- 
bians term isJi^xW ^1^1, the Persians ^^j ^>^-*'> ^^d 
which in higher Hindoostan is commonly known by 
the name of Kalee dakh^ the Mahometan practition- 
ers consider as of a hot and drying nature. 

Grapes when dried into raisins, are called in 
Arabic c^j in Persian y^^ and in Hindoostanie 
Kismishe ; which, however, more particularly applies 
to the raisins of that grape from which the famous 
Shiraz wine is made; by Noureddin Mohammed 
Abdullah Shirazy's work on the Materia Medica, it 
appears that the Persians conceive raisins to be in 
a high degree emollient and suppurative, and order 
them to the quantity of ten direms. 


Six species of vitis were growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, in 1814. See more on this subject 
under article Wine in this Chapter. See also article 


' GUM AMMONIAC. tsUk cJCi! (Arab, and 
Duk.) also Feshook (Duk.) Semugh bilshereen 
{^.^ y* ^♦'^ (Pers.) Gomme ammoniaque (Fr.) Am* 
moniak (Ger.) 

Heracleum Gummiferum (Willd.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 

This gum resin appears to be little known in the 
interior parts of the Indian peninsula ; and is only 
occasionally prescribed by the hakeems, who have 
become acquainted with it, through the medium of 
Arabic and Persian books. Woodville gives no ac- 
count of the plant whatever, nor do I believe that it 
has hitherto been scientifically, or rather very accu- 
rately, described. Willdenow, however, had no doubt 
but that gum ammoniac was obtained from the 
heracleum gummiferum*, and the London College, on 
his authority, admitted it as the ammoniacum plant ; 
notwithstanding all this, it would seem, that this dis- 
tinguished botanist could not obtain any of the gum 
resin from a plant, which he reared from the seed 
found amongst gum ammoniacum of the shops ; so 
that the matter is stiU involved in doubt. Mr. Jack- 
son t tells us, that the gum ammoniacum plant, 

* See Willd. Hortus Berolini, vol. i. p. 53, 54. 
t See his Account of Morocco, p. 83. 


called by the Arabs Feshoohj grows in Morocco, 
that it resembles the fennel, but is larger, and we 
know that Pliny, (I. xxii. c. 23.) mentions ammo- 
niacum as the gum resin of a species of ferrula : 
GeofFroy has attempted to account for the name that 
has been given to this article, in the following manner : 
<* Planta vero nascitur in ea Africae parte, quas Egyp- 
to ad occasum adjacet ; quaeque hodie dicitur reg- 
num de barca, in quo fuit olim templum celeberri- 
mum Jovi Ammonii dicatum, unde gummi nomen/* 

Mr. Jackson, in speaking of the Feshook plant, 
says, that the gum ammoniac is procured from in- 
cisions made in the branches, by which means a 
lacteous, glutinous juice is obtained, which hardens 
into gum ammoniac. 

Lieutenant Colonel John Johnston, C. B. in his 
Journey from India to England, through Persia, 
Georgia, Russia, Poland, &c. in the year I8I7, states, 
that he found the plant which yields the gum ammo- 
niac growing in the stony plains, within half-a-mile of 
the fortification of Yezdehkhaust in Persia, he adds, 
that it grows to about six feet in height ; some of 
the stems being of a dark colour, like ripe sugar- 
cane, and others of a light green tinged with lake- 
colour near the joints. (See his work, pp. 93, 94.) 
It would appear, that he also saw some of the trees 
growing near Magen in Persia. 

For a botanical account of the plant which was 
reared from the seed above mentioned, and to which 
the name of heracleum gummiferum was given, the 
reader may consult the last edition of the London 
Dispensatory. The gum resin itself is too well 
known to require a particular description here ; when 
good it is of a pale yellow colour, having a faint but 
not unpleasant odour, with a bitter, nauseous, yet 

1 60 MATERIA INDICA.: .PAJllr t^^ 

somewhat sweet taste : externally applied, it has been 
considered a discutient and resolvent ; internally, it 
is one of our most valuable deobstruents and expec- 
torants : the dose of the substance from gn x. to 5ss* 
that of the lac. ammon. (Mist. Ammon* Lond.) from 
gss. to ^iss. Dr. Paris informs us, that in combin* 
ation with rhubarb, ammoniacum is a valuable medi- 
cine in mysenteric affections, by correcting viscid 

In the southern parts of Arabia, the tree which 
yields the gum ammoniac is called tursoos c^yj^h, the 
Persians term it derukht ushuk vJlii Ck^j:^, and the 
gum resin itself they place amongst their c'^]^-^ 
(discutientia) ; for their more particular opinions res* 
pecting it, the reader may consult a Persian work 
entitled ^L^^jOLjCam cfU>ciJ5 (^Jouc, or the Mine of Re- 
medies, by Beva Ben Khuas Khan, A.D. 1512, de- 
dicated to Secunder Shaw II. 

Mr. Grey, I perceive, in his Supplement to the 
Pharmacopoeias (p. 27. )j expresses a notion that gum 
ammoniac may be, or is obtained from, the ferula 
Persica, the tree which Willdenow supposes to be 
that which yields the sagapenum. According to 
Bracconot, this gum resin is a compound of 70*0 
resin, IS-^ gum, 4*4 glutinous matter, 6*0 water, 
1*2 loss. 


GUM ARABIC, INDIAN. Vulldm pisin 
cTXSOvirrLOLJT^CKyr (Tam.) Veldgdhdnha (Tel.) 
Kapittha (Sans.) Kavit ha gond ^^\S C^,^^ 
(Duk.) Samagh arebee ^^ ^ (Arab.) Jewool 



latoo (Cyng.) Gomme arabique (Fr.) Arabischen 
gumme (Ger.) 

Feronia !Elephantum (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. OixL 

There are several gums which resemble the tine 
gum arable, or that of the acacia vera, which grows 
in almost every part of Africa ; but perhaps none 
of them comes nearer to it than the vulldm-pisin or 
gum of the feronia elephantum of Roxb. (or what 
is called the wood-apple tree), and which is commonly 
used for medicinal purposes by all the practitioners 
of Lower India. What is termed the babul tree in 
Bengal (Acacia arabica, Willd.), Pdti in Sumatra, 
Akakia Li'li*! (Arab.) Karoov.elum (Tam.) Nulla 
tuma (Tel.) Mughildn qj^SVJL) (Pers.) also furnishes 
a great deal of gum which is employed in lieu of 
gum arabic : it is the same tree, as far as I can learn, 
that Dr.Wittman, in his Travels (p. 231.), mentions as 
yielding much gum arabic in Turkey. The Egyp- 
tians, by Forskahl's account, call gum arabic tSjyls ^^ 
from the city of Tor where it is obtained ; we learn 
from Niebhur's Travels (vol. i. p. 99.)> that a consider- 
able quantity of gum arabic is produced in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mount Sinai, and brought for export- 
ation to Alexandria. In Morocco* a great deal of it 
is procured, especially about BasseUtfoed and Bled- 
hummer in the province of Abda, where the tree is 
called Attaleh. 

The Tamool practitioners prescribe a solution of 
gum arabic to relieve tenesmus in bowel affections, 
and as we do in other cases requiring demulcents* 

* See Jackson's Account of Morocco^ p. 83. 
VOL, I. M 


The feronia elephantum is the balong of the Por- 
tuguese, and is called in Hindoostanie and BengaUe 
huth-'hel. The fruit of the feronia elephantum (wood^ 
apple) is eaten by the Indians, the tree is pretty large, 
erect, branches few and irregular, leaves feathered 
with an odd one, from three to five inches long. It 
has male and hermaphrodite flowers. (See note* below, 
$ee also Corom. Plants, vol. ii. p. 21,) 


GUM TRAGACANTH. Vadomocottay pisin 
6i\rr^LDQ^rfi^Q^i___\__S^(5^ (Tam.) Kdttira V^aXT 
(Duk. and Hind.) Sdmdghulkdtdd ^UjCJ! ji^ (Arab.) 
also Kaseera SjjiS (Arab.) Gommi astraganti (Fr.) 
Traganth (Ger.) 

Astragalus Verus (Olivier.) 

CI. and Ord* Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionacese. Gemeiner Traganth (Nom. Triv. 

The Vytians imagine this gum to have the effect 
of improving the state of the blood, and prescribe it 
in mucilage, in doses of twenty or thirty grains. 
What of it is occasionally found in the Indian bazars 

* The following is a list of trees from which, according to Dr. 
Francis Hamilton, gum, simplj^ so called, may be procured in 
Mysore. Diiidiga (andersonia panshmoum), bevoa (melia aza- 
dirachta), muruculu (chirongia glabra), mavena (mangifera Indica), 
avaricay (cassia auriculata), bayla (aegle marmelos), jala (shorea 
robusta), chadacalu (chloroxylon dupada,) hetta tovary (bombax 
gossypium (Lin,). Amsa, also Kumarkuni, is the Hindoo name of 
an opaque gum sold in Upper India, and said to be a good medi- 
cine in cases of ozcena used externally, Hamilton's MSS. on the 
Puraniya District. 


is brought from Alexandria by way of the Red Sea. 
The shrub which produces it is said to grow in 
Candia and Socotra ; but it would appear to be also 
a native of Persia, where it is called kiim ^ (see 
Morier's First Journey through Persia, p. 231.) The 
Arabians term it Aj3, and place the gum itself amongst 
their Aphrodisiaca e^L^A^ (Mobehidt). 

Good gum tragacanth is whitish coloured, brittle, 
inodorous, and has a very slight bitter taste ; it is 
but partially soluble in water, which rather swells 
than dissolves it ; it is considered as an useful demul- 
cent. We are told by Virey, in his *^ Histoire Na- 
turelle des Medicamens,'' (p. 282.) on the authority 
of Labillardiere *, that gum tragacanth is actually 
got from the astragalus gummifera ; it was long sup- 
posed to be obtained from the ast. tragacanth, but 
there is now little doubt, but that it exudes from 
the ast. verus. Three species only of this most 
numerous genus grow in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta } one is a new species, the other two are 
the hamosuSy and carolianus ; the second is a native of 
Persia. Mr. A.T.Thomson, in the last edition of the 
London Dispensatory, observes that the kattira gum 
from India has been found not to answer the pur- 
poses of the ordinary tragacanth ; kattira^ however, 
is no doubt the name in Hindoostanie and Dukhanie 
of the real gum tragacanth. Considering the great 
number of gums which are to be met with in the 
Indian bazars, it is not unlikely that what Mr. A. T. 
Thomson had transmitted to him, was not the ge- 
nuine article. For that able botanist^s description of 
the ast. verus, I refer the reader to his London Dis- 
pensatory. The ancients considered tragacanth as a 
vulnerary. (Cels. lib. v. cap. 11.) 

* See Journal de Phys. for 1790. 
M 2 



HARE, Mosel(Tam,) Khurgoosh Jiiyfj^(Duk.) 
Amub v-b' (Arab.) Sussa (Hind.) ^JSiT ^f^^^ (Sans.) 
Koondelo (Tel.) Lievre (Fr.) 

Lepus Timidus (Lin.) 

The hare is common in India, and is a much 
fleeter animal than in Europe ; though smaller, it 
differs but little in appearance from the European hare, 
but Dr. F. Hamilton is inclined to make it a new 
species, Lepus Khurgosa; as food it is often dry j the 
Vytiaiis prescribe the flesh for incontinence of urine. 


HELLEBORE, BLACK. Kdddgdrdganie 
BS(B'(^(lrrrru^6r5v;f^ (Tam.) Katookaroganie (Tel.) 

Caloorana (Cyng.) KdturdhM 5Ff^':^f^'t(Sans.) 

Kalikootkie ^^2r ^LT (Duk.) Kherhek as'wed uijjsL 

:i^J\ (Arab.) Kherbeck siya xIaa^ ^a^ (Pers.) 

Niestwortel (Dut.) Helleboro (Port.) Hellebore 

(Fr.) Schwartz Niesswurzel (Ger.) 

Helleborus Niger (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Polygamia. Nat. Ord. 
Multisilique (Lin.) 

I have given the names kdddgdrdganie and kali* 
kootkie as the Tamool and Dukhanie appellations 
of black hellebore, as the root procured in the In- 
dian bazars, is commonly said to be so ; but I have 
great doubts of it, and here ofier a caution respect- 


ing it, as it by no means agrees in appearance with 
the black hellebore of the European shops, though it 
is equally nauseous, bitter and acrid. This root, I 
mean our article, may be distinguished from the black 
hellebore, commonly so called, by being quite black 
inside in place of white or yellowish ; it is very 
easily broken, and is usually found in pieces six or 
seven inches long, with numerous joints, and of a 
greyish colour outside. I am inclined to think that 
it is the root of some other species of hellebore, per- 
haps that very drug, so much celebrated by the 
ancients, which Woodville tells us, grew in Antycera, 
and which he supposes was the root of the helleborus 
orientalis. Virey* seems to be of opinion that the 
hellebore of the ancients was the white not the black ; 
though he ought to know that Pliny and other 
writers speak distinctly of both. 

The kdddgdroganiey whatever it may be, grows, by 
Kirkpatrick's account, in Nepaul, and is there called 
kootka (see his work, p. 182.) ; it is also brought to 
India by way of the Red Sea, from Syria; it is 
much used by farriers as a purge for horses, and also 
cautiously among the hakeems as a drastic cathartic 
in maniacal cases, and may be purchased in every 
druggist's shop in Lower India. 

Celsus prescribed black hellebore as a purge in 
mania, it is now seldom used in substance ; the 
root has a nauseous, acrid taste (benumbing the 
tongue) which is however lessened by keeping. The 
decoction. Dr. Pearson t thinks, may be given with ad- 
vantage in cases of insanity, and in certain dropsical 
affections, in doses of about 5j. that of the extract 
is from five to ten grains. White hellebore (vera- 

* See his Histoire Naturelle do Medicamens, p. 132. 
t See his Practical Synopsis of the Materia Medica. 

M 3 


trum album) I have never seen in India, it has, how- 
ever, been described to me by a learned Hindoo un- 
der the name of Piddroganie (Tam.), but I do not 
give this with confidence ; it is now seldom prescribed 
owing to the violence of its operation, being at once 
a most drastic cathartic, emetic and sternutatory, 
often even in the smallest doses exciting tremors^ 
vertigo, and syncope, and if the dose is large, death. 
Orfila places both the hellebores amongst his poisons, 
(vol.ii. parti, p. 6. 11.) Celsus gave the white in 
that species of derangement attended with peculiar 
hilarity of spirits, a practice which has been resorted 
to with varying advantage in these our days.* The 
Arabians class black hellebore amongst their cathar- 
tics, giving it to the quantity of half a direrriy and 
corrected by means of oil of almonds or tragacanth. 
The white hellebore which they call ^LIa*. (Ji;>j^, they 
place amongst their emetics ; dose half a direm cor- 
rected by mastich ; as a succedaneum, they use the 
nux vomica. Alibert t speaks highly of the virtues 
of black hellebore in dropsical cases, in the form of 
the pihdes toniques de Backer. The root of the 
black hellebore has lately been analysed by MM. 
Feneulle et Capron ; the products, were 1. a volatile 
oil ; 2. a fatty matter ; 3. a resinous matter ; 4. 
wax ; 5. a volatile acid ; 6. a bitter principle ; 7. 
mucus ; 8. alumina ; 9- gallate of potash, and 
acidulous gallate of lime ; 10. a salt with an ammo- 
niacal base. For the opinion of Pliny, respecting 
the two hellebores, the reader is referred to his Nat. 
Hist. (tom. iii. cap. v. p. 20.) *^ Nigrum alii entomon 
vocant alii polyrrhizoriy purgat inferna ; candidum 

*■ See G. Kerr's Medical Sketclies on the Use of Hellebore in 

•j- See his Elemens de Therapeutic, vol. i. p. 290 — 293. 


autem vomitione, causasque morborum extrahit/' * 
The black hellebore plant is described in the Lon- 
don Dispensatory. The white is a native of Greece, 
and is no doubt the ExxsS'o^o^ T^svxog of Dioscorides ; 
of the CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia, and 
Nat. Ord, Coronariae (Lin.) I have mentioned 
above Celsus's opinion regarding the black and white 
hellebores, I shall here subjoin his words, in speaking 
of what purges are to be given in particular cases ; 
he says, ^* Ut cum veratrum nigrum^ aut atra bile 
vexatis, aut cum tristitia insanientibus, aut iis quorum 
nervi parte aliqua resoluti sunt datur:'' again *'In 
tristitia, nigrum veratrum dejectionis causa ; in hi- 
laritate album ad vomitum exitandum dari debet.'*' 
Lib. ii. cap. xii. and lib. iii. cap. xvi. 


HENBANE SEED. Kdrdsdnie omum ©c^9=rr 

63:rf""65LOLD (Tam.) Khorassanie-ajooan ^^j\^Sj,:L 
(^yJ^ (Duk. and Hind.) Buzirulbmij ^^t^]jy-i 
(Arab.) UrmaniJwoii ^^^^jCjU,! (Arab.) Korassanie 
(Cyng.) AdaS'pedas (Mai.) Adas (Jav.) Jus- 
quiame (Fr.) Bilsenkraut (Ger.) also Sikrdn 

^y^jSijy^ (Arab.) 

Hyoscyamus Niger (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

* In the same chapter, Pliny observes, that the black hellebore 
is serviceable in palsy, lunacy, and dropsy ; the white in epilepsy, 
vertigo, melancholy, elephas, leuce, and the filthy leprosy. By 
elephas, here, I presume is meant the Cochin or Barbadoes leg, as 
distinct from elephantiasis. 

U 4 

j6& >iateria indica. part I. 

I have never seea the plant in India ; but the 
small, flat, brown seeds of it, are common in the 
medicine bazars, and are prescribed by the Ha- 
Iceems to soothe the mind, procure sleep, and keep 
the bowels gently open, in cases of melancholy and 
mania ; what of the article is found in India 
is brought from Turkey, where the seeds are called 
benge, and hence, according to D'Herbelot*', the 
word bangy which the seed is sometimes termed 
in the upper provinces of India, and which is used 
by the Mahometans of the lower districts, to express 
an intoxicating drug ; but is generally applied ta 
the bruised and prepared leaves of the Cannabis In- 
dica (Willd) 

Celsust as well as Stoerck, gave henbane to pro- 
cure sleep in mania, and Pliny speaks of its virtues 
in various ways : — ** Succus hyoscyami etiam sangui- 
nem ea^creantibus : nidor quoque accensi tussientibusJ^ 
(vol. iii. cap. v. p. 70.) *^ Succus hyoscyami cum 
axungia arliculis.'' (cap. xi. p. 94.) ^^Hyoscyamum 
ge?2€taUbus medetur.'^ (cap. viii. p. 87.) He tells 
us that there are different kinds of henbane, but that 
the black chiefly grew in Galatia. (cap. iv.) Fors- 
kahl, in his Materia Medica Khairina, mentions this 
medicine as being brought from Greece to Egypt in 
his day, and administered to procure sleep, adding, 
that it might with safety be given to children. Mo- 
dern physicians employ it as an anodyne in cases 
in which the binding influence of opium might be 
injurious : the extract made from the fresh leaves, 
and the tincture made from the dried leaves, are used, 
the dose of the first is from grs. iss. to as far as^ 
grs. XX. that of the tincture from 5 to 25 drops. In 

* See D'Herbelot's Bibliotheque Orientale, p. 184, 
f Vide Cels. lib. iii. cap. xviii. 


large doses henbane is apt to produce many bad 
symptoms, often ending in delirium, great debility, 
convulsions and death. Mr. A.T.Thomson tells us, that 
united with colocynth, he has found henbane particu- 
larly useful in colica pictonum : externally it has 
been applied to allay irritation in over-sensible 
parts. The modern Arabs place henbane amongst 
their Narcotics vi^j^^i-^ {Mohederrai). The tree, 
though a native of Europe, would appear to be well 
known in Arabia, where it is called arista \\a.u.J\ and 
by the Persians bungh ^JL» ; it is an indigenous an- 
nual, with a long tapering, compact root, sessile, 
alternate leaves, and an embracing stem. 

In eastern countries, as far as I can learn, the 
seeds alone appear to be known medicinally, the 
leaves when fresh have a strong foetid odour, but 
that goes off when the plant is dried ; henbane yields 
its virtues completely to diluted alcohol. In the 
leaves of the plant Brande ascertained the pre- 
sence of a peculiar and highly poisonous salifiable 
base, which he calls hyoscyama* ; with the acids it 
forms characteristic salts ; and crystallizes in long 
prisms. Alibertt recommends ^^desboissons acides,'* 
for such as had been poisoned by henbane. 

Murray, in his Appar. Medic, vol. i. p. ^55, has 
treated fully of henbane, and its use in convul- 
sions, palpitation, mania and melancholy: with re- 
gard to its anodyne powers, he says, " opio ipso, in 
somno etquiete inducenda, aliquando potentius fiiit! !*' 

* See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. iii. p, 116. 

t See his Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol.i. p. 425. 



HOG. Punnie lj6ot^(5:j(^ (Tarn.) Pun die (Tel.) 
Soorjy^ (Duk. and Hind.) Khmzeer j^,y=^ (Arab.) 
Khook S^sL (Pers.) Varahd ^TJ^ (Sans.) Babi 
(Mai.) Cochon (Fr.) also Sukdrd ^^\ (Sans.) 

Sus ScoRFA (Jonst.) 

The common breed of hogs which is met with in 
India is not much prized, the animal is long legged, 
and is not easily fattened ; a better kind is often 
brought from China, with shorter legs ; but is still 
very inferior to the tame hog of Europe. The In- 
dians, like the Chinese, are very careless with re- 
gard to the feeding of their pigs, which are generally 
allowed to run about the streets ; and are, I am 
inclined to think, so neglected, most unwholesome 
food, perhaps contributing to produce, in conjunc- 
tion wdth badly prepared salt-fish, some of the worst 
kinds of cutaneous diseases. The Mahometans of 
course eat no pork, nor will admit even the name of 
it into any of their books. For the dehcate, the 
flesh of the hog in all its forms, is certainly im- 
proper, being too rich, and consequently apt to 
nauseate and cloy the stomach ; for the strong or 
labouring people it is an excellent food. The sus 
scorfa is a native of all the temperate parts of Eu- 
rope and Asia, and is also found in the upper regions 
of Africa. The Chinese, who are fond of pork, 
usually rear, what they call, the Siamese breed, 
which is smaller than the European sow, and more 
resembles that of the South-Sea islands. The Romans 



held the hog in singular esteem, and the art of rear- 
ing it, was discussed under the title of porculatio. 
What is called the wild hog in India, sits habiroussa 
(Lin. j, a name taken from the Malay word ^^j <-jL» 
habrics^ is common in the woods and jungles, and if 
killed at certain seasons, when the animal has been 
feeding on the sugar cane, is certainly of all animal 
food the most delicate and delicious ; it is not fat, rich 
and heavy Hke pork, but resembles more venison of the 
finest quality. It lies hght on the most daintyand de- 
licate stomach, and after the fish whiting is commonly 
the first animal food that is allowed to convalescents in 
India. The species babiroussa, may be distinguished 
by having the two upper tusks growing from the lower 
part of the front. The following are some of the 
names of this animal, given by eastern nations : — Caa- 
too poonnie (Tam.) Adivi pundie (Tel.) Sdrsel 
^y^ (Duk.) Bobbee ootan (Mai.) Bunyla ik>.;^ 
(Hind.) Kandna sukdrd ^T^^ ^^T (Sans.) 

Hog's lard (adeps suillus), which is obtained chiefly 
from the flank of the domestic hog, the Vytians not 
only use ^as we do, in the preparation of ointments 
and plasters, but when mixed with the dried and 
powdered root of the shrub called in Tamool paloo- 
pdgulkodi (momordica dioica) they prescribe it in- 
ternally in all their three varieties of piles. Malay 
moolum (blind piles), 7'utta moolum (bleeding piles), 
and shee-moolum (piles, attended with a discharge 
of matter). The Mahometan doctors of course em- 
ploy nothing that is taken from the hog. Hog's lard 
is in Tamool poonnie coMpoOy ^^ c/j^^^ (Duk.) 
pundie kowoo (Tel.) sukarvapd ^^"^'^m (Sans.) 
ooromusstoo latail (Cyng.) 

I cannot conclude without observing that it has 
been remarked by Dr. Kinglake, that of all animal 


food, mutton and pork are the easiest digested ; 
and we know that Celsus says, that of the tame ani- 
mals, the flesh of the hog is the lightest for man. 
Vide Cels* Ub. ii. cap. xviii. 


HONEY. Tayn Cg-onr (Tam.) Shdhid j^ 
(Pers.) Madku T^ (Sans.) Ayermdddoo (Mai.) 
Ussel ulnehl J^^! J^c (Arab.) Taynie (Tel.) Mee- 
panney (Cyng.) Miel (Fr.) Gemeiner honig (Ger.) 
Mudhoo (Hind.) also ^jj<jS.j\ (Arab.) Mel (Port.) 


Honey is much used in pharmacy by the native 
doctors ; it is the produce of wild bees, and is 
brought from the woods and jungles. Dr. F. Ham- 
milton observed four varieties of honey, in the 
Coimbatore country, viz. the Mdlen-tenneej Toduggy- 
tenneey Cdshu-tenneej andCdmbU'tennee. From the comb 
or nest of the bee which produces the first, in gene- 
ral the most honey is obtained ; but the last men- 
tioned honey, which is also from a large bee, is of 
the finest quality. The most common bees, however, 
are those which produce the tbduggy-tennee^ and 
coshU'tenneey they are small in size, but collect much 
honey. The same intelligent author, in speaking of 
the bees of the eastern tracts of the Mysore country, 
says, here the bees are of four kinds : — 1st. the h^- 
negUy which yields much wax and honey, it is a large 
bee ; 2d. the cddiy a small bee, building a comb of 
an oblong shape, round the branch of a tree ; 3d. 
the tiidiivayy the honey of which is good, but not 


easily procured ; and lastly, the togrigay a small bee 
which seldom stings, and takes possession of ants' 

The ancients did not think very highly of honey, 
as may be seen from various passages of Celsus, 
<Sstomacho alienum est mel, &c. &c.;** but when good, 
we know it to be at once nourishing and laxative ; 
and externally applied, it is supposed to be a useful 
detergent ; in some habits, however, it is found fre- 
quently to occasion griping, and when taken in great 
quantity it has not seldom occasioned violent pains 
in the abdominal regions, convulsions and even death. 
The quality of honey, some writers on the subject 
seem to think, depends on the nature of the plants 
from which the bees extract it ; it certainly differs 
much in colour in different tracts of country, 
and also in flavour ; there is a darkish green colour- 
ed kind in India, which the Vytians allege cannot 
be eaten with impunity, and we know that Diosco- 
rides speaks of honey in the east being dangerous 
in certain years ; nay, Xenophon relates, that when 
the army of ten thousand approached Trebisond, the 
soldiers, who had partaken freely of honey found in 
the neighbourhood, were affected like persons ine- 
briated, several becoming furious, and seeming as if 
in the agonies of death. Pliny* tell us what plants 
were considered in his days as the best suited for the 
bees. The heath honey of Scotland is proverb- 
ially excellent. The honey bee in Sanscrit is 
^H i, brahmaray and in Malay k^ lebah. 

The honey of Arabia Felix is said to be of a very 
superior quality, the doctors of that country place it, 

medicinally, amongst their ^^Ji ^^S oUL?^ (Deter- 
* See his Nat. Hist. torn. i. lib. xi. cap. xv. p. 751. 


gentia). Honey, according to Brande *, is a variety 
of sugar, containing a crystallizable and an uncrys- 
tallizable portion, the predominance of one or other of 
which gives it its peculiar character ; it also contains 
wax and a little acid matter. 

We are informed by the distinguished Baron 
Humboldt, in his Political Essay on the Kingdom of 
New Spain (vol. iii. p. 21. Eng. trans.) that a great 
deal of a kind of thin honey, which is very valuable, 
is got in Mexico, from the Agave Americanaj and 
which is there called maguey de pulque : it would 
appear that it is procured by cutting the corazon or 
bundle of central leaves, from the wounds issues the 
delicious sweet fluid, and continues to be poured out 
for three months. From the Hortus Jamaicensis, we 
are further informed (vol. i. p. ^3Q.\ that the mock- 
ing birds are extremely fond of this honey which 
they find at the base of the flower : tlie plant is fully 
described by Sloane (vol. i. p. 246.), and Browne 

(p. 1990- 

In the Cuddapa district on the Coromandel coast, 

there is a very singular kind of honey, brought from 
the woods; in place of being liquid in the comb, it is 
quite hard and candied, of the form of the cells, 
and drops out like sugarplums : the natives say its 
peculiar character is owing to the bees, which are 
small, feeding on the flowers and sweetish-bitter fruit 
of a tree, called in Tellingoo paloo-chittoo. The 
honey is light coloured, pleasant tasted, and is sup- 
posed to be the best for medicinal purposes. 

* See his Manual of Chemistry, vol. iii. p. 27. 



HORSE RADISH, substitute for, or MOO- 
RUNGHY ROOT. Moorunghy vayr (L^^r^j(y^Uy 
GcTU'T" (Tarn.) Moonaga-vayroo (Tel.) Moongay 
TcejharhejuTy^ tj J^^^ J" ^^^^-^ (Duk. ) Sttjna l;^4^ 
(Hind.) Sigroomfdd U?^^^ also Sobhdnjdnd 

S[nMT3T^ (Sans.) Merikoolumoolu (Cyng.) Nug- 
gagedda (Can.) Shojena (Beng.) 

Hyperanthera Moringha (Vahl.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentaceae. Gemeine Behenuss (Nom. Triv, 

The moorunghy root has obtained the name of 
horse radish, from the English in India, from its 
great resemblance to it in appearance, taste, and 
natural qualities, and from its being used as such ; it 
is the green root of the hyperanthera moringha, the 
legume of which is an excellent pot vegetable. The 
native doctors prescribe the green root, which has a 
pungent odour, with a warm biting, and somewhat 
aromatic taste, as a stimulant in paralytic affections, 
and intermittent fever, in doses of about 3 i ; they 
also employ it in cases of epilepsy and hysteria, 
and consider it as a valuable rubefacient in palsy and 
chronic rheumatism. The plant is the q^^L ban of 
Avicenna (137) : it is growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, and is common all over India. 

Dr. Fleeming informs us, that in Bengal an ex- 
pressed oil is prepared from the seeds, which resists 


rancidity, and which is looked upon as an excellent 
medicine, employed externally, for easing the pain of 
the joints, in gout and acute rheumatism ; the seeds 
are the ben nutSy of old writers on the Materia Me- 
dica, and the huhulbdn qjU!U-* of the Arabians, who 
place them amongst their o]^iX< Muderrdt (Stimu- 
lantia) the dose 2 direms. 

The tree is the morunga of the Hort. Mai. 
(6. p. 19 1. 11.) and the moringa zeylanica, of Burm. 
Zeyl. (162. t. 7^0 It is the guilandina moringa of 
Linnaeus, and is a middling-sized tree, with rather 
erect branches ; the leaves are irregularly triplicate, 
pinnate, with an odd leaf; the leaflets, small and 
oval, standing on slender purplish pedicels, waving 
beautifully in the wind ; the flowers are small, white, 
tinged with yellow at the base ; and grow on the 
wings of the stalks. In Jamaica the wood is used j 
for dyeing a blue colour, for which purpose I cannot 
learn that it is employed in India. 

The moorunghy tree, or as it is sometimes called in 
English, the smooth honduc tree, is much prized 
in many eastern countries, particularly in Java, as 
well for its excellent edible legume, as its valuable 
root and seeds. The Malays term the tree kellor^ 
which is also Javanese, in Arabic it is ^Lk tdmen^ in I 
Persian ^y^jy^ moriaben ; and in Guzarattie trerida: ' 
the fruit or legume, the Canarese call nugay or nuriga. J 
Both the leaves and flowers are also eaten by the 
natives of India, so that in fact there is no part of 
this plant that is^ not turned to some good account. 
We are told by Virey, that some of the French 
writers have considered the ben nuts, which they term 
jpoe5 queniqueSy also chicoty are of use in venereal 
affections. For an account of the character of the 


plant in Java, the reader is referred to Dr. Horsfield's 
List of the Medicinal Plants of that country, in 
which he will observe, that according to the Thesau- 
rus Leytanirus, the moorunghy root (kellor) has been 
considered as most useful in dropsy ; a virtue which 
was believed by Sydenham to distinguish the horse- 
radish of Europe (cochlearia armoracia) ; a syrup 
made with an infusion of which, Dr. CuUen found 
efficacious in removing hoarseness arising from re- 


HYSSOP. Zufaiy yeabus y^L cfLi^j (Arab.) 
Hyssope (Fr.) Isop (Ger.) 


CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae. 

This article is inserted here merely from my hav- 
ing discovered that it has a place in the Ulfaz Ud- 
wiyeh ; so is in all probability known in the higher 
tracts of Hindoostan. It is possible, as the plant is 
brought to India from Syria, that it may not be the 
hyssopus officinalis, which Alston seems to have been 
of opinion was a different plant from the ucrcoTrog of 
the Greeks, and was not the Esof of the Hebrews. 
Whatever the ^j^jL cjU^^j is, the Arabians class it 
amongst their ^.Js^Sj;^ cAjiiD\ji Katat didan (Anthelmen- 
tica), and c^SjO^^ Modurrdt (Stimulantia). The officinal 
hyssop of Europe is well known to be considered 
as tonic, and stimulant ; and was at one time a me- 
dicine in repute in what are called nervous cases. 
Pliny appears to have thought this herb useful in 

VOL. I. N 


affections of the chest : '* Hyssopi quoque qiunque 
rami cum duobus rutae et ficis tribus decocti tho- 
racem purgant,** (Lib. xxvi. cap. vii.) ; again speak- 
ing of it, he says, ^*pellitqiie ventris animalia.** 
(Lib. xxvi. cap. viii.) For a long list of otlier virtues 
which have been ascribed to hyssop, the reader 
may consult Cullen, and Phillip's Treatise on Culti- 
vated Vegetables. ( Vol. i. p. ^69.) The hyssopus 
officinalis, with another species, the nepetoides^ were 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, 
introduced, I believe, from North America, by W. 
Hamilton, Esq. 

Celsus considered hyssopus as possessing diuretic 
qualities, '* urinam movet," and also to be useful in 
coughs, ^' oportet hyssoj)um altero quoque die tussis 
bibere." (Lib. ii. cap. xxxi. & lib. iv. cap. iv.) 


INDIGO. Neelum /j^ox-ld (Tam.) A^//(Cyng.) 
Neel j^/j (Arab. Pers. and Duk.) Taroom (Mai.) 
Nili ^\^} also NilM ^^ife^ft (Sans, and Tel.) 
Indigo (Fr.) Indigo (Ger.) Anil (Port.) IvS/xov 
(Dioscor.) Cham-nhO'la (Coch. Chin.) 

Indigofera Anil (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Sicheljrnchtiger Indigo (Nom. Triv. 

Mr. H. T, Colebrooke, in his valuable Remarks on 
the Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal, says J^of 
indigo : " The manufacture of Indigo appears to 
have been known and practised in India from 
the earliest period. From this country (India), 


whence the dye obtains its scientific name, Eu- 
rope was anciently supplied with it, until the pro- 
duce of America * engrossed the market, especially 
that of Mexico, Louisiana, and CaroHna/' But as 
the plant has been cultivated for ages all over 
Arabia, and in many parts of Persia, where it is 
called neely it may become a question whether the 
Indians may not have borrowed a name for indigo 
from the more western countries. The Tamools call 
the plant averie, in Sanscrit it is vishashodavie ; it is 
the amcri of the Hort. Malab., which, according to 
Wilklenow, is also the Sanscrit name given to the 
species tinctoria, wliich, that author says, ditlers from 
the other: *'/o//o//.v obovatis, obtusis, utrin(|ue nudis, 
leguminibus teretibus, rectis, etiam sutura gibbosiore, 
subtorulosa : racemis laxis, minutis/' 

One and twenty species of indigofera are grow- 
ini; in the botanical i^arden of Calcutta. 

The leaf of the ])hmt (ind. anil), is an article of 
the Tamool Materia Medica, and is su})posGd to 
have virtues in pukka soolai/ (Tam.J, hepatitis, 
given in the form of powder, mixed with a Uttle 
honey ; and a decoction of the root is reckoned 
amongst those medicines which have the })ower of 
counteracting poisons, given to the quantity of four 
or five ounces, twice daily. 

Further notice shall be taken of indigo in an- 
other part of this work. 

Pliny, in speaking of indigo t i»^ his time, says, 

* The finest indigo in the world was that of Guatinmla, a pro- 
vince of Mexico ; now tlie best from Bengal is eqnal to it. 

t Both he and Dioscorides speak distinctly of indigo, and both 
notice two kinds ; Pliny observes, that when nure it gives a beau- 
tiful purple colour, anl was used for dyeing blue. See Pliny Nat. 
Hist. lib. XXXV. can. G tuid 7. p.688. also Diosc. lib. v. cap. 107. 
p. S66. 

N ^2 


** non pridem apportari et Indicum est caeptum/' and 
we know that he died about 80 years after the 
coming of Christ. 

Indigo was at one period an article of the British 
Materia Medica ; the Romans ascribed to it extra- 
ordinary virtues : *^ rigores et impetus sedat, et 
siccat ulcera*," but it is no longer prescribed by 
regular practitioners ; and I have been informed 
that its internal use is even prohibited by law in 
in some parts of Germany. On the west coast of 
the Indian Peninsula the Vytians supposed it to have 
good effects when given in decoction in nephri- 
tic complaints. We are informed by Mr. Lunant, 
that the negroes of the West Indies use a strong 
infusion of the indigo root in rum for destroying 
vermin in their heads. 

Baron Humboldt tells us that three kinds of 
indigo are cultivated in the kingdom of New 
Spain, viz. that from the indigofera anil, ind. 
tinctoria, and ind. disperma. See his Political 
Essay on that Kingdom, vol.iii. p. 21. (Eng. trans.) 

The reader will find a good analysis of indigo by . 
Chevreul in the Ann. de Chim. Ixvi. 20. X 


IPECACUANHA, substitutes for. See articles, 
Euphorbium in this chapter, Coriiija (asclepias vomi- 

* See Pliny *s Natural History, lib. xxxv. cap. vi. 

t See his Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. p. 426 

J By his account 100 parts of indigo (of Guatimala) contain 
45 parts of pure indigo, which is two less than Bergman found ; 
the other parts are gum, oxide of iron, resin and earth. For an 
excellent description of the properties of indigo, see a valuable 
paper by John Dalton, Esq. in the Memoirs of the Literary So- 
ciety of Manchester. 


toriaj in the second part of this work, Marukarungkai 
(gardenia dumetorum) in the same part, and Sirroo 
coorinja vayr (periploca sylvestris) in the same part. 
Forskahl, in his Materia Medica Kahrina, speaks of 
seeds which vomit mildly, called ^ji^^ ^js;i> J.^^^, and 
which he believes are brought from India ; what they 
are I know not. 

In a very curious and interesting work, by Des- 
longchamps, entitled, ''Manuel des Plantes Usueiles 
Indigenes,'* into which he introduces an account 
of such plants as might be substituted for others 
during the times of war and difficulty, I find, in 
speaking of those that might be used for Ipeca- 
cuanha, he says, '' Dans mes experiences, j'ai soumis 
a une observation exacte, treize de ces plantes ; sa- 
voir, les racines de six euphorbes, celles de quatre 
narcisses, les feuilles d'asaret, (asarum europaeum 
Lin.) les racines de la dentelaire (plumbago europasa), 
et celles de la betoine (betonica officinalis) ;'' the 
leaves of the asarum europaeum appear, by his ac- 
count, to be the most decidedly emetic of all those 
he mentions. (See vol. 2.) 

In addition to what I have already said, it may 
be observed, that the roots of various species of 
cynanchum have been used as emetics in different 
eastern countries : such as the c. vomitorium of 
Lamarck ; the c. ipecacuanha (Vahl) on the Coro- 
mandel coast; the c. mauritianum of Cammerson at 
the Isle of France ; and the c. tomentosum (Vahl) 
on Ceylon. What is called the white ipecacuanha 
of Bengal is referred to the c. laevigatum of Vahl. 
See Oriental Herald for March, 1824. 

N 3 



tcssosumd assmaii joonie ^^^^ (^^l^v^! ^^^^W y^S also 
Irsa U^j! (Arab.) Iris de Florence (Fr.) Violen- 
wurzel (Ger.) 

Iris Florentina (Lin.) 

CJ. and Ord. Triandria Monogynia. Nat.'^Ord. 
Ensatae (Lin.) 

I'his root has merely got a place here from being 
noticed in the Ul/az Udwiyeh. The plant is a native 
of Rhodes, Laconia, and other parts of Southern 
Europe, and is growing with three other species in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta. European practition- 
ers have recommended the fresh root as a cathartic 
in dropsies ; it has a bitterish nauseous taste, and i& 
peculiarly acrid. French writers on the Materia 
Medica have given a place to no less than four 
species of iris, viz. the germanica^ the Jlore?ilina^ the 
foetidissima^ and pseudo-acorus. The two first Des- j 
longchamps* believes to possess nearly similar pur- 
gative properties ; of the species pseud, ac. he says, 
*^ son sue, introduit dans la bouche ou dans les na- 
rines, meme en petite quantite, provoque une abon- 
dante salivation.'" Of the last, foetid, he observes, 
^* elles passent pour etre utiles dans les scrophules, 
et dans Tasthma."" The Arabian writers consider 
this root as suppurative, and also rank it amongst 
their Deobstruents, c-Lsr^*^-^ {Mufettehai). 

* See his ^^ Manuel des Plantes Usuelles Indigenes." Vol.ii. 



JALAP, substitute for. See Sirticle Shevadie vai/r 
in Part II. of this work. For an interesting and 
scientific account of no less than eight substitutes 
for the real jalap, which were examined by Deslong- 
champs, see his ** Manuel des Plantes Usuelles In- 
digenes.'* (Vol. ii. p. 53.) They are: 1. the root 
of the convolvulus soldanella ; 2. the root and leaves 
of the momordica elaterium ; 3. the root of the 
bryonia dioica ; 4. that of the convolvulus althae- 
oides ; 5. those of the thaspia villosa; 6. that of the 
eupatorium cannabinum ; J. those of the anthericum 
planifolium ; and lastly the petals of the rosa canina. 
Of all those he says, the best and what comes near- 
est to the true jalap, is the root of the convolv. sol- 
danella, and which may be rendered a little moje 
powerful by adding about the sixth part of its weight 
of the euphorbia pithyusa ("Lin.). The dose is a 
little less than that of the root of the convolvulus 

There are several articles of the Tamool; Materia 
Medica, which might be called substitutes for jalap, but 
I have especially mentioned the shevddie vayr or root 
of the convolvulus turpethum, as one of the most 

It would appear that Mr. Hume, jun., has lately 
discovered a vegeto-alkaline principle in jalap, and 
has called lijalapine^ it is without taste or smell, is 
heavier than morphia, quinia, or other substances of 
that nature, and in the process for preparing it, which 
is a little intricate, is thrown down in white crystals, 
%\ of jalap yields about 5 grains of jalapine. 

N 4 



KID. Aatoo koottie 534,'^ ©"^©i—' O- (Tarn* 

Buckray ke butche ke gosht c^i;,^ \S »^i J^ i^y^j 
(Duk.) Vaynta pilla (Tel.) Anakcambing (Mai.) 
Aja putra sij^MrJ (Sans.) Chevreau (Fr.) Juddee 
cf J^ (Arab.) Hulwan (Hind.) Bdz-ghdleh aIU^^ 


Caro Hcedina, 

Goat's flesh is improper for the delicate ; the same 
cannot be said of that of the kid, which is on the 
contrary one of the lightest and safest of all kinds of 
animal food for the sick ; that of India, generally 
speaking, is excellent, and often preferred, even by 
those who are in health, to lamb : both kid and lamb I 
have observed in India to be less dense and heating 
than mutton, and therefore better suited to weak sto- 
machs. By a Tamool medical work, entitled Aghastier 
VytiaAnyoiiroo^ we learn that the flesh of goats (capra 
hircus) is useful and proper for the consumptive and 
asthmatic, also for such as suffer from hypochon- 
driasis, and other enervating complaints ; that of 
the wild goat (capra ibex), and which the Tellingoos 
call adivi vaynta pilla^ is considered as peculiarly un- 
wholesome. The kid's flesh in the same work is 
spoken of as proper for such as have venereal erup- 
tions, and contractions of the limbs from nervous 
affections. The common goat in Tamool is aatoo^ 
the wild mountain variety is common in many East- 
ern countries ; the Arabians term it erkicb v^^^l, and 
the Persians bitzi koo-hee ^^^y-> I am led to believe 


that it differs little from the .^r (kumbah) of the 


KINO. Toomble hodn ^ld'l— 'ov^^ o^-jn-^^r 

(Tarn.) Dummulackwayn ^^j^sL^S^:^^ also Kcindd- 
moor gdrit turn (Tarn.) 

Eucalyptus Resinifera (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icoscandria M onogynia. Harz- 
hringende Schonmutze (Nom. Triv.Willd.) 

I have observed under the head of dragon's blood, 
that kino is but partially known in India, and is 
generally confounded with the first mentioned ar- 
ticle ; that kind of it, however, which is obtained 
from the eucalyptus resinifera, is occasionally to be 
found in the medicine bazaars, and is brought, I be- 
lieve, from New Holland, where the tree grows to a 
prodigious height, and yields the kino on incisions 
being made into the wood of the trunk ; it differs 
very little from that drug which was introduced 
into practice under the same name by Dr. Fother- 
gill, and which was no doubt obtained from a very 
lately ascertained tree in Africa, growing near 
Gambia. Dr. Duncan, junior, in his excellent Edin- 
burgh Dispensatory, mentions a third sort, which is 
stated to be procured in Jamaica from the coccoloba 
uvifera or sea-side grape. Mr. A. T.Thomson in his 
London Dispensatory in speaking of kino^ says ; 
*' although the Edinburgh College has inserted kinoy 
as the inspissated juice of the eucalyptus resinifera, 
and the Dublin College has considered it as the pro- 
duct of the butea frondosa, we believe the best Is 


got from an African plant, and from the specimen 
sent home by Mungo Park, that appears to be a pte- 
rocarpus, and according to the Encyclopedic Metho- 
dique, the species erinacea/' 

The Botany Bay kino, the only kind I have seen 
in an Indian bazaar*, is without much smelL bitter 
to the taste, and much more austere than the African 
drug, resembling rather that obtained from the cocco- 
loba uvifera of Jamaica, but without its acidity.t Ki- 
no, from whatever plant it has hitherto been obtained, 
seems to differ but httle in its natural or chemical 
qualities. It has been considered by the practition- 
ers of Europe as powerfully astringent, and em- 
ployed with success in fluor albus, chronic diarrhoea, 
and uterine and intestinal haemorrhages ; the dose 
of the substance from grs. x. to jss; the tincture 
from 5SS. to 5ij. Kino is used in the arts : wool or 
cotton, boiled in a solution of it, and then dipped in 
a bath of sulphate of iron, assumes a bottle-green 
colour ; but which changes by washing and drying 
to a very durable blackish brown. By experiments 
made on kino by Dr. Duncan, junior, and also by 
Vauquelin, it appears to contain a large quantity of 
tannin, and that this is the ingredient on which its 
specific properties depend. See Nicholson's Journal 
(vii. p.'^ol.), also Ann. de Chimie (xlvi. p. 2SJ1.). It 
does not appear to contain any gallic acid. 

Alibert informs us, that in France, ** kino a re9U 
de grandes eloges pour le traitement des flux chro- 

* Without the inspissated juice of the nauclea gambir is to be 
included amongst the kinos. 

t Almost every part of this tree is peculiarly astringent. It is 
a large, crooked, shady tree, which bears clusters of grapes, which 
are not unpleasant when ripe ; the seeds of them reduced to 
powder is an useful astringent. See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. i. 
p. 77. 


niques de la membrane muqueuse des intestines et 
du vagin/' See his ^^ Nouveaux Elemens de la 
Therapeutique/' Vol. i. p. I70. 


LABDANUM. Ladicn ^^^^ (Arab.) Ciste 
ladenifere (Fr.) 

CisTus Creticus CLin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Rotaceag. Cretischie cistenrose (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

This resinous substance, which was considered by 
some of our old writers as cephalic^ pectoral and 
nervine, is now only used by us in the preparation of 
certahi plasters, which are applied to the epigastric 
region in cases of flatulency, and spasms in the sto- 
mach : and we know that Celsus* was in the habit 
of preparing with it a plaster which he considered as 
serviceable in bad ulcers. 

The small balsamic and aromatic shrub, from 
which this substance is procured, grows in Crete and 
Syria, where, according to Pocock, it is called ladany; 
the resin is got by drawing lightly a kind of rake 
with thongs to it over the shrub, so as to take up 
the unctuous juice, which is afterwards scraped off' 
with a knife ; the best is in dark-coloured masses, 
of the consistence of soft plaster, becoming still 
softer on being handled. 

The shrub seldom rises higher than two feet, with 
leaves spatulate-ovate, petioled, nerveless, rugged, 
calyxes lanceolate, the petals are of a rose purple- 

* Vide Celsus, lib. v. cap. xxvi. 


colour, without smell, and forming a corolla an inch 
and a half in diameter. 

The Arabians use labdanum as a perfume, and in 
fumigations, and also class it amongst their c^l^*^^ 
(Suppurantia): it has no place in the French Materia 
Medica of Ahbert ; Deslongchamps notices it in 
his '' Manuel des Plantes Usuelles Indigines,'' and 
tells us, that it is given internally in France, as a 
tonic and astringent, in doses of from 5i to si v. 
See work, vol. i. p. 46. 

Pliny says, that ladanum was in his day found ad- 
hering to the beards of the goats in Cyprus, and as- 
cribes to it most singular virtues : ^^ ladanum suffitu 
corrigit vulvas : doleri earum exhulceratisque im- 
ponitur.'' See his Nat. Hist. lib. xxvi. cap. viii. also 
lib. xxvi. cap. xv. 


LAC. Komb'Urruk G^''^LDL-ja~eF© (Tam.) 
Laak S^ (Arab.) Lak^h (Hind.) Lakshd c^T^T 
(Sans.) Lakdda (Cyng.) Commolekka (Tel.) 
Gomlac (Dut.) Laca empaos (Port.) Ambaloo 
(Mai.) Balo (Jav.) Kambalo (Bah.) Lacque 
(Fr.) Lahi (^Hind.) 


This substance, which has improperly been called 
a gum, is the product of an insect (chermes lacca, 
Roxb.), which deposits its eggs on various trees; it 
appears to be designed for defending the eggs from 
injury, and affording food for the maggot in a more 
advanced state ; it is formed into cells, finished with 
as much art as a honey-comb, but differently ar- 


ranged. Lac is known in Europe under the appel- 
lations of stick'laCj seed-lac^ and shelUlac. The first 
is the article in its natural state, incrusting small 
branches or twigs ; the second is the stick-lac sepa- 
rated from the twigs, appearing in a granulated 
form, having been deprived of its colouring mat- 
ter by boiling ; and the last, or shell-lac, is the sub- 
stance after having undergone a simple preparation. 
There is a fourth sort sometimes met with, called 
lump'lac^ which is the seed-lac melted and formed 
into cakes. 

Lac is found* in great abundance on the croton 
lacciferum (the halecus terrestris of Rumphius) grow- 
ing in Ceylon, and on a tree called hiliar^ which is 
common at Assam, where it borders on Thibet. 
In India it is found on the butea frondosa (koenig), 
which is called in Tamool pordsum; in Tellingoo 
modugd ; in Dukhanie pldspdijdra ; in Hind, pidas ; 
and in Sanscrit ^X^T^I pdldsd. It is also found on 
the mimosa cineria (Lin.), which is called in Tamool 
vedittdlung ; in Tellingoo velUtooroo ; in Dukhanie 
vurtulika ; and in Sanscrit ^ I T^^^ vird-vrikshd. It 
is also not seldom met with on the mimosa glauca 
(koenig) and on the shorea jala, Bucch. MSS. Dr. 
F. Hamilton, MSS. inform.s us in his admirable ac- 
count of the Puraniya country, that he there found 
the jujub tree (bayr. Hind.), much cultivated to rear 
the lac insect on ; it is the zizyphus jujuba (Lin.).t 

* A good account of the lac insect, may be found in the 
A slat. Journal for March 1817. It is found on the pepul tree 
(Beng.), which is the ficus religiosa, on the bur tree (Beng.), 
which is the ficus bengalensis, and on the pras, which is the bu- 
lea frondosa. 

\ In the Rungpore district, Dr. F. Hamilton (late Buchanan) 
found the lac insect on the pahur (ficus religiosa), Dhop (varinga 
latifolia), Mejkuri (morus Macassariensis), and on the mendu kolai 
(cilisus cajan). MSS. 


Lac is an article of commerce from Siam *, from 
Laos, from Assam, from Pegu t, from Tonquin, and 
from the Ayer Rajah coast of Sumatra ; it is some- 
times, Abbe Rochan informs us, brought from Quam- 
aU'toUy in the province of Quei-chuy in China, '^ but 
of a quaUty inferior to that of Bengal." Crawford, 
in his " History of the Indian Archipelago," ob- 
serves, that the lac insect exists in most of the forests 
of the Indian Islands, but especially in those of Su- 
matra, and the Malaya Peninsula. (See his work, 
vol. iii. p. 437.) 

Mr. W. Franklin, in his *' Tracts Political, Geogra- 
phical, and Commercial on the Dominions of Ava" 
(p. 710> ^^^^^ ^*^ ^^^^ cJiaron is the name given in the 
Burmah dominions to a kind of black-lac, which is 
extracted from a large tree, one or two plants of 
which were brought to Calcutta by Captain Cox ; he 
adds, that this lac was in general use amongst the j 
natives for their lacquered ware. A coarse kind of I 
lac is called in Tamool awel urruk. The Tamool 
doctors prescribe lac in old and obstinate bowel com- 
plaints, when the habit has been much reduced : 
they also, mixed with gingelie oil, use it as an exter- 
nal application for the head, in cases in which the 
patient is debilitated from long-continued fever. Of 
^11 the lacs, shell-lac, according to Hatchett, appears 
to contain the greatest quantity of resin t, and stick- 
lac of colouring matter and wax. Dr. Pearson, 
Mr. Brande || informs us, obtained a peculiar acid 
from a substance called white-lac, brought from Ma- 

* See Turpin's Histoire de Siam. 

f The stick- lac of Pegu is reckoned the finest in the world. 
See Oriental Repository, vol. ii. p. 580., also Tavernier's Indian 
Travels, part. i. book. ii. 

\ See Philosophical Transactions for 1804'. 

II See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. iii. p. 65. 


dras, which he termed laccic acid ; and Dr. John has 
announced the presence of a peculiar acid in stick- 
laCi which he has also called laccic acid. 

For the use of lac in the arts, the reader is referred 
to another part of this work. The tincture of lac 
is a favourite medicine amongst the Arabians in pre- 
paring cleansing washes ; they call it mehawer j^\^. 
I shall conclude this article by recommending my 
readers to peruse an excellent account of the lac in- 
sect by Dr. Roxburgh, in the Ixxxi vol. of the Phi- 
losophical Transactions. 

For another interesting account of lac in its va- 
rious forms, the reader may consult a little work, 
entitled, " Analytical Experiments on Lac,"' by 
Charles Hatchett, Esq. 

Since writing the above, I have learnt from the in- 
teresting manuscripts of the excellent Dr. F. Ha- 
milton, that a decoction of the stick-lac in mustard- 
seed oil, to which has been added a little of the 
pounded root of the morinda citrifblia, is used in 
Behar as an unguent for anointing the body in case§ 
of general debility. 


LEECH. Attei rxL-L— ot.L— (Tam.) Zdldgdh 
(Tel.) Patchet (Mai.) Jonk ^y^ (Duk.) Jd- 
lukd 3f^^T (Sans.) Koodalla (Cyng.) Khera- 
keen ^a^\j.^ (Arab.) Zeloo ^Ij (Pers.) Saiigsue 
(Fr.) Blutiul (Ger.) 

HiRUDo Medicinalis. 

The native practitioners use leeches for tKe same 
purposes that we do, particularly the Mahometans. 


The species medicinalis is in general larger than the 
European leech, and very voracious. The horse- 
leech (hirudo sanguisuga) is also common in the 
stagnant pools of lower India, it is larger than the 
species above mentioned, with a depressed body and 
dusky-coloured back, and belly of a yellowish green. 
What is called the Ceylon leech, but which is also to 
be met with in the Southern tracts of the Peninsula, 
is a most dangerous animal to foot travellers at cer- 
tain seasons ; this little creature is seldom more than 
an inch long, and some of them are infinitely smaller, 
it is broad behind, and taper towards the fore-part ; 
its colour brown, or light-brown ; its substance nearly 
transparent ; it is very active, and is said now and 
then to spring from the ground ; its powers of con- 
traction and expansion are wonderful ; its point is 
so sharp, that it makes its way through the smallest 
openings, and attacks the feet, legs and thighs in the 
most unmerciful manner. Dr. Dayy, in his Account 
of the Interior of Ceylon *, describes the reptile 
fully, and speaks with horror of the swoln and bloody 
limbs occasioned by it ; what appears to increase the 
mischief is that great numbers generally attack at 
one time. It would seejn by Marsden's very excel- 
lent work on Sumatra, that it is the same, or nearly 
so, as the mountain-leech of that island. 

The Hindoo doctors, but more especially the 
Mahometan practitioners, are very particular about 
washing well the part to be leeched with a little soap 
and water, and then with pure water. In a hot cli- 
mate it is sometimes difficult to stop the bleeding 
from leeches, as well as from phlebotomy. It is 

* See Dr. Davy's Account of the Interior of Ceylon, pp. 102, 


soonest done by gentle pressure, and by applying to 
the parts water that has been made very cold by 
means of a solution of salt-petre. For the sores 
which sometimes follow the leech bites, the best ap- 
plication is castor-oiL 


LIME. Elimitchum pullum (2luc2^1j5^f=f;ldlj 
L-PLD (Tam.) Jerook S^j^ (Mai.) Neemboo >>-ko 
(Duk.) Nemmapundoo (Tel.) Dehi (Cyng.) 
JdmbhMra ^^^\ (Sans.) Neemboo (Hind.) Kor- 
na neboo (Beng.) Citronier (Fr.) Citrone (Ger.) 

Usi (Celebes.) Cay-Tanh-yen (Coch. Chin.) 

Citrus Medica. 
(Van S. c. acris.) Citrus Acida (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyadelphia Icosandria. NaL 
Ord. Pimaceae. Gemeine citron (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The lime tree thrives well all over India, being 
much more common than the lemon, which is the 
citrus medica, var. ^. c. limon. The lime differs 
considerably in appearance from the lemon, being 
smaller, quite round, or nearly so, with a smooth 
rind ; it is, besides, still more acid than the lemon, 
and to a certain degree acrid 9 they are, in their na- 
tural qualities, otherwise the same. Lime-juice is 
much used in medicine by the native practitioners t 
they consider it to have virtues in checking bilious 
vomiting ; and believe, as we do, that it is powerfully 
refrigerent, and antisceptic. In the Tamool Medical 
Sastrum, entitled Aghastier Vytia Anyouroo^ there 
is quite an eulogy on the lime: f^ It is a fit and 

VOL. I. o 


proper thing to be presented by an inferior to a su- 
perior ; it is beautiful to behold j cooling and fragrant 
to the smell; the juice of it rubbed upon the head, 
will sooth the ravings of phrenzy ; and the rind of it 
dried in the sun, has the power when laid under the 
pillow of conciliating affection/* I!! 

The European inhabitants, in hot weather, find a 
sherbet made with limes extremely grateful, but care 
must be taken that the fruit is altogether ripe ; for, 
if made with unripe fruit, and taken in con^siderable 
quantity, it is very apt to produce cholera morbus ; 
which is best combated in such cases with calcined 
magnesia. The sherbet made with oranges is a< 
much safer beverage. Dr. Thomson, in his Lon- 
don Dispensatory, tells us, that lime-juice, taken to 
the quantity of half an ounce, allays hysterical palpi- 
tations of the heart. An effervescing draught, made 
with about f ss. of the lime-juice and 3i. of carbon- 
ate of potass, is given with success to stop vomiting, 
and determine to the surface ; but Dr. T. says, a 
more pleasant draught is made by putting gss. of 
lemon-juice, mixed with a small quantity of sugar, 
into a tumbler, and pouring over it a pint of aerated 
soda water. (See Article Orange, in this part of the 


# ■■"■ 

LIME, QUICK. Chundmboo gf6TOr^2)L£M 

(Tam.) Hoonnoo (Cyng.) Chunna U^:^ (Hind, and 

Duk.) Capoor (Mai.) Soonnum (Tel.) Churna 

^Cr[ (San-s.) Nooreh x^^j (Pers.) Ahuk s^^\ (Arab.) 

Chaux (Fr.) Kalkerde (Ger.) 

Calx (Lond.) 


The natives of India are in the habit of making 
quick-lime from its various carbonates, nearly in the 
same way that v^e do. That prepared from the 
common lime-stone by burning, the Tamools call 
kull chundmboo ; that got from burning sea-shells, 
they call kullingie chunamboo. At Bombay, for com- 
mon purposes, they make their quick-lime from a 
coarse kind of coral, found on the numerous reefs 
which stretch off from the island. Lime-water, chu^ 
namboo tannie (Tam.), the Vytians prepare also as we 
do ; adding to about half a pound of the quick-lime 
twelYe or thirteen pints of boiling soft water ; they 
prescribe it mixed with a little gingelie oil (oil of 
sesamum seeds), and sugar, in obstinate cases of 
gonorrhoea. European practitioners find it a useful 
anthelmintic, and also employ it externally as a de- 
tergent. The dose is from ^ij. to half a pint, alone, 
or diluted with milk. Some late writers have ex- 
tolled the virtues of lime-water in diarrhoea, diabetes, 
and leucorrhoea. More will be said of quick-lime in 
another part of this work. Dr. Paris, in his Phar- 
macologia, informs us, that lime-water dissolves the 
mucus with which disordered bowels are often in- 
fested J milk, hp adds, disguises its nauseous flavour, 
without impairing its virtues. (See work, pp. 429^ 


LINSEED. Alleverei 6^y5^(5:iSc53)Cr (Tam.) 

also Serroo Sanulverei (Tam.) Ulsikebinge ^vJl 

'xju J (Duk.) Buzruk J^yj (Arab.) Tokhemkiitdn 

/^UT ^J (Pers.) AUvituloo (Tel.) Bidgierdmmee 

o 2 


(Mai.) Um(7 ^6^1 (Sudh.) 7' (IJind.) Lynzaad 
(Dut.) JAvhaca (Port.) Grains de Lin (Fr.) 
Lcinsaamcn (Ger.) also /llasi (Han^.) 6^^^ (Hind.) 
Pahaha L^L^ (IIirKlr>r)ip,) 


CL and Ord. Pentandria Pentagynia. Nat. Ord» 
Gruinalcs. (Lin.) Gemeiner Flachs (Xom. Triv. 

. There is a great deal of flax now cultivated in 
many parts of Uj)per India, and especially in Bengal*, 
ior making oil, and of late years it has also become 
an object in the lower provinces j the plant is termed 
in liengalese, musina. 

Linseed does not appear to be much used by the 
Hindoos in medicine. European practitioners have 
long considered it as a valuable emollient and demul- 
cent, in diarrhoea, catarrh, pneumonia, dysentery, 
gonorrhoea, visceral obstructions, calculus, &c. ; an 
infusion of it, in the proportion of ^j. of the seed to 
a pint of water, is a convenient mode of prescribing 
it ; a decoction of the seed forms an excellent enema, 
in abrasions of the intestines ; and ground into 
powder, and simply mixed with boiling water, it 
makes a useful poultice. 

Formerly, Mr. l^hillips tells us, the seed of the 
flax was occasionally used with corn, to make bread, 
but was considered as hurtful to the stomach. Our 
article, with another species, the triffjuiurriy which is 
Wxii goolashroopic (Hind.), are growing in the botani- 
cal garden of Calcutta. The species, calharticuniy 
was in the Company's garden at Madras, in 1809, but 

* See Mr. W. Carey's Accaunt of Flax in vol, x. Asiatic Rc- 


it seemed a delicate plant, and 1 tliink ailcrwards 
died ; it is well known, that as a purge the lin. 
catharticum was celebrated by Gerarde, and Lin- 
naeus appears to regret that it has fallen into disuse ; 
it is still in repute amongst the practitioners on the 
continent; and Deslongchamps says, it may be well 
used as a substitute for senna ; he recommends the 
vinous infusion, in preference to the aqueous. The 
dose s'lj. of the dried leaves in infusion. Since 
writing the above, I have learnt that the cultivation 
of common flax, at Madras, has particularly called 
the attention of M. Nazier Shamier, who now em- 
ploys the oil prepared from seed of his own rearing, 
in the arts. 

More will be said of flax in another part of this 


LIQUOR, SPIRITUOUS. Chcirayum ff-rrrrrr 
LULD fTam.) Arruk o^c (Arab.) Arruk (Duk.) 
Khulloo (Tel.) Arrak appec (Mai.) Madird 

*rf^TT (Sans.) 

AiiiiAcuM SniiiTus Tenuior (Lond.) 

Arrack is used by the Tamool practitioners as an 
external application in cases of burns, sprains, palsy, 
chronic rheumatism, &c. ; they also occasionally 
prescribe it internally, when diluted, as a stimulant. 

The natives of India are proverbially sober, espe- 
cially the Hindoos ; with regard to the Mahometans, 
it is true that it is against the tenets of the Koran, 
to take any thing that had undergone the vinous fer- 
mentation J but such commands are but too oi^iaxi 

o 3 


evaded. The Brahmins are more rigid observers of 
what their rehgion inculcates j and will only take 
wine or spirits when ordered as a medicine, and that 
with difficulty, and many will not take it on any 

The finer kind of arrack, which is met with in 
India, and whicli is the only sort employed by the 
higher orders of Europeans for making punch, &c., 
is either brought from Batavia, where it is called 
kneipj or from Columbo j that first mentioned is the 
most prized, and formerly was a source of great 
revenue to the Dutch. Rice, jaggary, and cocoa-nut 
toddy^ are the principal ingredients employed in the 
preparation of it. 

What is called in India pariah arrack^ and which 
is made in but too great abundance in every part of 
the country, is of a very inferior quality, and is 
often rendered unwholesome by an admixture of 
ganja or subja (See these articles in Part II. of this 
w^ork), which have the effect of making it more in- 
ebriating.* There are several kinds of this last 
mentioned spirituous liquor (pariah arrack), differing 
in strength and purity of composition. One of the 
best, or perhaps I ought to say, least hurtful is 
distilled from cocoa-nut toddy, and is named in 
Tamool khulloo charayum, and in Canarese gungasir. 
Another sort is obtained from distilling a mixture of 
jaggary water and the barks of various trees, and 
has in consequence got the name o^j^uttay ckarayum. 
Many barks are so used, the chief are the xmlvaylum 
puttay (mimosa ferruginia), and the Malay eetcJmm 
puttay (Phoenix Spec), also the bark of the karoove- 
him tree (acacia Arabica, Willd.) 

• For the same purpose the juice of the thorn-apple is also U4>ed. 



We learn from Burchell's Travels in Southern 
Africa, that much of an inferior kind of arrack is 
there distilled from the berries of a plant which the 
Dutch call brande-wyii bosch (grewia flava), but 
which I believe to be the grewia orientalis of VahL 

Within these last few years, arrack has be^n made 
at Madras of so good a quality, as to be considered 
little, if at all, inferior to the Batavia article* 

The virtues of spirituous liquors in a medical 
point of view, as allowed by the European practi- 
tioners, are too well known to require particular 
notice here. Dr* Thomson says, brandy is simply 
cordial and stomachic ; rum, heating and sudorific ; 
gi7i and whisky diuretic, and arrack styptic, heating 
and narcotic. I add, the least injurious of all these 
to the constitution is welUmade whisky, which rarely 
gives a headach when taken in moderation. 


LIQUORICE ROOT. Addimddrum ^^ld 
W^UD (Tam.) Jetimadh (Hind.) Mddhukd 
JT^;^ also Ydstimddhuka ^Tf^JTI^^ (Sans.) 
Millie luckerie cfj^JCl ja^^ (Duk.) Ussidsoos 
u^y^W ^S (Arab.) Bikh-mekeh jC^ ^/^ (Pers.) 
Welhnie (Cyng.) Pao doci (Port.) also ^^^^ o^c 
(Arab.) Reglisse (Fr.) Siissholzwurzel (Ger.) 
Ural manis (Mai.) Oyol manis (Jav.) also Olinde 


Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 

Papilionaceae. Gemeiner Sussholz (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

It would seem, by Dr. Fleming's Catalogue of In- 

o 4 


dian Plants, that liquorice grows in the Bengal pro- 
vinces, and we know that it is a product of the Ma- 
labar coast, where it is called irattimadhiram ; but I 
am much inclined to think that a great deal of the 
liquorice root which is met with in the bazars of 
Lower India is imported from Persia, where it 
grows in abundance, particularly near Bussora * in 
the date groves, and on the banks of the Sewundf 
river. This sweet, pleasant, demulcent root, is in 
high repute amongst the Hindoo practitioners, who 
prescribe it in various forms, but chiefly in infusion 
for coughs, consumptions, gonorrhoea, &c. ; they also 
consider it as a mild laxative. The root of the wild 
Jamaica liquorice (abrus precatorius, Lin.) so much 
resembles the true liquorice root in appearance and 
natural qualities that it is often sold for it in India, 
and used as such. (See article Coondumunnie vayr^ in 
Part. II. of this work.) By Pliny's account it would 
appear, that the liquorice root was known as a 
medicine in his time ; " Praestantissima in Cilicia, se- 
cunda Ponto, radice dulci, et hac tantum in usu,*^ 
it seems to have been prescribed for the same ail- 
ments then that it now is. See Pliny^s Nat. Hist., 
libw xxii. cap. ix. p. 76O. 


MA CE. Jadiputrie e=rr^L-,i^(^rr (Tam.) Ja%a- 
trie (,fyy^ (Hind, and Duk.) Jdpdtri (Tel.) (Tel.) 
Bunga-bua-pala (Mai.) Kambang-pala (Javan.) 

* See Capt. Maedonald Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of 
Persia, p. 291 . 

t Where it is called sus and JchorsJmter^ or camel thorn. See 
Moirier*s Second Journey to Persia, p, 115. 


Bunga-pala (Bali.) Jdtipatri ^TTfrT^^ (Sans.) 
Wassaxvasie (Cyng.) Bezbaz jL^j (Pers.) Foely 
(Dut.) Flor de nozmoscada (Port.) Moshat blumen 
(Ger.) Macis (Fr.) Talzuffiir jx^\\.Id (Arab.) 

Myristica Moschata (Wood.) 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Lauri (Juss.) 

Mace is the oily, membranous, fleshy, pale-yellow 
coloured pulp (arillus), which is extended over the 
thin, brittle shell that incloses the nutmeg, which is 
itself contained within the external covering of the 
fruit of the myristica moschata ; and is first dis- 
closed on the fruit ripening and bursting. 

Mace, which is chiefly used for culinary purposes 
in Europe, has the spicy, aromatic odour of the nut- 
meg, but is more pungent and bitter ; it is brought 
to India from Batavia and the Banda islands, in thin, 
flexible pieces, which have an unctuous feel. The 
Dutch*, before the late disastrous revolutions in 
Europe, were in the habit of exporting annually 
from Banda upwards of one hundred thousand 
pound weight of it. It is a favourite medicine of 
the Hindoo doctors, who prescribe it in the low 
stages of fever, in consumptive complaints, and 
humoral asthma ; and also, when mixed with aroma- 
tics, in wasting and long continued bowel complaints, 
in doses off rom grs. viii. to grs. xii., and sometimes to 
as much as 5ss. ; but they generally administer it 
cautiously, from having ascertained that an overdose 
is apt to produce a dangerous stupor and intoxica- 
tion; the same effect is ascribed to the nutmeg 

* See Stavorinus's Voyages to the East Indies, vol.i. p. 335. 



by Bontius. * The Arabians place mace amongst 
their Mohehyat c^L^a^ (Aphrodisiaca) 2iX\di Mofeshyat 
c^UiiJU) (Carminativa), 

We learn by Avicenna (183), as well as Serapio 
(c. 2.), that the Arabs gave to mace the name of 
j.iu^3Lt. Our article (myristica moschata) is called 
in Bengalese jayaphitlaj and is growing with two 
other species in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 

In Mr. Crawford's admirable account of the Indian 
Archipelago t, we learn, that the dried produce of a 
nutmeg, consists of nutmeg, mace, and shell; in 
fifteen parts of the whole produce, there are two of 
mace, five of shell, and eight of nutmeg. The nut- 
meg requires a long and careful preparation to make 
it fit for commerce ; but the mace requires no such 
trouble, simple exsiccation in the sun rendering it at 
once fit for the market. The tree rises to upwards 
of thirty feet, with many erect branches, leaves el- 
liptical, pointed and undulated, and small inodorous 
flowers, which are present at the same time with the 
fruit, and are supported on axillary peduncles. 


MADDER of BENGAL. Manjtittie Lorg^LL^ 
(Tam.) Mandestie (Tel.) Pooutvayr (Malayalie) 
Well madatta (Cyng.) Runas cr-Uj^^ (Pers.) Fuh 
jj^; (Arab.) MenjitM ^o^x^s^ (Hind.) Garance 
(Fr.) Krappwurzel (Ger.) Granca (Port.) Man" 

Jishlha prf^TSa (Sans.) 

RuBiA Manjista (Roxb.) 

* See Bontius's Account of the Diseases, &c. of the East In- 
dies, p. 194. Eng. Trans. 

f See his work, vol. iii. p. 395. 


CL and Ord. Tetandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

This species of madder is indigenous in Nepaul*, 
and Lower Thibet ; and I perceive by the Flora In- 
dicaf, grows in the botanical garden of Calcutta, 
but requires uncommon care to keep it alive, during 
the rainy season ; and it has never blossomed there. 
It would appear to be chiefly produced in KuchaVj 
and the root of it is in great demand in the adjacent 
countries, for dyeing their coarse cloths and stuffs 
red ; the Nepaulese are in the habit of bartering it 
for rock salt and borax. I am inclined to think 
that it is tliis species which grows plentifully in some 
of the provinces of Persia, especially in the Mekrant; 
and we learn from Ta vernier §, that formerly madder 
was much cultivated in Persia, in the country near 
the river Aras^ and was used for the same purposes 
in the arts, that the rubia tinctorum is in Europe at 
this day. 

The fibres of the Bengal madder root are neither 
so thick nor succulent as those of the rubia tincto 
rum ; when exported to England, Mr. Coiebrooke || 
informs us, that it has brought only about half the 
price of the Smyrna and Dutch madder roots. 

Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of Indian Medici- 
nal Plants (p. 35.), says, that he is not aware that the 
root of the rubia manjista has ever been tried as a 
medicine in Bengal, but that the sensible qualities 
being the same as those of the root of the r. tincto- 
rum, he sees no reason why it should not. The 

* See Col. Kirkpatrick's Account of Nepaul, p. 182. 
f See Flora Indica, p. 383. 

% See Macdonald Kinneir's Geog. Memoir of Persia, p. 225. 
§ See his Travels in Persia, book i. chap. iv. 
y See Remarks on the Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal, 
pp. 198, 199. 


hakeems of Lower India are in the habit of prescrib- 
ing an infusion of the root. (See article Manjittie 
Vayr, in Part II. of this work.) 

The madder of Europe, which has a strong and 
unpleasant odour, and a bitterish and rather austere 
taste, used formerly to be considered as a valuable 
emmenagogue, and was often ordered in chlorosis and 
difficult menstruation ; it was also, Dr. Thomson 
tells us in his London Dispensatory, recommended 
in jaundice, and in the atrophy of infants ; but it is 

. now but little thought of: its dose is from grs. x. to 
XX., given twice daily, in combination with sulphat 
of potass ; its colouring matter is taken into the 
circulation, and tinges the urine red, and is deposited 
in the bones. The French* writers on the Materia 

« Medica, at one time spoke in high terms of its 
virtues in obstructions of the liver, dropsy, and fluor 
albus ; but they too seem of late to consider it as of 
little real utility. 

The rubia manjista the reader will find well de- 
scribed by Dr. Fleming, in the Asiatic Researches 
(xi. 1770> ^^^^ ^y -D^* Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica 
(p. 383.) : it is a perennial, scandent plant, with 
leaves four-fold, long-petioled, cordate, acute, from 
five to seven nerved, hispid ; coroL flat, five-parted, 
pentandrous j by which last character it is distin- 
guished from the r. cordifolia. Dr. Francis Hamil- 
tont, in his Account of Nepaul, speaks of two kinds 
of rubia he found there, the rubia cordata of Willd. 
(by which he meant, it may be presumed, the r. cor- 
difolia) (Willd. Spec. Plant, vol. i. p. 605.), and 

* See Deslongchamps' Manuel des Plantes Usuelles, vol. i. 
p. 352. 

f See his work, p. 74-. 


another species, which has not yet been described by 


MALLOW. LEAF, substitute for. Toottteelley 
^^^\i£^jrs^ (Tarn.) also Nellie toottie (Tarn.) 
Toottie akoo (Tel.) Coongoonie (Hind.) Kung- 
Jcuikapdt vi^LlT iSyH^S (Duk.) Khebazie cfjL:^; (Arab.) 
Khitmie ^^::sL (Hindooie.) 

SiDA Mauritiana (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Polyandria. Nat. 
Ord. Columniferae. 

There are several species of sida in India ; the 
leaves of the greater number of which are employed 
for the same purposes that those of the marsh mal- 
low (althasa officinalis), and common mallow (malva 
sylvestris) are in Europe, being soft, nearly inodo- 
rous, mucilaginous, and demulcent. Those most 
commonly used are the leaves of the sida mauritiana 
(our present article), of which Willdenow says : 
" foliis subrotundo, cordatis accuminatis dentatis sub- 
tus tomentosis:'' besides preparing emollient fomen- 
tations with them, the Hindoo doctors prescribe the 
expressed juice, internally, in gonorrhoea, and give 
an infusion of the root as a drink in fevers. 

The sida mauritiana is a common plant, growing 
by the road sides in many parts of Southern India ; 

* There appears to be little doubt but that our madder is what 
the Greeks called Epsufio Savcov, and which Pliny says the Romans 
termed rubia, and dyed leather red with it. Lib. xxiv. p. 341. 
In the middle ages, Beckmann tells us, it was named varantia. 
(Hist, of Inventions, vol.iii. p. 258.) 


it is an annual, having very long peduncles, with 
orange-coloured flowers, and has got its specific 
name from having been first particularly noticed at 
the Mauritius* Some of the other species of sida, 
employed in Asiatic countries for similar purposes, 
are the sida populifolia*, which is the beloere of the 
Hortus Malabaricus (6. 77* t. 45.) ; the sida cordi- 
folia (a native of Cochin-China), the Sanscrit name 
of which is bdtydldca^ and the Hindoostanie bariala; 
the sida rhombifolia, which is the lal bariala of the 
Hindoos of Upper India ; and the sida Asiatica, 
which is a most beautiful plant, and is called in Ta- 
mool perin toottiey from the largeness of its leaves, 
and its small lovely flower, w^hich is stained inside 
with a deep purple. Nineteen species of sida are 
growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 

The Arabians have two names for mallows : khab- 
hdzee cf \U^» and dnjil J.^-5'* The Persians call the 
seed towdrie <Sj^yjj it is considered by them as deob- 
struent and detergent ; the mallow plant itself they 
term khitmee ^^ai. 

The Romans considered mallows as possessing 
many virtues ; and that the juice of the plant drank 
every day, for a short time, was a preventive 
against all evils. See Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. xx, 
cap. xxi. 


MANDRAKE PLANT. Ustrmg SSjX^] (Arab.) 

* This is common in Ceylon, where it has got the Cyngalese 
name of maha-anoda. Eleven other species of sida are growing 
in the royal botanical gardens in Ceylon. See Mr. Moon's va- 
luable Catalogue of Ceylon PJants, p. 50. 


Merdum giah L^ ^:^y^ (Pers.) Yeb-rooj (Beng.) 
Luchmuna luckmimee (Hindooie.) Cddt-jootie (Tarn.) 

Atropa Mandragora (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridae. Alraun Tollkraut (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The fetid root of the mandrake plant has various 
names, arising from its supposed resemblance to the 
human form : Mandragen (Ger.) It was formerly 
an article in the British Materia Medica, but is now 
exploded, though the leaves are still sometimes em- 
ployed in preparing anodyne fomentations, and dis- 
cussing indolent tumours. The modern Arabians 
and Persians place this root amongst their narcotics, 
and suppose it to be antispasmodic ; the former 
call it ^liJU! >^!, and the latter l^ ^^^ ^>j. Avi- 
cenna (Canon. Med. lib. xiv.) speaks ojf the fruit of it 
under the name of 1^5^ loofa^ the root he calls 
jebroch. (178.) Deslongchamps informs us, that 
formerly in France the root was employed as a 
charm by magicians. See his " Manuel des Plantes 
Usuelles,'' (vol. i. p. 397-)* 

The fruit of the plant the ancients were in the 
habit of putting under their pillows, from its sup- 
posed soporific virtues (Cels. lib. iii. cap. xviii.), and 
Boerhaave mentions, that even the smell of the 
plant induces drowsiness ; the root has been exter- 
nally used for dispersing the swellings of the lym- 
phatic glands ; and internally has been given to the 

* Dioscorides speaks of it under the name of Mxv^payopa^y but 
Dierbach in his Mat. Med. of Hippocrates, chap.viii. seems to 
think that the virtues of the plant, as mentioned by Hippocrates, 
rather resemble those of the atropa belladona ; the roots, he adds, 
was recommended in melancholia suicida, also in agues and other 


extent of 9i. twice or thrice in the twenty-four 
hours, in gout. The leaves boiled with milk, Boer- 
haave recommended in scrophulous affections. The 
plant is a native of Spain, Italy, and Crete. The 
root is in shape not unlike a parsnip, and runs three 
or four feet under ground; immediately from the 
crown of it arises a circle of leaves, at first they 
stand erect, but when grown to their full size (which 
is commonly about a foot in length, and five or more 
broad in the middle) they spread open and lie on the 
ground. Of the five species of atropa hitherto no- 
ticed, but one grows in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, the physaloideSy introduced by F. Horsley, 
Esq., in 1796. 

In speaking of the anodyne and soporific qualities 
of the mandragore root, Hoffman observes : " In 
proverbium adeo transierat apud veteres, de 
languido, suisque in negotiis torpido, dicere; 
mandragoram ilium ingessisse.'* (Vide C. HoffI 
Oflic. p. 415.; 

The mandrake plant is spoken of by Pliny, under 
the name of circeium ; he notices two kinds, a white 
and a black* : he is of opinion, that used cautiously, 
it may be taken to procure sleep ; but that an overdose 
will destroy. Nat. Hist, book xxv. chap. xiii. 


MANNA. Shirhisht C<^^jjJi» (Pers. and Hind.) 
Terinjebm xj^j^j (Arab.) Manna (Dut.) Manna 

"* Modem botanists, however, allow these to be only varieties. 
See Roque's Phytographie Medicale, vol. i. p. 244. 


(Port.) Kapur-rimba (Mai.) Gambing {Jav.) also 
Mu7i ^ (Arab.) 

Manna Persica 
(Fothergill Phil. Trans, xliii. 47.) 

Dr. Fleming says, that the manna sold in the In- 
dian bazars is imported from Bussora ; and is the 
same with that described by Dr. Fothergill, in the 
paper to which I have just referred. The plant 
which yields it is supposed to be the hedysarum^ ah 
hagi; and we know that it is from that that the 
manna of Mesopotamia*, and especially about Tauris 
is procured ; it would appear by the Hortus Benga- 
lensis to be a native of Hindoostan as well as the 
Levant, and is growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta, under the name oi'Juwasa. The manna 
obtained from it is very inferior to that of Calabria, 
which is the produce of the fraa:inus ornus, or flower- 
ing ash, and which according to Dierbach t is the 
as'KsoL of Hippocrates. There are three other spe- 
cies of ash which yield this medicine ; the rotundi" 
folia ^ the eoccelsior^ and parviflora ; and Mr. Gray 
seems to think, that it is from the first of these that 
most of the manna found in the market is got ; it 
either exudes in dry weather spontaneously from the 
stem and branches ; or it is obtained by making 
longitudinal incisions on the side of the tree, which 
is of the class and order Diandria Monogynia and 
natural order Sepiariae : it is rather a low growing 
tree, with leaves smaller than those of our common 
ash, and flowers with petals (Miller). 

I perceive by D'Herbelot's account, that manna 

* See Russel's Account of Aleppo. 

f See his Materia Medica of Hippocrates, cliap. iv. 

VOL. I. P 


can be procured from a variety of trees in Persia, 
particularly in Khorasan, and near the city of Rei 
Sheeriar ; much is also yielded by a thorny plant 
called khdr-shooter^ to be met with in abundance 
near the city of Zamin on the confines of the pro- 
vince of Samarcand, and which is on that account 
termed by the Arabs terinjebine alzamini. A facti- 
tious manna, a compound of sugar or honey, with 
scammony, is sometimes exposed for s^le, but is easily 
detected. It is really curious to see the different 
opinions which have been offered to the world re- 
specting manna ; in addition to what D'Herbelot 
mentions, as above stated, I shall observe that in the 
Ulfaz Udwieyh ^^;^-!;-' also, is given as the name 
of a substance collected at Khorasan, from the 
plant called Mar-^/zoo/er ; the same authority men- 
tions, that it is a mild purgative resembling manna, 
and brought from Nishapoor. In this work too 
CKi:^:Lj,j.i:s is given as the name of a sort of manna 
called from a barren tree, named derukt bey choxvb; ^^ 
men we are further told, in this publication, is the 
general name for all kinds of honey dew in Arabia, 
and that C^^^^ jy^ beed khusht is the Persian, also 
^a05 4X>j, of a variety of manna found on a willow 
of Khorasan ; this in Persian is termed j^zid:^. 
Whether any of these mannas may be the product 
of the insect, which has got the appellation of cher- 
mes manniferay I know not ; but the inquiry might 
be interesting. Major Macdonald Kinneir, mentions, 
in his Geographical Memoir of Persia(p.S39.)> ^ sort 
of manna which the Persians call guz^y and which 
may be procured in great quantities in LouristaUj 

* And which can be no other than the guzangabeen /^x^SCjl^i' 
mentioned in the Ulfaz Udwiyh as collected from the tamarisk 


and in the district of Khonsar in Irak ; he adds, 
that it is obtained from a shrub in appearance Hke a 
funnel, about four feet high, and is supposed to be 
produced by small red insects ; these are seen in 
vast numbers under the leaves. Now this I should 
presume is the substance which, within the last few 
years, has called the attention of several scientific 
men of the Indian establishments ; such as General 
Hardwick, Captain Edward Frederick, and particu- 
larly the admirable Dr. Wallich ; the last mentioned 
gentleman had only seen the insect which produces 
it in its larva state ; though we know that the 
French entomologist GeofTroy had many years ago 
attributed to a species of chermes, the property of 
producing both in the larva and pupa state, a sugary 
substance of a white colour : it appears that the ani- 
mal is about the size of a domestic bug, and of a 
flattened oval form, Mr. Hunter informs us, that 
the guz seems to project from the abdomen of the 
animal in appearance like a tail, or bunch of feathers; 
but perhaps more resembling snow than any thing 
else. The animals are found on certain trees in 
Persia and Armenia j swarming in millions and ge- 
nerating this feathery-like substance, till it gets long 
and drops on the leaves, caking on them, and resem- 
bling beautiful bees-wax : the insects do not destroy 
the leaves they feed on. 

The Hindoos know, and care little about manna ; 
the Mahometans of India prescribe it as a laxative to 
children and delicate women, in doses from ^ij. to 
^iss., and the Arabians give it a place amongst their 
Mushildt-sufra s- iu^ oi^^^^ (Cholagoga). For fur- 
ther particulars respecting manna in eastern coun- 
tries, the reader is referred to the writings of Mesne, 
Hali Abbas, Alsaravius, and other more modern 

p 2 


authors. The fraxinus ornus was called by Avi- 
cenna*' lasan al asafeer ^xiLaxJl q^I^. To the he- 
dysarum alhagi, the tree from which the Terinjebine 
manna is obtained, the same writer gave the name of 
^y.5, and still another sort it would appear is got 
from a plant called jylJu t For an account of the 
Brian9on manna, which exudes from the larch or sa- 
pin meleze of the French (pinus larix), the reader 
is referred to Deslongchamps' " Manuel des Plantes 
Usuelles'* (vol. ii. p. 521.) : it is found in small con- 
crete drops, which taste like honey dew : it is gently 
laxative, but is only used by the common people in 
the districts where the tree grows, which the author 
just mentioned says are chiefly alpine. Alibert in 
his " Elemens de Therapeutique (vol. i. p. 315.), in 
speaking of the different places where this medicine 
may be obtained, says : ^' on recherche aussi beau- 
coup celle de la pouille, pres du mont Saint- Ange, 
malgre, sa couleur jaune, et son extreme humidite; 
celle de Sicile, plus seche et plus blanche, vient en 
troisieme ligne. On n'estime guere la tolpha ou 
manne pesante des environs de Rome.'' Fourcroy 
supposes manna to consist of four different ingre- 
dients : 1. pure manna, which constitutes three- 
fourths of the whole ; 2. a little common sugar ; S. 
a yellow nauseous smelling substance, to which it 
owes its purgative quality ; and 4. mucilage. Brande 
tells us, in his Manual of Chemistry (vol. iii. p. 29. )> 
that manna digested in nitric acid yields both ox- 
alic and saclactic acids. 

It would appear by the Transactions of the Lite- 
rary Society of Bombay, from a statement made by 
Captain E. Frederick, who had travelled into Persia, 

* See SpringeUs Historia rei Herbariae ; also Avicenna, 260, 262. 
f See Recueil de Questions, &c., par Mr. Michaelis, p. 62. 


that Meerza Jiqfer Tabeeb a Persian physician, had 
discovered another sort of manna (on a shrub called 
in Arabic, Athel\ which is in a slight degree astrin- 
gent. The same physician extols that from the 
alhagi tree as the best and most laxative. 


MARJORAM, SWEET. Mirzunjoosh Jiyf'j^^ 
(Arab.) Mdrroo (Tam.) Murwa |^-.« (Duk.) 
Marjolaine (Fr.) Mqjoran (Ger.) AfxapaKou (Gr.) 

Origanum Majorana (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae. Mqjoran Dosten (Nom. Triv. 

Sweet marjoram is a native of Portugal and Pa- 
lestine, but is cultivated in some parts of Lower 
India. The flower, from its agreeable odour, is a 
favourite of the Hindoos, and is considered by their 
doctors as possessing cephalic qualities; and we 
know that the species called by the Egyptian Arabs 
zatarhendie (s^'^^jVsSj zdtdr hindie (origanum ^gyp- 
tiacum), Hasselquest mentions as possessing a most 
agreeable aromatic smell, and comforting the head. 
It is placed, I mean our article, by the Arabs of 

Arabia, amongst their Discutients, c^iVX^-^Mohelilat. 
There is a species of origanum to be met with in the 
upper provinces of Bengal, but which I have never 
seen, the origanum Bengalense ; and I am informed 
that two other species are also cultivated there, viz. 
the maru and creticuruy both of which are natives of 
Crete. Wild thyme (thymus serpillum), or, as it is 

F S 


often improperly called, wild marjoram, is common 
in Persia, and is termed in Persian Ly^^ irpa^ and in 
Arabic hdsJm LiU. 

Sweet marjoram has been supposed by some to 
be the (ra[x-i/i>^otf^ of the ancients : it is known to 
possess tonic virtues, but is now chiefly used in 
Europe as a culinary herb : it was introduced into 
the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814. The 
French* still frequently prescribe the leaves: ** pour 
resoudre ce qu'ils appellent la pituite de Festomach, 
et du poumon/* It is an annual plant, having a 
long brown fibrous root, with downy, ovate, green 
leaves, and small white flowers. Laureiro found the 
plant in Cochin-China. (Flora Cochin, vol. ii. p,S74.) 

Murray, in his Apparat. Medic, (vol. ii. p. 175.)> 
in speaking of this plant, observes, '* Tumores mam- 
marum dolentes, scirrhosos, herba recens, viridis, per 
tempus applicata, feliciter dissipavit.'* 

Mr. Moon, in his Catalogue of Ceylon Plants 
(p. 44.), gives place to a plant he calls origanum 
mqjoranQideSy which he says is of a woolly nature. 


MASTICH. Roomie mustiki (^L^LOS-Qgrgr^S^ 
(Tam.) Sdkes (Turk.) Roomie miistakie ^»j 
Ji\X=L^^ (Duk. and Hind.) Arah }^^ (Arab.) also 
Auluk bagdadie ^.p^^ w^Jls (Arab.) Kinnek (Pers.) 
Almacegu (Port.) Mastic (Fr.) Mastix (Ger.) 
Almaciga (Span.) Mastico (It.) 

PiSTACiA Lentiscus (Liu.) 

* See Alibert's Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. ii. pp. 205, 


CI. and Ord. Dioecia Pentandria. Nat. Ord. 
Amentacese (Lin.). 

This resinous substance is considered by the Hin- 
doo doctors as corroborant and balsamic, and is gene- 
rally ordered by them in conjunction with sala misrie 
(salep)^ which they reckon very nutritious. The 
Mahometan women of high rank use it as a masti- 
catory to preserve their teeth, and sweeten their 
breath ; about which they show just as much anxiety 
as the ladies of the seraglio at Constantinople. 

Mastich is brought to India from the island of 
Scios*, by way of the Red Sea. Soninif tells us, 
that in Egypt the smoke inhaled into the lungs is 
reckoned of a poisonous nature. 

Mastich, which comes to us in yellowish transpa- 
rent brittle tears, is nearly inodorous, except when 
heated, and then it has an agreeable odour j chewed, 
it is almost insipid, feeling at first gritty, and ulti- 
mately soft ; it has been considered as diuretic and 
astringent, but its virtues are trifling J ; in the arts it 
is employed in the composition of varnishes for toilet 
boxes and violins ; together with gum sandarach, 
gum elemi, lac, alcohol, and in conjunction with 
turpentine, the jewellers lay it under the diamond to 
add to its lustre. Virey^ in his '^ Histoire Naturelle 
des Medicamens^' (p* 293.), tells us, that from the 
kernels of the lentisk, or mastich tree, an oil may be 
obtained which is fit for table ; the same intelligent 
writer informs us, that according to Desfbntaines 

* See Dr. W.Wittrnan's Travels in Turkey, &c., p. ^47., also 
Tavernier's Persian Travels, also Pocock's Travels. 

t See his Travels, pp. 629, 630. Eng. Trans. The mastich of 
Scios is particularly mentioned by Pliny as being by far the best, 
he speaks of a white and black kind. See Nat. Hist. lib. xii» 
cap. xvii. 

X See Thomson's London Dispensatory. 

p 4 


and Duhamel, the pist. Atlantica and pist. chia yield 
resins which resemble mastich. 

I have been somewhat surprised to see by Elmore's 
** Directory to the Trade of the Indian and China 
Seaj^* that he mentions mastich as a produce of 
Passier (Borneo). The tree is well known to be a na- 
tive of Portugal, Italy, and Palestine ; but is parti- 
cularly abundant in Scios, where it is got by making 
incisions in the trunk and branches of the tree, 
which seldom rises higher than twelve feet, having 
leaves abruptly pinnate, of a lucid green colour on 
the upper part, and pale on the under side, with the 
male and female flowers on different plants. The 
pistacia lentiscus is growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, introduced in 1806. The Arabians* 
place mastich amongst their hepatics, tonics, and 
astringents. It would seem by Dierbach's Mat* 
Med. of Hippocrates, chap, vii., that the pistacia 
lentiscus was known to the Greeks by the name 
of S;^/vo^, that sort they called Ptjt/vtj o-^iuiurj was 
mastich when mixed up with certain ointments. 

The species oleosa grows in Cochin-China, and is 
there called cay-deaii'truong ; the drupe abounds in 
a yellow edible oil. Vide Laureiro (Flora Cochin- 
China, vol. ii. p. 616.). 


MELON, WATER. Pitcha pullim \^^^lji^ 
L^LD (Tam.) Turbooze y^fJ (Duk. and Hind.) 
Ddrbajee (Tel.) Mdndekee (Mai.) Pitchaghedie \ 

* Avicenna treats of it under the name of madstthake, and 
speaks of its astringent and discutient quality; he moreover says : 
*^ Tussi et sanguinis rejectione prodest. Stomachum roborat et 
jecur." Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 189. 
. f Another Cyngalese name for water melon is komadu diya. 


(Cyng.) Chaya pula (Sans.) Hinduanah ^!^4^;i^ 
(Pers.) Baleekh zicke ^J^j ^^^i (Arab.) also Shd- 

7^eej ^•?.f^ (Arab.) Gourge laciniee (Fr.) also Melon 
d^eau (Fr.) also Shakara-koomatei (Tarn.) Fur- 
booza(yidi\\.) Cocomero (It.) Dubbafarakis (Aleppo.) 


CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Cucurbitacea^ (Lin.) Wassermelonen (Nom. Triv. 

This species of gourd, though it has not much 
flavour, is extremely refreshing, and is in great re- 
quest amongst the natives of India during the hot 
season. The water-melon has been so named from 
the great quantity of pale red juice it contains ; the 
vytians prescribe it to quench thirstf, and as an an- 
tiseptic in typhus fever ; and I have myself given it 
in such cases, when I could not get oranges, with 
the happiest effects. The plant is common in many 
eastern countries, and is a native of Apulia, Cala- 
bria and Sicily ; it is the anguria Indica of Rum- 
phius ( Amb. v. p. 400.), and is common in most of 
the eastern islands. There are five species of cu- 
curbita growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 
The lagenaria^ pepo^ melopepo^ citrulluSy and a bitter 
or wild sort, all indigenous in India, except the 
first. Our article has a round, striated, long, branched, 
hairy, procumbent, diffused steniy with lateral bifid 

* In Abulfaldi apud Cels., we find other Arabic names for 
water melon, such as kasa-alhemar X^A.] LS'Li* and zeesk (ji.jj (see 

vol. i. p. 371.) 

f It appears by Burchell's Travels into the interior of Southern 
Africa, that the Bushmen quench their thirst with the watery 
juice which they find contained in the root of a plant of the 
genus asclepias, which they know by the name of tki/ ; the root 
is about the size of a large round, flat turnip. 


tendrils; yellow Jlowers, and fruit large, smooth, 
round or oblong, and a foot and a half in length. 
Five species of citruUus are growing in the royal 
botanical garden of Ceylon.* 

The musk melon (cucumis melo) is an excellent 
fruit in India, and much sought after by the Euro- 
pean inhabitants, though it is supposed to disagree 
with delicate stomachs, occasionally also inducing 
cholera, simply so called ; this effect of the fruit is 
best obviated by means of a little pounded black 
pepper. It is an annual of the CI. and Ord. Mo- 
noecia Monodelphia, and Nat. Ord. Cucurbitaceae ; 
it has been said that it was a native of Calmuc Tar- 
tary, an opinion adopted by Willdenow ; in India it 
is cultivated by seeds brought from Persiat, where it 
is much prized, and is called khurboozeh ^jy,j^* The 
Arabians term it bateekh ^^->. The Dukhanie and 
Hindoostanie name is also khurboozah ; bacacoy^ also 
smangha (Malay) ; molam puUum (Tam.) ; popone(It.) 

The French are still in the habit of employing the 
seeds of the melon, as well as those of different 
gourds, in their treatment of inflammatory fevers, 
and in consequence have bestowed upon them the 
name of ^' semences\froides.^' The Arabians, strange 
to say, have placed the dried musk melon seeds 
amongst their Mqfattatdt cjM'xk^ (Lithontriptica). 
Nine species of cucumis are growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta, all natives of India except the 
melo. Four species of cucumis are at present in the 
royal botanical garden of Ceylon. The Cyngalese for 
the common melon is rata komadoo. It is the iSjj<4^ 
of the Egyptian Arabs (Forsk. Egyp. Arab. p. 168.). 

* See Mr. Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 66. " 
f See Tavernier's Travels in Persia, book iv. chap. ii. 
X See Alibert's Elemens de Therapeutique, vol.i. p. 66S. 



MILK, COW'S. Pdshuinpaal L-i^C)iS:(5^^^rT(T^ 
(Tarn.) Aoopaloo (Tel.) Dood (Hindooie) Ghay- 
ha dood ^^AS cjl^ (Duk.) EUakerrie (Cyng.) 
Gokshira 7\\^W (Sans.) Gaee-cha-dood (Mah.) 

Soosoo y^y^ (Mai.) Lait (Fr.) Latte (It.) 

Lac Vaccinum. 

Much has been said of the different kinds of milk 
in many of the Sanscrit and Tamool Medical Sas- 
trums, but by none is the subject so fully treated of 
as by Aghastier in his celebrated work, entitled Vytia 
Amjouroo. It would occupy too much room, were 
I to enter at large into all his fanciful notions ; 
suffice it here to observe, that he considers cow's 
milk as proper food for the young, and, as is indi- 
cated in many cases, for the more advanced, who 
require light nourishment. He conceives it to be 
the most aperient of all milk, and, what is fanciful 
enough, that it tends to clear the intellect. The 
milk of a white cow, he says, is of use in hypochon- 
driacal cases ; that of a red one, for such as suffer 
from biliary derangements ; that of a black one, par- 
ticularly if it has also a dark-coloured udder, he 
thinks beneficial for those who are troubled with 
phlegm ; and last of all, that a cow which is of the 
colour of gold, yields milk that can cure all manner 
of disorders ! in fact, he can scarcely find words to 
praise sufficiently the milk of this favourite and re- 
vered animal. Much then, he proceeds to say, will 
depend upon the time when the milk is taken : if 
drank in the morning it alleviates the pains of rheu- 


matism ; at noon it gives appetite, but if taken at 
bed-time it is good for every ailment of the body 

The general names for milk of all kinds in Sanscrit 
are khshira ^tT> pay as ^^^J dugdha ^^^tf ; the 
Arabians term it lebnn A ; the Persians sheer .a;;. 

Sour or curdled milk is in Sanscrit dadhi ^f^, 
and in Hindoostanie 6/a^i; it is given with a little 
black pepper in ozena (pmas)y also in gonorrhoea 

Cow's milk, as a diet for the sick in India, European 
practitioners differ about; it certainly, in its pure 
state, lies heavy at the stomach of many full-grown 
people ; others it renders drow^sy. Whey is a most 
delightful and safe drink, and is peculiarly relished 
in the hot weather in India ; so is butter milk (lac 
ebutyratum), which is much drank, being at once 
cooling, pleasant, and gently aperient; I am inclined 
to think, besides, that it has the peculiar quality of 
allaying that irritability of the stomach, sometimes 
occasioned by tea. In Tamool it is moroo. Chaatch 
^Jl^^ (Duk.) Doogh i^:^ (Arab.) Tsalla (Tel.) 

Takra r\m also Danddhata ^U^^T^rf (Sans.) 
Mutha (Hind.) Butter in India is, generally speak- 
ing, most excellent, and is made * every morning by 
agitating t fresh milk. What is called tyre by the 
English in India is an excellent preparation of milk, 
being cooling, pleasant to the taste, and, from its 
slight acidity, gently opening ; it is made by adding 
to warm fresh milk a little butter milk, and the whole 
allowed to stand all night ; it is usually eaten with 

Or from agitating for some time the top or richest part of 
tyre, or sometimes the whole of it is used. 

f The oldest mention of butter is supposed to be in the ac- 
count given of the Scythians by Herodotus (iv. 2. p. 281.), pre- 
pared by agitating mare's milk. 


rice. Ghee is butter that has been clarified by b6il- 
ing, and afterwards having a little tyre, salt, or betel 
leaf added to it, by which means it may be kept for a 
long time when properly bottled; it is constantly 
employed in making curries and other rich Indian 
dishes. Before speaking of goat's milk, I shall just 
observe, that Dr. Sutton, of Greenwich, has lately 
given his opinions to the world on the subject of 
milk ; he seems to think, however much he may 
differ from others, that milk may be taken as a safe 
and useful drink in fevers ; and we know that Dr. 
Heberden has these words : '* Lac et ova, nescio 
qua de causa a nonnuUis interdicuntur in omni febre.'* 
In such cases, in India, I certainly should recom- 
mend its being abstained from.* Vireyt says, that 
milk, as a diet, is suited best to dry temperaments j 
to the languid and pale it is injurious. 


MILK, GOAT'S. Aatoo paal (^^LL^CB'L-.'L-'rrav) 
(Tam.) May kd pdloo (Tel.) Chaylie-ka-dood 

^^^ U J^^2^ (Duk.) Aja-kshira 3I"5T^TT (Sans.) 
Jlookeerie (Cyng.) also Vellatoo paal (T^m.) 

Lac Caprinum. 

The native practitioners consider goat's milk as a 
powerful restorative, and order it in consumptive 
complaints. In the Padaurtasindaitmanie^ a Tamool 
treatise on the qualities of food, we are told that 

* The produce of various trees in India has been used as a 
substitute for butter ; such as the expressed oil got from the 
seeds of the bassia longifolia, and the butter of the Choorie tree 
of the Coomaoon Mountains, bordering on Thibet. 

t See Hist. Nat. des Med., p. 4-33. 


goat's milk ought to be administered in such cases 
as are accompanied with a deficiency of bile, and in 
certain bowel complaints ; it is moreover stated, that 
it affords a very wholesome nourishment to the body 
in weakly habits, and is particularly useful when the 
bowels are inclined to be over-loose, and the appetite 
delicate ; it resembles very much cow's milk, except 
in its greater consistence *, and is by many preferred 
to it for tea; it throws up abundance of cream, 
which can be converted into butter. 

The milk of the ewe, which is supposed to re- 
semble cow's milk more than any other, is a favourite 
remedy of the Arabs and Persians ; the first call it 
leban zan (_. >US ^ and place it amongst their ce- 
phalics ; and the last term it sheerimesh ^i^^^, and 
give a place to it amongst their aphrodisiacs. We 
are told by Dr. Hooper, in his valuable Medical 
Dictionary, that by experiments made on ewes' 
milk, it has been found that its cream is more abun- 
dant than that of the cow, and yields a butter not 
so consistent as cow's milk butter ; its excellent 
cheese is well known. The Hindoos, it would ap- 
pear, by what I find in the ^^ Vytia Anyouroo*^ of 
Aghastier, have a notion that the milk of a red ewe 
increases too much both the bile and the phlegm, 
and brings on diarrhoea and difficulty of breathing!! 


MILK, ASSES'. Kdlddy paal e7(SPa3S"L-'LJ/Tcrv) 
(Tam.) Gadilay paaloo (Tel.) Gadi-kd-dood 

* It is a singular thing enough, but the milk of goats is but 
little aflfected with the food these animals eat ; they often feed on 
the branches even of the acrid milk hedge (euphorbia tirucalli), 
without the milk either suffering in taste or quality. 


^^^a IJCjjJ' (Duk.) Cotalookeerie (Cyng.) Khara- 
khira ^Ji^\ (Sans.) Ghaduva'tcha-dood (Mah.) 

Lac AsinuE. 

Asses' milk, which has a very strong resemblance 
to human milk in colour and consistence, is recom- 
mended by the native practitioners in maniacal cases; 
they also suppose it to possess virtues in leprous affec- 
tions, particularly in what the Tamools call coos turn 
(lepra arabum) ; in the carin kirandie (or black car- 
pang or milk-rash of children), they order a certain 
quantity of it to be taken two or three times in the 
day. Asses' milk^ differs from cow's milk in its 
cream, being less abundant and more insipid, in its 
ji containing less curd, but a greater proportion of 
sugar; its virtue as affording a light nutriment to the 
delicate is well known. Avicenna prescribed it in 
hectic fever. (Vide Canon. Med., lib. ii. tract ii, 
p. 185.) 

I cannot learn that mare*s milki is ever used by the 
Hindoos : the modern Arabians consider it labanuU 
khel v^!l ^ja] as narcotic, placing it amongst their 

Mokeddrrdt. It contains a great quantity of the 
sugar of milk, and is on that account more fitted 
than others for vinous fermentation ; hence the 
liquor prepared with it, which the Tartars call kou- 
misSy which somewhat resembles that made from the 

* The ass is found in a wild state in the desert country, which 
separates Cattmar from Cutch, where it is called khur or gurkhur ; 
the body is generally of an ash colour_, the head unusually long, 
and the limbs strong, resembling the asses found in Tartary ; they 
are extremely fierce, and must be taken in pits. 

t The German physicians prescribe mare's milk in worm cases 
(tgenia). See Dr. Good's Study of Medicine, voj. i. p. 325. 


same milk, and termed by the Turks yaourt.* Of 
camel's milk, I find mention is made by Avicenna : 
" recens foetarum camelarum lac cum ricinino oleo 
internas durities curat/* (Vide Canon. Med., lib. ii. 
tract ii.) 

The different kinds of milk hitherto examined 
chemically, are mare's, woman's, asses', goat's, sheep's, 
and cow's, and I have now mentioned them accord- 
ing to the quantity of sugar they contain. Parmen- 
tier could not make any butter from the cream of 
woman's milk, asses' milk, or mare's milk ; and that 
from sheep he found always soft ; it appears, how- 
ever, from Virey's statement t, that from two pounds 
of woman's milk he obtained six drachms of butter, 
but from asses' and mare's he could procure none. 
The first mentioned gentleman divided milks into 
two classes ; one abounding in serous and saline 
parts, which includes asses', mare's, and woman's ; 
the other in rich or caseous and butyraceous parts, 
which includes cow's, goat's, and sheep's. 

The milk of the buffalo (bos bubulus), is very 
abundant, but much thinner than that of the cow, 
and not so agreeable to the taste ; from its plenty 
and cheapness it is a great source of comfort to the 
natives of the lower orders. By the Vytia Anyouroo 
of Aghastier, it appears, that the Hindoo doctors 
consider buffalo milk as predisposing to catarrh, and 
that it tends to cloud the intellect. In Sanscrit, the 
buffalo hmahisha T{\^^ or mahishi ^Tf^^T. Beynce 
(^JLamjj (Hind.) Jdmoos (j^^-<U. (Pers.) Yeroom 
(Tam.) Y^nnamoo (Tel.) In Behar the native 

* I have since learnt that mare's milk, is considered by the Hin- 
doos of Upper India, as a useful medicine when applied to vene- 
real sores ; its Sanscrit name is Hdyakshiri. 

t See his Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 112. 


doctors prescribe it in cases of emaciation. Gatrak- 
sin (Sans.) 

Thenard, who has, I beheve, examined milk in 
general with great chemical accuracy, informs us, 
that the component parts of cow's milk are : 1 water, 

2 acetus acid, 3 caseous, 4 butyraceous, 5 saccharine, 
6 attractive matter, 7> 8 muriates of soda and potash, 
9 sulphate of potash, 10, 11 sulphates of lime and 

While on the subject of milk it may not be amiss 
to mention, that Baron Humboldt found a tree near 
Barbula (and which grows abundantly amongst the 
mountains above Perquito^ situated on the N.E. of 
Maracayj a village to the west of Caracas)^ which 
yields, on wounding its branches, a quantity of glu- 
tinous milk, destitute of all acrimony, and of a balmy 
and agreeable smell ; the distinguished traveller 
drank a good deal of it without the least bad effect. 
This is a singular substance, when we consider that 
almost all the lactescent plants are poisonous. For 
an account of the tree, the reader is referred to an 
interesting work, entitled " Columbia,'*^ (from p. 563 
to 578.) This vegetable milk, analysed by Vau- 
quelin, was found to consist of 1 wax, 2 fibrine, 

3 sugar, 4 magnesian salt, and 5 water. The presence 
of fibrine in a vegetable production is a surprising 
fact, as it is very rarely met with, except in the 
secretions of animals. The tree is in Spanish called 

■^ What is called sugar of milk, is obtained from milk by eva- 
poration and crystallization ; the invention is said to be Italian, 
and was first mentioned by Bartoletti in 1645. Ludovice Testi, 
who died at Venice in 1707, contributed much to make it known. 
This salt is now chiefly made in Switzerland and in Lorraine. It 
is prepared from new milk by boiling it with eggs, and when an 
imperfect separation of the milk is effected, straining it, then boil- 
ing it, and suffering it to crystallize. See Beckmann's History of 
Inventions, vol. iv. p. 603. 

VOL. T. Q 


palo de vacca. Vauquelin, however, also discovered 
fibrine in the juice of the papaw tree (carica papaya, 
Lin.). See article Paa/, in Part ii. vol. ii. of this work.* 


MILLET, ITALIAN. Tenney ^^j^^ (Tam.) 
Raxvla ^V, (Duk.) Cimgnie (Beng.) Cordloo (Tel.) 
Kora (Hind.) Cay Khe (Coch. Chin.) Navonay 
(Can.) Navaria (Mai.) Dukhii ^^i (Arab.) Kassoh 
(African). Arzun (^/J (Pers.) Tenna (Hort. 
Malab.) Tana-hal (Cyng.) Prii/angu fCT^fJI 
(Sans.) also Kangu ^jj (Sans.) Beertia (Hind.) 
Bahjeree (Guz.) Chenna (Mah.) Miglio. 

PANicuMt Italicum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 
Gramina. Welfcher Fennich (Norn. Triv. Willd.). 

I have given this small round grain a place here 
from certain knowledge of its excellence ; it is much 
prized by the native Indians of all descriptions, who 
make cakes of it and also a kind of porridge ; for 
the purposes of pastry it is little if it at all inferior 
to wheat, and, when boiled with milk, it forms a light 
and pleasant meal for invalids. The Brahmins hold 
it in high estimation, indeed, more than any other 
grain. The culm is annual and seldom rises higher 
than a foot and half. Three varieties of it are cul- 
tivated in Mysore ; bill on watered land, kempa in 
palm gardens, and mobu in dry fields ; in more West- 

* The seeds of the bassia butyracea (Roxb.), on being boiled, 
yield a rich oily substance, which the natives of the Circar 
Mountains use as ghee, or butter. 

-}• No fewer than 30 species of panicum are growing in the 
royal botanical garden of Ceylon* 


ern tracts other varieties, ghedu^ jotUy and dodu are 
cultivated. Barrow, in his Travels in China (p. 83.), 
tells us, that it is common in that country. It grows 
in abundance in the Southern parts of Europe, par- 
ticularly in Portugal, where it is called milho patnco. 


MUDAR ROOT. See article Yercum vayr in 
this Part (Part I.) of the work. 


MULLET. Madddvey-meen LD\—(5\jrr\.j5'a^ 
(Tam.) Bonta (Tel.) Purhen ^^. (Hind.) Md- 
; hee urubie ^j^ ^U (Duk.) Mdldi (Malealie.) Mu- 
let (Fr.) Triglia (It.) ^U^ (Arab.) ^U^ (Pers.) 

MuGiL Cephalus. 

This is a most excellent fish in India, but is, per- 
haps, a little too fat and rich for those who are deli- 
cate ; it is much prized by the natives, and is very 
abundant in the Indian seas. It is usually from 
eight to twelve inches long, or more, and has, of 
course, the distinguishing characters of its genus, 
which are, a lower jaw, carinate within j scales stri- 
ated ; two fins on the back. It is used both in its 
fresh and salted state. There are seven species be- 
longing to this genus ; ours is the most common, and 
is what was so much prized by the ancients. The 
spawn of this fish, salted and dried, forms a kind of 
cavier, called by the Italians botordgo. As food, 

Q 2 


generally speaking, the Vytians consider fish * as less 
heating than butcher meat ; less likely to excite an 
inordinate flow of bile ; more easily digested, and to 
be particularly indicated in cases of diabetes. When 
taken in too great a quantity, however, or when too 
long kept, it is apt to bring on leprosy, especially if 
a milk diet is at the same time indulged in. 


MUSK. Castoori es-^ijg-^rrrP (Tarn. Tel. Sans.) 
Jebdt (Mai.) Dedes (Jav.) Mishk S-^ (Duk. and 
Pers.) Kustowrie (Hindooie.) Mishk jCxL< (Arab.) 
Rutta ooroola (Cyng.) Muskus (Dut.) Almiscar 
(Port.) Desmer (Dan.) Muse (Fr.) Bisam (Ger.) 
Muschio (It.) iSjyX^S' (Mai.) 


The Jiative practitioners of India, like us, consider 
musk as stimulant and antispasmodic ; and prescribe 
it in general spasmodic affections, and in lock-jaw. 
The Tamool doctors especially, suppose it to be use- 
ful in what they call manda jennie (convulsions of 
children), which they conceive to proceed from in- 
digested milk, as the name implies. They also ad- 
minister it in dyspepsia and kistnah doshum (typhus), 
and, when combined with opium, in dysenteric com- 

The odour of musk is powerful and altogether 
peculiar ; we cannot well call it aromatic, yet it 

* The natives of India make great use of salt fish, which is 
carried into the interior parts of the country, and must assist in 
counteracting any bad effects that might arise from their constant 
use of vegetable diet. 


would be difficult to say by what other word it could 
better be described ; it is of a deep-brown colour, 
and has a bitterish and heavy taste. This substance 
is a secretion, found in a small bag situated betwixt 
the navel and prepuce of the male of an animal of 
the deer kind, resembling a good deal what is called 
the hog-deer of Bengal. The animal, which is in 
zoology moschus moschiferus, is common in Kitchar 
and Lower Thibet*, where it is called kustura, also 
Luy and the vascular covering of the musk latcha. 
Colonel Kirkpatrick tells us, that the musk-deer is 
also a native of the Turyanie^ in Nepaul ; and it 
would seem that it has been occasionally met wdth in 
Cochin-China, in Tonquin, and in the Birmah do- 

The herdsmen of Thibet often adulterate musk. 
When we see it of a rather light-brown colour, and 

, granulated, it may be considered as impure ; if dark, 
homogeneous and divided in many parts by a thin 

I cuticle, it is of a good quality. Pure musk. Dr. 
Thomson informs us in his London Dispensatory, 

I inflames without running, and is converted into char- 
coal. Aetius is the first author who mentions it 
as a medicine. In England it was little used before 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

European practitioners prescribe musk in gout, 
tetanus, epilepsy, cholera, hooping-cough, hydro- 
phobia, and typhus fever. The dose is from gr. x. to 
grs. XXX.; that of the mist, moschat. from ^\. to 
^iiss. every third or fourth hour. Musk is adulte- 
rated in two ways, either by dried blood or asphaltum. 
(See Paris Pharmacologia.) 

Dr. Duncan, junior, in his Edinburgh Dispensa- 

* See Turner's Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama^ 
pp. 201, 202. 



tory, extols highly the powers of musk as an antis- fi 
pasmodic, which often succeeds, he says, when other 
things fail, and raises the pulse without heating. 

The Arabians place musk amongst their Makuwyat 
demagk ^U^ ^Ljyf-^ (Cephalics) ; for the opinions of 
the Persian* physicians respecting it, the reader may 
consult a valuable work, entitled Maadeni Shefa i 
li;i Qj*xx-<j, or *' The Mine of Remedies'*, by a me- 
dical practitioner of Bokharia, called Aby Ben Hus^ 
sen, and written in 1363. 

A factitious musk may be made by digesting to- 
gether rectified oil of amber, one part, with nitric 
acid, four parts, to be afterwards well washed in 
water ; the smell is similar to that of musk or am- 
bergris, and may be substituted for them as medi- 
cine. (See Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 
p. 230.) 


MUSTARD. Kdddghoo us(^(s (Tam.) Raiy 
is\j (Duk.) Sdsdvie (Mai.) Gan-aba (Cyng.) Rd- 
jikd I^TT^^T (Sans.) Riey (Hindooie.) Avaloo 
(Tel.) Khirdal 3^^^^ (Arab.) Rc7i (Hind.) Mos^ 
tarda (Port.) Moutarde (Fr.) Senfsamen (Ger.) 
Grano de mostaza (Sp.) Sirshuff cjLi^ (Pers.) 
Rie (Mah.) Senapa (It.) Kiai-tsai (Chin.) 

SiNAPis Chinensis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Nat. Ord. 
Siliquosse. Chinesischer Senf (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The pungent, bitterish, acrid, and biting seeds of 
the sinapis chinensis, are considered by the Hindoo 

* Rhazes extols musk highly for all those complaints, which he 
supposes originate in a diminished vital heat in the brain. Vide 
Oper. Rhaz. De Remed. lib. iii. p. 74. 


and Mahometan practitioners as stimulant and sto- 
machic, and laxative ; they also, when bruised into 
powder, use them externally in rheumatic and para- 
lytic affections, mixed occasionally with a little warm 

Several species of sinapis are cultivated in Bengal, 
on account of the very useful edible oil procured 
from the seeds. The most common are the sinapis 
dichotoma (Roxb. MSS.) ; the Hindoostanie name 
of which is sersoriy and Sanscrit sarshapa. The si- 
napis ramosa (Roxb. MSS.) ; the Hindoostanie name 
of which is rdiy and Sanscrit rqjica, names also given 
to our article; and another species, called in Hin- 
doostanie forty and in Sanscrit tuverica. The excel- 
lent Dr. Carey, in the 10th volume of Asiatic* 
Researches, speaks of a species, sinapis glauca (sheta 
strshdy Hind.). With respect to their medicinal qua- 
lities. Dr. Fleming, in his Catalogue of Indian 
Medicinal Plants (p. SQ.)^ says, that the seeds of all 
these correspond exactly with those of the sinapis 
nigra (Willd.). Fifteen species of sinapis are grow- 
ing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, all of them 
oriental plants, except the sinapis nigra (the NaTro 
of the Greeks), which was brought from England 
by Colonel Garstin. But two species of sinapis ap- 
pear to be growing in the royal botanical garden of 
Ceylon t, our article, and the sinapis alba^ which the 
Cvng-alese call rata-aba. 

European practitioners recommend an infusion of 
the bruised seed in paralysis ; also externally, an em- 
brocation made with the farina of the pounded seeds, 
in vinegar. A valuable mustard seed cataplasm, is 
prepared with equal parts of the pulverised seeds and 

* See Asiatic Researches for 1808, vol. x. p. 15. 

f See Mr. Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, p. 47. 

Q 4 


crumb of bread ; it ^is applied to the soles of the 
feet, in the sinking stages of fever and other diseases. 
A table-spoonful of the unbruised seed, given night 
and morning, promotes the secretion of urine in 
dropsies, and is at once stomachic^, aperient, and 
diuretic ; a pound of the whey may b.e drank for the 
same purposes twice daily : this is made by boiling 
two or three table-spoonfuls of the bruised seeds in a 
pint of fnilk, and afterwards separating the curd. 

The ancients, according to Pliny t, thought highly 
of mustard as a medicine, and cultivated three difc 
ferent kinds of it ; in speaking of it, he says, '' Ad 
serpentium ictus et scorpionum tritum cum aceto 
illinetur. Fungorum venena discutit ; contra pitui- 
tam tenetur in ore, donee liquescat, aut gargarizatur 
cum aqua mulsa ; stomachico utilissimum contra 
omnia vitia, pulmonibusque.^^ The Greeks knew it 
but by two names, 'Nuttu and S/vtjtt/. Rhazest, the 
Arabian writer, says of it *^ Sinapi calidum est, quod 
in palato positum phlegma incidit vermes praeterea 
expelUt, atque apostemata maturat.'* 



MUTTON. Aatoo irichie 6^l^\ a(y^}/\n^'^ 

(Tam.) Vaynta hoora (Tel.) Dagin doomha (Mai.) 

^ I am inclined to think, that mustard taken internally, possesses 
greater virtues than have yet been fully ascertained; I have known 
it of the greatest use in paralytic affections and general debility ; 
and it would appear by the observations of Callisen, that the 
white mustard seed had been found by him to be a most powerful 
remedy in the low state of typhus fever, when musk, camphor, 
and other remedies had failed. See Roque's Phytographie Medi- 
cale, vol. ii. p. 191. 

-)• Vidfe C. Plinii, Nat. Hist, torn, ii. lib.xx. cap. 22. 

t Vide Rhaz. Oper. de re Med. lib. iii. p. 87. 


Bukryka gosht ^IXi^..^ ^ cf JCj (Duk.) Aja mamasa 
(Sans.) also in Duk. Putla ka gosht C^ji^y^ \S ^Xj^. 
Goshti mesh J^j^ ClK-^yEzix (Pers.) Bukry-che-mas 
(Mah.) Castrato (It.) Mouton (Fr.) 

Caro Ovilla. 

Mutton in India, when the sheep has been well 
fed, which is now generally the case at all large sta- 
tions, is excellent ; in Bengal the Europeans are 
very particular in this respect, and are at much more 
pains to have mutton of a superior quality than they 
are on the coasts of Coromandel or Malabar. 

There are various kinds of sheep (ovis aries) in In- 
dia, differing considerably in size, shape, &c. ; but the 
great distinction is, that there are some that bear a 
kind of coarse wool, while others are covered with 
hair. This is a good deal owing to the climate, as it 
may be hot or cool j in the Carnatic, where, the heat 
is great, they have naturally hair, are long legged, 
and do not so readily get fat as those of the Bengal 
provinces, Mysore, and Coimbatore, which resemble 
more the sheep of Europe, bearing wool, but of a 
very coarse kind, of which an inferior sort of blanket 
is made, for which purpose the shaggy hair is also 
occasionally employed. In the Bhote country, which 
is a vast mountainous tract, bounded by the Indus 
on the East, on the West by the Burhampooter, and 
on the North by the Hemalaya Mountains ; the sheep 
is a large*, strong, and stately animal, not unlike the 

* Forming a great contrast with the purik sheep of LadaJch^ as 
well described by Mr. Moorcroft : These, he says, when full 
grown, are not larger than South Down lambs of five or six months 
old, but are remarkable for the fineness of the fleece, and flavour 
of the mutton. See Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society 
of Great Britain and Ireland? vol. i. Part I. p. 49. 


Leicestershire breed; the wool of it towards the 
South is coarse, but farther North is finer, and the 
mutton very good. The sheep is the only beast of 
burthen that travellers have in those snowy countries, 
and carries about fifteen seers. The wool in the 
coldest regions is said to be little inferior in fineness 
to the fleece of the shawl goat, and is made into 
woollen cloth by the women. In an interesting 
paper in the Asiatic Journal for March, 1823, by 
Mr. Kendal, it will be seen, that he considers the ani- 
mal which Mr. Frazer found in the Hemalaya Moun- 
tains, there called burrel, and which is termed haral 
by Mr. Moorcroft, is no other than the sheep in its 
wild state, and not, as some have supposed, the link 
betwixt the deer and sheep ; it is remarkable for its 
enormous branching horns. It is found also in 
Kamtscatchka, Siberia, and Tartary, and in North 
America ; nay. Pennant says it was formerly in Great 
Britain : it is the musmon of the Greeks, the moyflon 
of BufFon, the caleatoo of the Tamooleans, and Mr. 
Colebrooke suggests, that it is no other than the ovis 
ammon of North America. The Algonkin nations 
of India call it miatic or ugly deer. In winter the 
hair is long and shaggy, including a highly-respect- 
able beard ! In summer the hair falls oflT, and the 
under coat becomes a grey wool; the legs are slen- 
der and long ; the agiUty of the motions of this ani- 
mal, much resemble those of the deer kind. Mr. 
Kendal, however, concludes his account by saying, 
that the hurrel is, notwithstanding, a sheep, and the 
only sheep or original type which nature has planted 
on the globe. 

In Nepaul the mutton is, by all accounts, of a su- 
perior quality, and one breed of sheep there, the 
smallest, and called kahgiay is covered with an excel- 


lent wool. The sheep of Thibet are very large, and 
are used by the inhabitants of Bootan as beasts of 
burthen ; both their mutton and wool are much 
better than those of more southern latitudes. 

The Cape of Good Hope sheep are distinguished 
by their long, thick tails *, which are fat, and much 
used by the natives in preparing their greasy, and to 
European stomachs, unpalatable food ; the wool is 
coarse, and the mutton not delicfate. 

As a diet for the sick, I conceive mutton to be 
every way inferior to beefi kid, or lamb ; it is said to 
be, and I believe it is so, the most easily digested of 
all kinds of butcher meat by men in health, but 
when fat it has a certain heaviness of taste, or per- 
haps it might be better expressed by a strongness of 
flavoui', which by no means recommends it to an in- 

In speaking of the sheep of Malabar, Dr. Bucha- 
nan (now Hamilton) informs us, that there are two 
kinds, the curumbar and shaymbliar. The first are 
short bodied, tail short, for the most part white, with 
a black head ; above the Ghauts often black, wool 
thick and curly, with little hair interwoven. The 
second, the shaymbliar^ are more slender, wool very 
scanty, their principal covering being hair; in the 
low country they are commonly of a reddish brown, 
but in Mysore they are usually black. In the Car- 
natic, the Tamools call the wool-bearing sheep Icoo- 
rumbadoOy and the other shembili or semmalie autoo. 

* A sheep of nearly the same kind is common in some of the 
Persian provinces, and the tail considered as an emollient. The 
Arabians call the tail ulyeah ^J| the Persians dumdumbeh ^^ ^^ 

in Hindoostanie it is dumkey hey poonteh. The same variety is 
common also in Cabul, and there called, by Mr. Elphinstone's 
account, doomba ; he tells us, their tails are a foot broad and com- 
posed almost entirely of fat. See hi» Account of Cabul, p. 143. 


In Aghastier*s Medical Sastrum of Vytia Anyouroo^ 
he speaks rather unfavourably of the mutton of the 
first, as having a tendency to promote too much the 
secretion of bile ! ! 

The enlightened and excellent Dr. F. Hamilton, 
above mentioned, in his Account of the District of 
Puraniya^ notices a breed of sheep in that part of 
India, and there called garar^ which are distinguished 
by their long tails, and which, he says, resemble more 
the sheep of Europe than any he had seen in India ; 
he also notices two other breeds of sheep common 
there, and that the wool of both is made into 
blankets j one of these is termed bhere^ the other 
bJiera. I take this opportunity of gratefully acknow- 
ledging the obligations I am under to that gentleman 
for much valuable information ; and for the indul- 
gence he has so liberally and politely granted me of 
perusing his, I must say, inestimable manuscripts, 
deposited in the library of the East India Company, 
at the India House, 


^^n-LU (Tam.) Biilla 5Vj (Duk.) Beheyra (Hind.) 
B^l^yluj g-XxXj (Arab.) Beleyleh «jdJL» (Pers.) Boolloo 
(Cyng.) Bahira (Sans.) 

Terminalia Bellerica (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Eloeagni (Juss.) 

The fruit of the belleric myrobalan, in its dried 
state, is little larger than a gall nut, but not so regu- 


lar in shape, of a dirty brown colour, and astringent 
taste, and is sometimes used by the natives in cases 
requiring medicines of this nature. In the Mogul 
dominions, as we learn by the Ulfaz Udwiyehy this 
myrobalan is considered as astringent, attenuant, and 
tonic; the dose, one to three direms. The large 
tree, which produces it, is common in Mysore, where 
it is called tari^ and hence the name that was be- 
stowed on it by Dr. Buchanan (now Hamilton), 
myroholanus taria ; it is the tani of Rheed's Hort. 
Malab., and shall be further noticed hereafter. 

For an account of the use of this myrobalan in 
the arts, the reader is referred to another part of this 
work ; its astringency has been ascertained to be 
pretty nearly equal to that of the emblic myrobalan. 
Four species of terminalia are growing in Ceylon. 


e^^n-Lu (Tam.) Cdrdkdia (Tel.) Huldah \^^ 
(Duk.) Har also Hara (Hind.) Ardloo (Cyng.) 
Haritaka ^TlT^^ (Sans.) Helelije kdbuli ^^^ 
J<j\S (Arab.) Helileh keldn (^J^ aLX^^ (Pers.) 
Umbe-d'her (Hindooie). 

Terminalia Chebula (Willd.) 

The fruit of this species of terminalia is infinitely 
more astringent than that of the preceding, and is, 
on that account, much more used by the Hindoos in 
their arts and manufactures =^5 nay, it would appear 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 41. See also some ac- 
count of the gall which grows on the terminalia chebula, in Part 
III. of this work. 


by some experiments made by Dr. Roxburgh*, that 
it is even more astringent than the Aleppo galls. In 
its dried state, in which we find it in the bazars, it is 
about the size of a large Spanish olive, of an oblong 
ovate shape, yellow brown colour, and is marked 
with five edges and five furrows alternately. 

Kadukai, well rubbed with an equal proportion of 
cilttdcdmboo (see article Catechu), is considered by 
the native practitioners as an excellent application 
in the apthous complaints of children and adults ; 
the last of which is a frequent and most dangerous 
affection amongst the Hindoos. The tree which 
yields this myrobalan is common in the Mysore 
country, where it is called arulay^ and hence the 
name Dr. Buchanan bestowed upon it, myrabolanus 
arula ; it is the terminalia chebula (Willd.), and to 
which he has given the trivial name of zweidrusiger 
catappenbaum. D'Herbelot, in his Bibliotheque Ori- 
entale, expresses an opinion, that the Arabic name 
of the chebulic myrobalan is taken from the word 
cahul ; the article having been first brought to 
Arabia from the country so named. It was on this 
species of myrobalan, or rather terminalia, that Dr. 
Roxburgh t found the larva oi the coccus or kermes, 
about three-eighths of an inch long and a quarter 
broad ; and which, he thinks, could they be procured 
in any quantity, might prove as valuable a dyet as 
the red dye of the cochineal insect. 

What is called zengi liar (Hindooie) in the Bengal 

* See Oriental Repertory, vol. i. p. 23. 

f See Coromandel Plants, vol. ii. pp.53, 54. 

\ It was called by the ancients coccus scarlatinum, they pre- 
ferred that of Galatia and Armenia ; at present it is gathered in 
Languedoc, and is found on the quercus coccifera (Lin.). The in- 
sect is used for dyeing, chiefly wool, when bruised it has a 
pleasant smell ; the taste is a little bitter, rough and pungent. 


provinces, singhi (Tam.j, and kurkadaga (Sans.), is^ 
the Indian or black myrobalan of old writers, and is, 
in fact, the unripe dried fruit of the terminalia che- 
bula. The native doctors recommend it as a brisk 
purge. It is about the size of a pistachio-nut, and 
of a deep black colour, oblong, pointed, slender, and 
has scarcely the rudiments of the nut. The Ara- 
bians call it ahleeliLJ-asood ^^^l g^V^'*> ^^^ the Per- 
sians heleeleh seeah xLam ^jJLJijt) ; they give it in 
decoction as a cathartic, in doses from 1 to 2 direms, 
with the addition of a little honey. The terminalia 
chebula seldom rises higher than eighteen or twenty 
feet, with naked, ovate, mostly opposite leaves, pe- 
tioles biglandular above, racemes simple; all the 
flowers are hermaphrodite. 

What is called the citrine t myrobalan (terminalia 
citrina) is ranked amongst the fruits ; it is about the 
size of a French plum, and is often made into pickle ; 
its Sanscrit name is liba^ its Hindoostanie harva^ and 
its Canarese alay-gara. (Further particulars in Part 
IV. of this work.) 


MYROBALAN EMBLIC. Nellie kcu Qr3a\^ 
onS'^^h-lu Tam.) Woosherikdia (Tel.) 

Aoonld ii^^i (Duk.) Anola ^SyS (Hind.) Amlej J^S 
(Hindooie.) Hac-min-san (Coch. Chin.) Amleh 
^JUJ (Pers.) Amalaka 3f5T^^cJ^ (Sans.) also Aun- 

* This myrobalan wa« supposed by Rhazes to have virtues in 
cases of melancholia. Vide Oper. Rhaz. de Remedies, lib. i. p. 437. 

f This myrobalan the same writer believed to have virtues in 
cases of cholera ; again, he says of it, " bilemrubeam, et humores 
educat." Vide idem, p. 207. 


werd (Hind.) also Aongra (Hind.) Awusada- 
nelli (Cyng.) Cay-boung-Ngot (Cochin-Chin.) 

Phyllanthus Embuca (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monodelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Tricoccse (Lin.) Baumartiger Phyllanthus (Nom. 

Triv. WiUd.). 

The emblic myrobalan is the produce of the my" 
robalanus emhlica of Rumphius, and is reckoned 
amongst the Indian fruits ; it is frequently made into 
pickle. When fresh it resembles much the chillu 
mellie (fruit of the ctcca distichay Lin.) ; it is acid, 
astringent, has a dark stone inside, and is one of 
those articles which were formerly known in Europe 
under the general name of myrobalans, but which 
have all been long discarded from our dispensatories. 
Dr. Fleeming tells us, that the present article is in 
general use amongst the Hindoo physicians as an 
eccoproticy and enters as an essential ingredient into 
the preparation of the bitlaban, to be afterwards 
noticed in Part II. of this work. 

This myrobalan, in its dried state, is called in 
Tamool nellie moolie ; it is then about the size of a 
small marble, of a dirty, dark-brown colour, and ir- 
regular surface, possessing a considerable degree of 
astringency. Avicenna* speaks of it under the name 
of ^^K ai^d tells us, that the Arabs sometimes call 
the fruit ^^ (Suk.) The tree which yields it is the 
Boa malacca of the Malays t and Javanese, and the 
nelli camarum of the Hortus Malabo i. p. 69. t. 38. 

All these three myrobalans are to be met with in 

♦ See Avicenna, p. 128. ; also SprengeFs Historia Rei Herbariae, 
p. 267. 

t It is a native of Cochin-China and China : of it Laureiro says, 
" arbuscula, ramis diiFusis, folia oblongata, bacca^ sub pyriformis, 
carnosa, sub acida, edulis." Flor, Cochin-Chin, vol.ii. p. 553. 


most parts of Lower India. In Bengal they grow in 
abundance ; in Java, we are told by Bontius, that 
the Dutch are in the habit of employing the emblic 
and beleric sorts daily in their hospitals, in dysenteric 
and biHous affections. The ancients, we are in- 
formed, often prepared a plaister with powder of 
myrobalans, elatereum, litharge and turpentine, which 
they supposed had great virtues as a vulnerary. For 
a curious and interesting account of the different 
kinds of myrobalans, the reader is referred to a Per- 
sian treatise on medicine, entitled, Mekzen-ul-adviyeh^ 
by Muhammed Hosen ShirazL 

The phyllanthus emblica does not rise higher than 
fifteen or sixteen feet, the leaves are pinnate, florife- 
rous, and have very narrow leaflets ; it is also a 
native of China and Cochin-China, in the first men- 
tioned country, Loureiro * says, the berry is juiceless. 
Ten species of phyllanthus grow in the royal botan- 
ical garden of Ceylon, 


MINT. Widdatilam cnL^_Q.^(3V)rrLO (Tam.) Poo- 
dina aJL*^^/ (Pers. and Duk.) Nafia ^xj (Arab.) also 
Hibbuk lJIa^ (Arab.) Baume verte (Fr.) Franen- 
murze (Ger.) Menta romana (It.) 

Mentha Sativa (Var.) 

CI. and Ord* Didynamia Gymnospermia. Nat. 
Ord. Verticillatae. Zahme Mimze (Nom. Triv. 
Willd.) . 

* Vide Flora Cochin^China, vol. ii, p, 553. 
VOL. I. R 


This mint is occasionally prescribed by the Maho- 
metan practitioners in dyspeptic complaints, and to 
stop vomiting. The Arabians and Persians place it 
amongst their Mulittifat v:^LikJU (Attenuentia). In 
Bengal it is chiefly used for culinary purposes. Dr. 
Fleming observes, that it is a diflferent plant from 
the spear mint (menstra viridis), and Dr. Roxbnrgh 
thinks, that it comes nearest to the mentlia sativa ; 
but as the first of these gentlemen justly observes, 
it is of no consequence, as tlie podiJia possesses fully 
the aromatic flavour, as well as the stomachic, anti- 
spasmodic and emmenagogue virtues, which seem 
common to most of the species of the genus. Six 
species of mentha are growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta ; five species grow in Ceylon. 
Alibert* takes no notice of the mentha sativa, or 
m. viridis, but extols the mentha crispa (^rau-hung 
Cochin-Chin.) in cases of flatulence, hysteria, and 
spasmodic colic. Mint, the M/vStj of the Greeks, is 
often alluded to by the ancients : Theophrastus 
speaks highly of it ; Pliny dwells chiefly on its de- 
lightful odour t, and of its quality of preventing 
milk from soon turning sour. The men. peperita 
grows in Japan, and is there called^^77. 


MYRRH. Vdldtipdhim 6ijn-uprrg-^L_.i(jLjrro\rrLO 
(Tam.) also Pdlendra holum and ViUey holum (Tam.) 
Balintra holum (Tel.) Vola q^^ (Sans.) Heera 
hot y^ \jjj^ (Duk.) Boxd (Hindooie) Murr ^ 

* See his Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutic, vol. ii. p. 129. 
t See Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. xix. cap. viii. p. 583. 


(Arab.) Mcmisan lehah (Malay) Madu (Jaw) 
Madu (Bali.) Mirra (Port.) Mirrhe (Dut.) 
Mj/rrhai (Ger.) Myrrhe (Fr.) Mirra (It.) 


It is a reproach to the science of medicine, that 
the tree wliich produces this gum-resin has not yet 
been satisfactorily ascertained ; it is said to be a 
native of Azam, in Africa*, also Hadramaictj a pro- 
vince of Arabiaf Felix, and of Abyssiniat, growing, 
according to Bruce, along the coast towards the 
Straits of Babelmandel ; that gentleman observes 
(vol. V. Appendix, p. 27-)' that the leaf of the myrrh 
tree resembles much that of the acacia vera^ and tliat 
the bark is altogether like that of the same tree, 
from which, we might be induced to suppose, that 
the plant was a mimosa ; but as Dr. Duncan, junior, 
very justly observes, in his excellent edition of the 
Edinburgh Dispensatory, " all the mimosas with 
which we are sufficiently acquainted furnish a pure 
gum, not a gum-resin/* The Arabians term the 
acacia vera ]ojj> also LIa^ 

That the tree should not have been accurately as- 
certained is the more" to be wondered at, when we 
reflect, that myrrh has been used both as a perfume 
and medicine upwards of two thousand years. We 
are told by Arrian||, that Alexander's army found 
vast numbers of myrrh trees growing in the territory 
of the Gadrossi, and that the gum was gathered by 
the physicians ; it was one of the sixteen ingredients 
which composed the famous zulphi^ which, it is 

* See Dr. Vincent's Account of the Commerce and Navigation 
of Ancient India, p. 127. 

f See Niebhur's Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 207. 
t See Lockman's Travels of the Jesuits, vol. i. p. 264. 
II See llooke's Arrian, vol. ii. pp. 115. 180. 

R a 


said, inflamed every night to the setting sun in the 
temple of Vulcan, at Memphis.* Plutarch has pre- 
served the recipe (De Is. et Osir. c. 81. Squire's 
edition) ; and Theophrastus describes an unguent 
formed by the pastophori, of which myrrh and cin- 
namon were principal ingredients. Pliny particularly 
.mentions the appearance of the myrrh tree, and in- 
forms us, that in his day there were known no less 
than six different kinds of myrrh, chiefly to be met 
with in Arabia ; he notices its often being adulterated 
with gum-mastich, " Adulteratur lentisci glebes, et 
gummi'' (hb. xii. cap. xvi.) ; of it Celsus says, " myr- 
rha facultatem habet alvum moliendi ; vulnus gluti- 
nat J pus concoquit et movet,'* or words similar to 
that effect (lib. iii. cap. xx., also, lib. v. cap. ii.). 

The Vytians in India order this substance occa- 
sionally in such cases as require gentle cordials ; they 
also employ it externally, when mixed with lime- 
juice, as a repellent in tumours and violent bruises. 

European practitioners consider the fragrant, bit- 
ter, and aromatic gum-resin, as stimulant, tonic and 
expectorant, and administer it accordingly in chlo- 
rosis, cases of debility, and in certain stages of 
pulmonary consumption ; but it must be given with 
caution, as it is apt to quicken the pulse consider- 
ably, and increase suddenly the heat of the body ; 
it is often employed with advantage in humoural 
asthma and chronic catarrh; a solution of it in alco- 
hol is a good local stimulant for spungy gums, and 
correcting the fetid discharge ojf vitiated ulcers. The 
dose of the substance is from gr. xv. to 3i. The 
pulv. myrrhae comp. (ph. Lond.) in doses of one or 
two scruples is a powerful emmenagogue. / 

* See Disquisitions on the History of Ancient Medicine, by 
Dr. R.Millar, p. 310. 


The modern Arabians * place this gum - resin 
amongst their Munzijat CjV^*^^-^ CSuppurantia). Its 
quaUties may be found fully treated of in the HulH 
Mitjiz al Canun (j. >>jIX5' >^>-« J^> ^^ Arabic medical 
work, by Nqfez Ben Aviez. 

Braconnot informs us, that 100 parts of myrrh 
consist of 23 of resin, and 77 of gum; but Dr. 
Thomson, by his experiments, found somewhat dif- 
ferent results, corresponding more with Pelletier, 
who made the proportions to be 34.68 of resin, and 
00.32 of gum. An inferior kind of myrrh is some- 
times exposed for sale in the bazars of Lower India, 
under the Tarnool name of villey bolum. 


NATCHENNY. Kelwdrdgoo G^^o^^cr 

(Tam.) Rdgie ^^\j (Duk.) Moorooa (Beng.) 

Tamidaloo, also Ponassa (Tel.) Mootdmy (Malealie) 

Tsjetttpullu (Hort. Mai. xii. p. 149- t. 78-) Rqjikd 

TTf^^T (Sans.) 

Cynosurus Coracanus (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Digynia. 

Natchenny is the name given by Europeans, on 
the Coromandel coast, to a useful and most valuable 
grain, which is eaten and prized by the native In- 
dians of all descriptions ; it is about the size of 
mu)>tard seed, and darkish coloured j it is either made 

* Avicenna speaks highly in favour of myrrh, " Aperit, flatus 
discutit, adstringit, glutinat, emoUit ; ad laxitatem, et inflationem 
ventriculi prodest myrrha pura et sincera ; but he says not a word 
of the tree which yields it. Canon, lib. ii. tract ii. p. 197. 

R 3 


into cakes, or is eaten as porridge is in Scotland with 
milk ; it is pleasant to the taste, and in its nature 
aperient. It is called in Tinnevelly cdpd^ and in 
some parts of Hindoostan maud. In Mysore three 
kinds are cultivated: cari^ kempu and Jaihiparia. 
The plant is the eleusine coracana of Gsertner ; and 
rises to the height of three or four feet, having 
large, bifarious, smooth leaves, and a corolla with 
valves nearly equal (See Flora Indica, vol. i, p. 343.). 


jyyisS (Hind.) Roobdh turbuc ^j/S 2$!.jj^ (Pers.) 
Inubas saleb cJlxSH c^JLr (Arab.) Belladone (Fr.) 
Tollkraut (Ger.) Belladona (It.) 

Atropa Belladona (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridae (Lin.) 

I have merely given this a place here from finding 
that it was a plant well known in the Mogul country, 
and to the Arabians^ and Persians, who place it, like 
us, amongst their narcotics, Mokederrat ^Lj^-^ ; I 
have never seen it in India. It is a perennial, found 
in many parts of Europe, and by no means uncom- 
mon in Britain, especially in church-yards and on 
dung-hills. It has a thick, fleshy root, from which 
springmany purple-coloured herbaceous, annual stems; 
the root-leaves are often a foot long and five inches 
broad J the stem-leaves are egg-shaped, on short pe- 

* The name of ungoor shefa U/i ,a.3CjI is, I am told, given to a 
species of atropha in the upper provinces of Bengal. 


tioles, pointed, entire, of a dusky-green colour above, 
and paler below ; the flowers are large, nodding, 
having a very faint narcotic odour; the berry is large, 
roundish, at first green, but when ripe of a shining 
black colour, containing many seeds, and a violet- 
coloured juice. Every part of the plant is poisonous; 
in medicine the leaves (which are inodorous, nau- 
seous, sweetish, and subacrid) are chiefly employed. 
Besides being powerfully narcotic, the deadly night- 
shade is diaphoretic and diuretic. The complaints 
for which it has been recommended in England, are 
schirrous and cancerous affections, obstinate inter- 
mittents, rheumatism, amaurosis, gout, and palsy; 
and Hufeland was of opinion that it had the powder 
of allaying convulsions arising from scrophulous irri- 
tation ; externally, its use has been found very effica- 
cious in mitigating the pain of cancerous and ill-con- 
ditioned sores, either in the form of fomentation, or 
by sprinkling a little of the powder of the leaves 
over the part affected. The infusion dropt into the 
eye produces a singular dilatation of the pupil. The 
physicians on the continent, and some of great note, 
such as Dehaen, Heister\ and more recently Rahn of 
Zurich, contend that the belladona is not only ineffi- 
cacious in cancerous complaints, but in many in- 
stances hurtful.* On the other hand, it is supposed 
to have virtues which render it a useful remedy in 
epilepsy, at least according to the testimony of Gre- 
ding.f Its success in hydrophobia, in spite of what 
has been said of it by M. M. Muench^ of Hanover, 
and Bucholtz, of Weimar, Alibert thinks is very 
doubtful. The medical men of Germany, as we are 

* See Alibert's Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. i. 
p. 422. See also Murray's Appar. Med. vol. i. p. 6^S. 
t See the same, p. 423. 

R 4 


told by Loisjeleur Deslongchamps*, prescribe it with 
as much faith in hooping-cough (coqueluche) as we 
do bark in intermittent fever. The dose of the 
powder of the dry leaves of the belladona is from 
grs. viii. to xvi. ; of an infusion made with a scruple 
or half a drachm of the dried leaves in ten ounces of 
boiling water, two ounces may be given daily; of 
the extract, or sitccus spicatuSy the dose is from gr. i. 
to grs. V. or vi. Orfila places belladona amongst his 
poisons, and ascertained that it acted equally on dogs 
and men.t The berries, when eaten, are said to pro* 
duce intoxication, accompanied with fits of laughter 
and violent gestures, great thirst, nausea, difficult 
deglutition, vertigo, dimness of sight, convulsions 
and death. Vauquelin J found the leaves to contain : 
1. vegetable albumen; 2. a bitter narcotic principle; 
3. nitrate, muriate, sulphate, binoxalate, and acetate 
of potassa. " Dr. Brandes has announced the ex- 
istence of a new vegetable alkali in this plant, which 
he calls atropia ; it forms brilliant acicular crystals, 
is tasteless, and difficultly soluble in water and alco- 
hol ||," and affords distinct salts with the acids. Dr. 
Paris informs us, that the best antidote for belladona 
in an over dose is vinegar ( Pharmacol ogia, p. 298.). 

* They prepare a sirup by boiling jij. of the leaves, and 5!. of 
root in a sufficient quantity of water, and adding a proper pro- 
portion of sugar : the dose from 5i. to 5iv. two or three times 
in the day. See Deslongchamps Manuel des Plantes Usuelles, 
vol. i. p. 395. 

f See Traite des Poisons, vol. li. part i. p. 239. 

\ See Annales de Chimie, Ixxii. 

II See Mr. Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. Ui. p. 1 16- 



NUTMEG. Jadicai f5=nr^^e^rrLU (Tarn,) 
Jddphal (Hind.) Jdtiphala 3TTfrRTc^ (Sans.) 
Jdyaphala (Beng.) Jatipullurriy also Sadikha (Cyng.) 
Jdphul J^.L^ (Duk.) Jouz bewd \yj j^^ (Pers.) 
Jowzalteib c^llj^js. (Arab.) Jdiphul (Hindooie) 
Buah'pala (Mai.) WoJi-pala (Jav.) Bu-wak-pa 
(Bali) Jqjikdia (Tel.) Gasor i (Temat} Muskaat- 
not en (Dut.) Noz moscada (Port.) Noix muscade 
(Fr.) Muscat enniisse (G ex.) Japhid (M^h.) Noce 

Moscada (It.) 

Myristica Moschata (Woodv.) 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 
Lauri (Juss.) Aechte Muscatennusse (Nom. Triv. 

Nutmeg, which is the kernel of the fruit of the 
myristica moschata, has a fragrant agreeable spicy 
odour, and warm aromatic taste and unctuous feel ; 
it is considered by the natives of India as one of 
their most valuable medicines in dyspeptic com- 
plaints, and in all cases requiring cardiacs, and corro- 
borants; they likewise prescribe it to such puny chil- 
dren as appear to suffer much in weaning. The 
nutmeg tree is a native of the Molucca islands, but 
is principally cultivated at Banda, and of late years at 
Batavia, Sumatra, and Penang. There is an inferior 
and long-shaped kind of nutmeg, common on Borneo, 
and an export from Passier* to India, and there is a 
wild sort (cdtjadicdi)y frequently to be met with in 

* See^ Elmpre's Directory to the Trade of the Indian Seas^ p. 5L 


some of the woods of Southern India, especially in 
Canara, whicli Dr. Buchanan thinks might be greatly ' 
improved by cultivation. The true nutmeg tree j 
now grows to a tolerable size, in certain sheltered I 
situations in the Tinnivelly district, especially at ( 
Courtalum, and bears pretty good fruit; it would also j 
appear by Mr. Moon's valuable Catalogue of Ceylon i 
Plants, to grow in that fine island, and has got the j 
Cyngalese name of sadikka. Three other species of i 
myristica grow in that country. 

The cultivation of nutmegs was introduced into J 
Sumatra, by the excellent Mr. J. Lumsdain's account, 
in 1798, as we learn by his valuable Memoir, pub- 
lished in 1821, in the Proceedings of the Agricultu- 
ral Society of Sumatra : this attempt however, was 
not very successful ; but it was tried again by Dr. 
Roxburgh, 1803, and with great success ; that 
gentleman, carried with him no less than 20,000 
vigorous nutmeg plants from Amboyna to Su- 

Nutmeg, like mace, taken in large quantity, is apt 
to produce stupor and drowsiness. CuUen cautions 
us against its use in subjects disposed to apoplexy, 
and Dr. Pearson thinks that in over-doses it has a 
narcotic effect, similar to that of camphor. Rum- 
phius, who has given the scientific appellation of 
nux myristicay sive pala^ to the nutmeg tree (Rumph. 
Amb. ii. p. 14. t. 4.) tells us, that the juice of the 
green nutmeg mixed with water, is used in Amboyna 
as a wash in apthous affections. Mr. Crawford, in 
his History of the Indian Archipelago, informs us, 
that there are no less than eight cultivated varieties 
of the tree in the Indian islands (vol. i. p. 505.), 
and according to De Comyn^^ two sorts grow in the 

* See his State of the Philippine Jslands; p. 26. 


Philippine islands, one shaped like a pigeon's egg, 
the other perfectly spherical. 

1 perceive by Avicenna (148), that the Arabs, 
besides the Arabic name already mentioned, give 
nutmeg the appellation of bussabussa l^A^j. They 
place it amongst their Mokewyat kabid JsaT c^LyU 
(Hepatica), and Mokeuoyat meoadeh sjor-c ^L>yU 
(Tonica). The volatile oil of nutmeg, which pos- 
sesses the odour and taste of the nutmeg, in a con- 
centrated degree, is occasionally used as an external 
stimulant. The expressed oil, (which is improperly 
called oil of macej and which Dr. Thomson conceives 
to be a kind of vegetable cerate, or a triple com- 
pound of fixed oil, volatile oil, and wax) is rarely 
prescribed, but as an external application ; it is 
called in Tamool jadipiitrie4ylum^ and in Dukhanie 
jawatrie-ka-tail j^'LT <syy:^ ; it is of a very stimulat- 
ing nature, and is brought to India from Banda, 
where it is chiefly employed in preparing liniments 
for palsy and chronic rheumatism. The dose of 
nutmeg may be from three or four grains to a 
scruple, that of the volatile oil from two drops to 
eight. The nutmeg tree was unknown to Linnaeus, 
and was first well described by Thunberg, in the 
Stockholm Acts for 1782. It is a large tree with 
erect branches^ and a smooth ash-coloured bark ; but 
the inner bark is red, leaves petioled, eliptical, pointed 
alternate, quite entire, shining, paler underneath, 
nerved, and have a delightful aromatic taste. The 
flowers are present at the same time with the fruit ; 
they are minute, and without odour, and male and 
female are on the same and on separate trees. 
Willdenow, in speaking of the myristica moschata, 
says, habitat in Moluccis ; but it will appear by the 
following passage, that it is also a native of America. 


** Le muscadier, m'ecrit Zea, se trouve dans les lieux . 
<Mes plus chauds du royaume de la Nouvelle Gre- . 
" nade, surtout a Mariguita, le long du grand fleuve 
<< de la Magdeleine^ ;'* and we know, that Ruiz and I 
Pavon found it in Peru, and Swartz in the American i 
islands, t By Beckman's account in his " Voyage to > 
Borneo,*' the nutmeg tree grows in the island of Ce- ^ 
lebes, and is an export from Macasser. 

MalaOy bhanhakoraCy ba$hi, and barabee, are the 
names of different wild nutmeg trees growing on 
Madagascar ; an oil got from the fruit of the last 
is an excellent stomachic (See Copeland's History 
of Madagascar.). 


OIL OF ALMONDS. Vddomcottay^yunnay 'i 

crun-g ldG^^L— a2)i--(ZLU6TKyr^A5TRTr (Tam.) Vadom 
vittilo (Tel.) Farsi bdddm ka tail J^jir -I^L ^^U » 
(Duk.) Inggudi tailam ^311^ rTc^ (Sans.) 

Oleum Amygdali (Lond. 

This is not prepared in any part of India, and its 
use there seems to be chiefly confined to the Maho- 
metan practitioners, who recommend it for the same 
purposes that we do, as a demulcent and emollient n 
in coughs and pulmonary complaints ; it is, however, 

^ See Alibert's Nouveau Elemens de Therapeutic, vol. ii. 
p. 219. 

\ See same work, vol. and page. 

:j: The bitter almond is called in Hindooie, keruey badam ; its 
root is considered as a medicine in Upper India. The wild 
almond is called in YliiiAooiejungliekd hadam. 


but seldom seen in our Asiatic dominions. Al- 
monds* are brought to India, of a very good quality, 
from the Persian gulph, and ports of the Red Sea. 
The dose of the oil is from 5ij. to ^i. A mixture 
of ^iv. of the oil, and eight drops of acetate of lead, 
is a good injection in gonorrhoea at the commence- 


OIL, CASTOR. Stttdmoonakayunnayj also 
Cottay imnay ^gr5"^L06rmr^©CLU5TOr2y^^^n~ (Tam.) 
Endooroo tail (Cyng.) Oobali erundyka tail JL^S 
J^AjlT tf^xJjo (Duk,) Sitt'dmi7idialoo noona (Tel.) 
Eranda tailam ^1^^ rl"^ (Sans.) Diihn ul kherooa 
£V^" c-^^ (Arab.) Rowgen Bedangeer ^^ jsx. ^^^^ 
(Pers.) Miniak jarak (Mai.) Lenga jarak (JdiV.) 
Langisjarak (BaU.) Huile de ricin (Fr.) Rizinus 
korner (Ger.) Olio di ricino (It.) 

Oleum Ricini (Lond.) 

This most valuable oil is prepared from the seeds 
of the ricinus communis, fruct. minor (Lin.), a plant 
of the cl. and ord. Monoecia Monadelphia, and nat. 
ord. Tricoccae (Lin.). The trivial German name of 
which, according to Willdenow, is gemeiner wander- 

The oil is highly prized as a purgative medicine 
by the native practitioners of India, who conceive it 

* Laureiro informs us, in his Flora Cochin-China (vol. ii. p. 316.), 
that both the sweet and bitter almonds grow in China, but he is 
doubtful if they grow in Cochin-China ; where, however, the tree 
amyg. com. is called him-ho-ghiy the amyg, Persica (Peach) grows 
in Japan, and is there called momuy akso too. 


to be particularly indicated in cases of iieercuttoo 
(Tarn.) ischuria and valacuttoo (Tam.), obstinate 
costiveness, from its operating freely and witliout 
irritating ; it is usually given daily, in small quantities, 
to new-born children, for three weeks together ; and 
is also considered as an invaluable medicine as an 
external application in various cutaneous affections. 
The castor-oilplant*, from the seeds of w^hich the 
oil is made, grows in great abundance in almost every 
part of India ; on the Malabar coast it is called by 
the Portugese Jigueiro d^iiifernoy in Sanscrit it is 

eranda ^X^ ^^ Canarese liaralu^ in Malayalie 

citavanacu^ in Hindoostanie arend^ in Arabic kherxca^ 
in Persian beedinjeery in Bengalie hlierenda^ and in 
Sumatran J^r^/r, which, according to Rumphiust, is 
also Malay. That distinguished wu'iter speaks of 
the plant under the scientific appellation of ricinus 
albus, and informs us, that in Ternate it is termed 
palatsgayt^ in Banda cajidolui/y and in Amboyna 
camiri ; it is the avanacu of Rheede (Hort. Malab. 
ii. p. 57. t. 53.). Marsden, in his History of Su- 
matra, says, the plantt is common there (p. 92.). 

The capsule is a trilocular nut, about the size of a 
large marble, of a pale-green colour, and covered 
with flexible prickles ; this, on bursting, elastically 
expels the seeds, usually tliree in number ; tliey are 

* Dierbach in his Materia Medica of Hippocrates informs us 
(chap, v.), that the plant was known to Hippocrates under the 
name K^jotov and the Germans call it familiarly xmuiderhaxnn. 

t See Rumph. Amb. iv. p. 92. 

\ Dr. F. Hamilton in his admirable account (MSS.) of the 
Puraniya country, informs us, that he found the ricinus cultivat- 
ed in that district for the purpose of feeding a worm which pro- 
duces a kind of coarse silk : w hich worm, I am told by my friend 
Mr. Wilkins, in spinning the cocoon, leaves an aperture at one 
end, through which it can force its way out, without injuring the 
fibre : this is not the case with the common worm. 



almost quite white, of an oblong, flat figure, and 
heavy mawkish taste. The plant itself grows fast, 
and often to the height of fourteen or fifteen feet, 
with a round, thick jointed, furrowed stem, glaucous 
in the lower part, but of a purplish colour towards 
the top ; the leaves grow singly on very long foot- 
stalks, they are large, peltate, palmate, from eight to 
twelve parted, or in other words, deeply divided into 
eight or more pointed serrated lobes, of a blueish- 
green colour ; the flowers are in terminating racemes, 
the male below, with a five-parted calyx, the female 
at the upper part of the spike, and is composed of a 
three-cleft reddish calyx. The plant is ihejima and 
too goma of the Japanese, and the cay-du-dU'deau of 

The oil is obtained in two ways, either by expres- 
sion or coction : in the second mode it is apt, occa- 
sionally, to become a little rancid, though it (so 
prepared) looks clearer, having the colour of beau- 
tiful pure amber, and is almost without smell, or 
disagreeable taste. Dr, Thomson informs us, that 
castor-oil is distinguished from all other expressed 
oils, by being nearly completely soluble in sulphuric 

The bark of the root of the tree is a powerful 
purgative, and when made into a ball about the size 
of a lime, in conjunction with chillies and to- 
bacco leaves, is an excellent remedy for gripes in 

In the Mysore country, w^here the castor-oil plant 

is much cultivated, two varieties are distinguished : 

our present article, which is the ricinus communis, 

fruct. minory and which is in Canarese chicca hdrdhi ; 

* Laureiro speaks highly of the virtues of the oil as a purga- 
tive, anthehnintic, &c., see his Flor. Cochin-China, vol. ii. p. 584". 



and the larger sort, which is the ricinus communis 
Jricct. majoVy and which in Canarese is dodu hdrdhc. 

Well prepared castor-oil* is, as ah'eady mentioned, J 
mildly cathartic, and is much used by the European 
medical practitioners in India in dysenteric affections, J 
in doses of from 5vi. to ^i. In obstinate constipa- 
tion, an enema prepared with two ounces or more of 
this medicine, the due proportion of warm water, 
and a little common salt, or Glauber salt, seldom 
fails to give relief. Castor-oil is best taken in weak 
pepper water (malagatanie). Below t is the process 
for making this oil, commonly adopted in the South- 
ern provinces of India. 

The castor-oil plant is now much cultivated in the 
West Indies, and the oil has of late years become an 
export from Jamaica, of a superior quality ; in that 
island it is considered as a valuable external remedy in 
cramps, and pains arising from colds, &c. Long, in 
his History of Jamaica, gives a particular account of 

it (p. 712.). 

The physicians on the continent of Europe, par- 
ticularly Messrs. Odier and Dunant, of Geneva, 
have found it efficacious in tape-worm (taenia). 

* Castor-oil is strongly recommended by a French writer, 
Sainte Marie, in colica pictonum. See Roque s Phytograpliie 
Medicale, vol. ii. p. 286. 

f Take five seers of the small castor-oil nuts, and soak them 
for one night in cold water ; next morning strain this water off 
and throw it away, and put the nuts into a second quantity of 
fresh water, and boil them in it for two hours ; after which strain 
the water off and throw it away, as in the first instance : the nuts 
are then to be dried in the sun on a mat for three days ; at the 
end of which time, they are to be well bruised in a mortar : add 
to the nuts thus bruised ten measures of water, and set the whole 
on the tire to boil, taking care to keep continually stirring the 
contents of the pot, until all the oil appears at the top ; when it 
is to be carefully strained off and bottled for use. The quantity 
of nuts mentioned in this formula, ought to yield about one quart 
bottle of oil. 


Alibeit gave it with success in many cases of /wm- 
hricus tereSy " Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique*' 
(vol. i. pp.376, 3770- 

What is called in the Southern districts of India 
lamp'Oilj from its being chiefly used for burning, is 
termed in Tamool vullukyunnay^ and in Tellingoo 
dmidiim ; it differs from the castor-oil, in having a 
more unpleasant odour, with a considerable degree 
of empyreuma owing, no doubt, to the seeds being 
roasted previously to the operation of boiling for the 
purpose of extracting the oil ; it is, besides, of a 
darker colour, and altogether of a more gross nature. 
This oil is got from the nut of the ricinus commu- 
nisj Jruct. rnqjovy and which I believe is the ricinus 
viridis of Willdenow (Spec. Plant, vol. iv. p. 564.). 
It is the r. ruber of Rumph. ( Amb. iv. p. 97* t. 41 .), 
the pandi-avanacu of Rheede (Mai. ii, p. 60.), and 
differs from the other species in the greater size 
of the stalks, leaves and fruit. The ricinus commu- 
nis, with two other species, the mappa and dicoccus 
(both natives of Amboyna), are growing in the bo- 
tanical garden of Calcutta ; the two last introduced 
by Mr. C. Smith, in 1798. 

Castor-oil, boiled in nitric acid, is converted into a 
sort of wax, which, however, Mr. Brande says, he 
found to be too easily melted to be used for making 
candles. Castor-oil is completely soluble in alcohol 
and ether. 


OIL OF CLOVES. Kirmnhoo tdijlum er^^OLOM 
S-S^Li^ovLO (Tam.) Lawingha tylum (Tel.) Woo^ 

VOL. I. s 


rala tail (Cyng.) Loung ha tail ^^ \S *if j^5 (Duk.) 

Huile de girqfle (Fr.) Oleo de garqfano (It*) Loun- 

ga-tcha-tile (Mah.) 

Oleum Caryophilli. 

The oil of cloves is chiefly prepared by the Dutch 
at Amboyna, at least that which is usually found in 
India ; it is of a deep red colour, having the flavour 
of the clove, but comparatively milder ; it is, how- 
ever, in its effects, powerfully stimulating, and, on 
that account, is seldom used internally, except as a 
corrigent to griping extracts ; externally, it has been 
found to relieve the toothache. The specific gravity 
of oil of cloves is, according to Brande, 1.034. 
This, like the other volatile oils, absorbs oxygen 
when long exposed to it, and becomes thick and re- 
sinous. From one hundred weight of cloves may be 
obtained from eighteen to twenty pounds of the 
essential oil. See article Clove. 



OIL, KANARI (Malay.). 

I should not have given this oil a place here, as it 
imdoubtedly hitherto has not been considered as one 
of the articles of the British Materia Medica; but on 
finding it so highly spoken of by Mr. Crawford, in 
his admirable " History of the Eastern Archipelago,'* 
I have been tempted to notice it, and at the same 
time to express a regret, that he was not able to add 
the botanical name of the tree from which it is ob- 
tained. I cannot do better than give that gentle- 


man's own words : ^* Of all the productions of the 
Archipelago, the one which affords the finest edible 
oil is the kanari. This is a large handsome tree, 
which yields a nut of an oblong shape of nearly the 
size of a walnut. The kernel is as delicate as that 
of a filbert, and abounds in oil ; it is one of the 
most useful trees where it grows. The nuts are 
either smoked and dried for use, or the oil is ex- 
pressed from them in their recent state. The oil is 
used for culinary purposes, and is more palatable and 
finer than that of the cocoa-nut ; the kernels, mixed 
up with a little sago meal, are made into cakes and 
eaten as bread. The kanari is a native of the same 
country as the sago tree, and is not found to the 
Westward. Into Celebes and Java it has been in- 
troduced in modern times, through the medium of 



pooti tayilam ejL-ULun^LJL__ji ©.s^llSovild (Tam.) 

Kydpootie ka tail ^jJ U J^y^-i^ (Duk.) Cqjuputa 

(Mah.) Kdyu putieh »3yj, ^\S' (Mai.) 

Melaleuca Cajuputi (Maton.) 

CI. and Ord. Polyadelphia Icosandria. Nat. 
Ord. Hesperidae (Lin.) Weisstammiger Cqjaput^ 
baum (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

The tree which yields this oil was long supposed 
to be the melaleuca leucodendron (Smith Soc. Lond. 
iii. p. 274.), but as specimens of the plant which 
really does yield it, on being sent home by Mr. 

s 2 


Christopher Smith, differed from the m. leucoderw 
dron*, and agreed with the arbor alba minor of Rum- 
phius (Amb. ii. p. 72. 1. 16.) ; Drs. Maton and Smith 
have fixed it as a new species, under the name of 
m. cajuputi. We are told by Mr. Crawford, in his 
** History of the Indian Archipelago,** that there are 
three varieties of this tree, which is a native of Am- 
boyna, Java, and Borneo ; but that " the two largest 
only afford substances for economical! purposes: 
the bark of the largest of these yields the material 
with which the native ships of the Moluccas are 
caulked ; and from the leaf of the smaller, by dis- 
tillation, the fragrant essential oil which has been 
used for medical purposes ; sometimes internally, as 
a powerful sudorific, but more frequently externally, 
as a useful embrocation, under the ignorant and cor- 
rupt denomination of cajeput.** 

This valuable volatile oil is distilled from leaves, 
which had been previously infused in water, and left 
to ferment for a night. Rumphius informs us, that 
when newly drawn it is limpid, pellucid and volatile, 
and smells strongly of cardamoms, but is more plea- 
sant. Dr. Thomson has well described it, as it is 
brought to Europe, comparing its powerful odour to 
a mixture of oil of turpentine and camphor ; it is 
limpid, transparent, and commonly of a blueish-green 

Mr. Crawford, in speaking of the gajeput trees, 

says, that ^* they are gigantic myrtles.*' The largest 

sort is a mountain tree, and grows in extensive 

* Laureiro has fully described the meJ. leuc. in his Flora 
Cochin-China (vol.ii. p. 468.), and speaks of the virtues of the 
leaves. " Iloborans stomachica? diuretica? et emenagoga, &c. 
&c." adding, '' valet in obstructione hepatis,'* the tree itself is the 
cat/ tlam of the Cochin-Chinese. 

t See the work, vol. i. p. 513. 



continuous forests ; the smaller (which yields our 
article), thrives near the sea-coast; it has got its 
name from its colour, kdyu-pittij which signifies wJiite 
woodj and hence its appellation, as given to it by 
Rumphius, arbor alba ; besides its current name, it 
is known in Malay countries under other terms : such 
as galam, dauriy Icitsjilj &c. ; in Ternate by that of 
bajule ; in Amboyna by the various appellations of 
Idlaniy ilariy and elan ; and in Ceram by that of sake- 
Ian. It is a smallish tree, with alternate, lanceolate 
leaves, on short petioles ; and flowers which are 
white, sessile, and accompanied with minute ovate 

Kyapootie oil is hitherto but little known to the 
native practitioners of India ; it is in use, however, 
amongst the European medical men of that country, 
who recommend it, when mixed with an equal quan- 
tity of some mild oil, as an excellent external appli- 
cation in chronic rheumatism. The Malays are in 
the habit of prescribing it internally, and I under- 
stand with great success, in what they call peetam- 
boobiey and loompoo (epilepsy and palsy). It is, no 
doubt, a highly diffusible stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and diaphoretic, and may be efficaciously given in 
dropsy, chronic rheumatism, palsy, hysteria, and fla- 
tulent colic; the dose from two to six or seven 
drops, on a lump of-^sugar. On the continent of 
Europe, according to Virey *, this volatile oil is con- 
sidered as carminative, cephalic, and emmenagogue, 
and its smell, it is supposed, keeps off insects from 
collections of natural history; it may be further 
added respecting it, that it dissolves caoutchouc or 
Indian rubber ; by which means a good varnish may 
be made. 

* See his Histoire Naturelle des Mediciimens, p. 264?, 

s 3 



OIL OF MACE. Jadiputrie tylum e=rr^i_ig- 
^rf^^LL?av)ijD (Tarn.) Wassa wasitali (Cyng,) 
Jawatrie ka tail J^jLT <Sjjy^ (Duk.) 

Oleum, Oleum Macis expressum dictum. 

What is commonly called oil of mace is, in fact, an 
compressed oiU obtained from the nutmeg ; there are 
two sorts : one a soft sebaceous kind of substance, 
of a yellowish colour, sub-aromatic odour, and having 
a somewhat fatty, pungent, and bitterish taste ; it is 
made at Banda, and is little used, except as an ex- 
ternal application in palsy and chronic rheumatism. 
The other sort is usually brought from Holland, in 
flat square cakes, and is sometimes called in com- 
merce Banda soap ; it is weaker in smell, and fainter 
in colour than the first mentioned, which leads us to 
believe that it is sophisticated. See article Mace. 


OIL OF NUTMEG. Jadikai tylum ^rr^^^es 
mjug-ULSToLD (Tam.) Jdphul ka tail Jaj If J^^^.W 
(Duk.) Jatipullum tail (Cyng.) 

Oleum Nucis Moschat^. 

By this is meant the volatile oil of nutmeg ; the 
expressed oil is usually, but improperly, called oil of 
mace. The essential or volatile oil, is prepared by nW 
the Dutch at Banda, and is, when properly made, of 


a pale straw colour, limpid and transparent, and pos- 
sesses, in a considerable degree, the odour of the 
nutmeg. (See article Nutmeg,) In doses of two or 
six drops, it is sometimes given as a stimulant ; but 
it is ofitener had recourse to as an external applica- 
tion in sprains and chronic rheumatism. 

The specific gravity of oil of nutmeg, according 
to Brande, is 9<t8. See article Nutmeg. 


OIL OF MUSTARD SEED. Kdddghoo^yimnay 
e5"(5^(S^6myr2A^^rr (Tam.) Raidn ka tail J^^jlf (jjL>|^ 
(Duk.) Avala nooney (Tel.) Sarshapa4ailam 

^^^^^ (Sans.) 

Oleum Sinapeos. 

An expressed oil, prepared from the seeds of dif- 
ferent species of sinapis is used in the Northern 
parts of Hindoostan, and in many parts of Malabar, 
for culinary purposes, in the same way that butter or 
ghee is on the Coromandel coast j it is reckoned ex- 
tremely wholesome by the natives, being at once gently 
stimulating and nourishing. The various species cul- 
tivated in the Bengal provinces, for the purpose of 
making this edible oil, are the surson (sinapis dicho- 
toma, Roxb.), the rdi (sinapis ramosa Roxb.), and 
the toree^ which is in Sanscrit tuverica ; all these in 
respect to medicinal qualities, correspond exactly 
with the sinapis nigra of Willdenow, and may be 
used as such, either internally or externally. 

The specific gravity of oil of mustard seed, is a 
little below that of water j it is insoluble in water, 

s 4 


but forms an emulsion by the aid of mucilage : it is 
partially soluble in alcohol and ether. 


OIL, ROCK, or PETROLEUM. Mun tylum 

LD6OTr^ijLrov>LO (Tarn.) Muttie ka tail 3./J LT ^!U 

• •• 

(Duk.) Neft U3 (Arab.) Minnia-tanna (Mai.) 

Bhumi'tailam iTf^TrT^ (Sans.) Ippoo (Sumat.) 
Kesosa no abra (Japan.) 

For an account of this mineral oil, the reader is 
referred to the article Bitumen, in this Part and 
Chapter of the work. 


OLIBANUM. Pdringhi sdmbrani i^^n^^B^rr 
\jj^^6^sr:^- (Tam.) Avul coondoor j^'^S^^S (Duk.) 

Looban (^>W>J (Arab.) Koondir zuchir j^S^c^ jiSJS 
(Hind.) Looban (Mai.) Encens (Fr.) Weirauch 
(Ger.) Olibano (Ital.) Labuniyd (Syr.) 


LiBAVus Thurifera (Colebrooke.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia (Lin.) 
It will be seen, by referring back to the article 
Frankincense, how much the real olibanum differs 
from a substance sometimes mistaken for it, com- 
monly called coondoor by the Mahometans of Lower 
India, and hoondricnm by the Tamools ; and which 
may be met with in almost every bazar. The gum- 
resin now under consideration, on being shown to a 


Hakeeniy is immediately termed either looban or avul 
coondoorj which last signifies Jirst sort of coondoor. 
It appears to be very scarce in the interior of India, 
though I perceive by Elmore's ^' Guide to the Trade 
of India' ^ (p. 129. )» that it is amongst the exports from 
Bombay to China. Good olibanum, is in semitrans- 
parent tears, of a pink-colour, brittle, and adhesive 
when warm, when burnt the odour is very agreeable, 
its taste is bitterish, and somewhat pungent and 
aromatic ; it flames with a steady clear light which 
is not easily extinguished, and which seems to me 
to be a peculiarity, which has not been hitherto 
sufficiently inquired into : it burns for a long time, 
leaving behind a black ashy not a whitish, as has been 
said. Till lately much uncertainty seemed to have 
been entertained respecting the plant which actually 
produced the olibanum ; Dr. Thomson in his Lon- 
don Dispensatory, observes, " It was supposed on 
the authority of Linnaeus, to be the production of the 
bark of the Juniperus Lycea,'' but Woodville was 
not satisfied that it was procured from that plant ; 
and Mr. Colebrooke very properly remarked, that it 
was by no means probable that it could ever be ob- 
tained from it ; as it was well known to be a native 
of the South of France ; and moreover, that the 
French botanist denied that it yielded the gum-resin 
in question : subsequent investigation by that gentle- 
man has fully ascertained that the olibanum of the 
shops is the actual produce of the libanus thurifera^ 
a truth which the reader may satisfy himself ofi by a 
perusal of Mr. H. T. Colebrooke's excellent paper 
on the subject in the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. 
p. 377- Indian edition, to which is affixed a botanical 
description of the tree, by Dr. Roxburgh. 
The boswellia serrata (Roxb.), or rather the liba- 


nus thurifera, as it has been named by Mr. Cole- 
brooke, is a native of the mountainous tracts of 
Central India ; its Sanscrit name is sallaciy in Hin- 
doostanie it is called sdldi ; it is a large tree, with the 
foliage crowded at the extremities of the branches, 
the leaves are impari-pinnate, consisting of ten pairs 
of leaflets, each an inch or an inch and a half in 
length, obliquely ovate, obtuse, serrate, and villous, 
supported by round downy petioles ; the flowers are 
numerous, small, and of a white colour, accompanied 
with minute bracteas ; the capsule is smooth, three- 
sided, trilocular, three-celled, and three-valved, each 
cell containing one perfect seed only, which is broad, 
cordate, and winged. 

I perceive by Dr. F. Hamilton's valuable MSS. 
(account of the Shahabad country), that the libanus 
thurifera is there very common, and its resin called 
sale-gondj or sale-lassa; but, strange to say, it is not 
applied to any use ; at Chandalgar, however, where 
it is termed biroza, it is employed as a medicine. 
When collected. Dr. Hamilton adds, as it flows from 
the tree, it is of the consistence of turpentine, but 
of a clear greenish colour j and Mr. Turnbul, sur- 
geon of Chandalgar, assured him, that in this state 
it is named gandah birosa ; in its dry state the resin 
is called sukka birosa^ and this it is that is sold in 
England, as Mr. Colebrooke has mentioned, as oliba- 
num. Dr. Hamilton, notwithstanding, seems to be 
of opinion, that though a kind of olibanum may be 
procured from the lib. thurifera (Col.), what of the 
article is commonly taken to England under the 
name of olibanum, is the produce of an amyriSj or at 
least of a thorny bush ; and this, he is the more dis- 
posed to think, as he cannot learn that the resin of 
the sale was ever used by the Hindoos as an incense. 


It has been observed by GeofFroy, that olibanum is 
produced only in Arabia Sahcea ; while others have 
alleged, that it comes from Ethiopia. The Ara- 
bians have two names for it, loobarij and condur ; the 
first, taken in all probability from the Hebrew word 
levonah ; the second is most in use j though I am in- 
clined to think, that it is more properly applied to 
frankincense. We are informed by D'Herbelot*, that 
olibanum is found in abundance in Arabia Foelix, 
particularly near the city of Merbath, and we know 
from Niebhur (Travels in Arabia, vol. i. p. 99.)j that 
it is an export from Mocha, as is also noticed by Mr. 
Milburn in his " Oriental Commerce," (vol. i.p. 99.) 

Olibanum is now rarely used in European medi- 
cal practice ; it is certainly in its nature stimulant 
and diaphoretic, and used formerly to be administered 
in affections of the chest, and externally as a vul- 
nerary : on the continent it is by some considered 
as possessing a degree of astringency, and ordered 
in fluxes. Vireyt in his ^^ Histoire Naturelle des 
MedicamenSy^ mentions it as being yielded by the 
amyris kataf of Forskahl (descrip. 80.), (so thought 
Lamark),1: and usefully employed, " comme parfum 
est en fumigations, pour purifier Pair malsain :'' the 
same author (Virey) tells us, that the resinous bark 
of the tree is called narcapte^ also thymiama^ but 
where, or in what language, he does not add. The 
Arabians place olibanum amongst their Tonics c^u^JLo 

* See Bibliotheque OrientaJe, p. 527. 

f See his work, p. 290. 

X On turning to Forskahl, I perceive he says of the amyris 
kaiaf : ** Arbor ligno albo, rami inermes, folia obtusa et 
acuta; flores vidi tantum niasculos, majores floribus opobalsami 

caeterum similes." The Arabians call the tree cjitii*, ** Et narrant 
Arabes, arborem intumescere et pregnantem evadere pulvere 
rubro, fragranti, quo fceminae regionis Abu-Arisch capita aspergere 
vel lavare solent." Forsk. Descrip. Plant, cent. iii. p. 80. 


^iSx^ and Cardiacs ^^ c^Lyie. The reader may find 
it fully treated of in an Arabic work <SiSjy^ ^j-^^ 
jj^xAD cf^l^^ in two vols, by Ishak and Hafiz Moham- 
med. Olibanum appears to consist, according to 
Thomson, of resin, gum, and a volatile oil, and this 
is confirmed by late experiments by Braconnot ; who 
found in 100 parts of it, 8 of volatile oil ; 56 of 
resin; 30 of gum ; and 5*2 of a matter resembling 
gum, but not soluble in water and alcohol. 

Another species of boswellia, the b. glabra 
(Roxb. Cor. PL vol. iii. p. 4.), is a tree of great 
value in India ; it is a native of the highest moun- 
tains of the Circars : the wood is heavy, hard and 
durable, and is used for ship-building. From 
wounds made in the bark, a resin exudes, called in 
Tellingoo gugul (the tree gugula4schittoo) ; this 
resin mixed and boiled up with a certain portion 
of some low-priced oil, is used as a pitch for the bot- 
toms of ships. On the Balla-Ghaut mountains an- 
other species is common, the canarium odori/erum htr- 
sutum. (Rumph. Amb. 2. t. 51.) 


OLIVE. Zietoon {^^y^j (Arab.) Julpdiy 
(Hindooie.) Oliva (It.) Olive (Fr.) lJu;-< ^^j Booa- 
minyak (Mai.) 


CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Sepiariae. Gemeifier Oelbaum (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The olive tree is not cultivated in India, nor would 
it thrive there. In the Northern parts of Persia it is 
often met with, and in Syria j but Italy, France, 
Spain, and North Africa, are the chief countries in 


which it grows to commercial advantage. Pliny 
ranked the olive tree as next in virtue to the vine. 
See Nat. Hist. lib. xxiii. chap. iii. The Arabians, 
according to Avicenna, put a high value on the 
leaves of the wild olive as a vulnerary ; the oil, 
which they term CUjjy they occasionally employ as we 
do in preparing laxative enemas. Vide Canon. Med, 
lib. ii. tract. 


ONION. Venggayum Gcr^n^^'TLuLO (Tam.) 
Loono (Cyng.) Peeqj (Hind.) Busstil ^j (Arab.) 
Peedz jlu^ (Pers.) Pee-qj (Hindooie) Peedz jL^. 
(Duk.) Bavangmira (MaL) Wooltigudda (Tel.) 
Paldndu ^?^1TJ2" also Latdrka c^rfj^ and 
SukandaJca H^?^^ (Sans.) Kembally (Can.) 
Branghang (Jav.) Bawung (Bali) Ognon (Fr.) 
Swiebel (Ger.) Cipella (It.) 

Allium Cepa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Spathaceas (Lin.) 

This valuable plant grows in great abundance all 
over India. Bombay onions are of a particular fine 
quality, being large, and singularly mild and deli- 
cately flavoured ; cut into thin slices, and eaten with 
bread and butter, they are truly excellent ; boiled, 
they are one of the best of all the Indian pot vege- 

Onions are prescribed by the native doctors inter- 
nally, in conjunction with other articles, in cases of 

* Abel, in his " Journey to China," informs us, that a very- 
good edible oil is obtained from the seeds of the camellia 
oleifera. See work, p. 175. 


bleeding piles ; they are also employed externally, 
when boiled and made into a kind of poultice with 
certain herbs, to hasten suppuration ; ii] on the con- 
trary, they are applied raw, the Vytians suppose them 
to have a repellent quality. Dr. Thomson says, that 
" as food, the onion is said to produce flatulency, 
and to occasion thirst ; as a medicine, it is stimulant, 
diuretic, and expectorant/* The Greeks called the 
onion Kgo/xt^ov ; the Romans cepa, also unio ; the 
first, it is conjectured, from the word caput, owing 
to the largeness of the head ; the second from the 
circumstance of its being a single root, without off- 
sets.* The onion was reckoned by the Egyptians 
amongst their divinities, and many of the ancients 
have written on it : such as Theophrastus, Palladius, 
Pliny, and Celsus ; the latter writer is of opinion, 
that both garlic and onions produce flatulence, and 
heat the body ; he observes, however, in other parts 
(lib. ii. cap. xxix. xxxi. and xxxii.), that they are 
laxative, diuretic, and have the effect of quickening 
the senses. Pliny ascribed to them the power of 
clearing the sight, and recommended them for pains 
in the loins, bites of serpents, dropsies t,&c., but 
thought that they might do mischief in cases where 
all was not right about the praecordia. Asclepiadesl^, 
on the other hand, was of opinion, *^ ad calorem 
quoque validum profici hoc cibo, et si jejuni quotidie 
edant, firfnitatem valetudinis custodire ; stomacho 
utilia esse, spiritus agitatione.** |j See article Garlic 
in this Part and Chapter. The leek gallium porrum) 

* See Mr. Phillips's History of Cultivated Vegetables, vol. ii. 
p. 15. 

t See Pliny's Natural History, lib. xx. cap. v. p. 606. 

X See the same. 

11 An opinion, in which Roques in his valuable Phytographie 
M^dicale altogether agrees. See vol. i. p. 1 1 1. 


is but little known to the natives of India ; it is sti- 
mulant and diuretic. The expressed juice has some* 
times been given with advantage in dropsies, in doses 
of from 5SS. to ^ij. in syrup. 

The allium cepa grows in Japan, there called Soo^ 
also Fitomosi (Flor. Japon. p. 132.) : it is also cul- 
tivated in Cochin-China, where it is termed cay -hank ; 
its many virtues are noticed by Laureiro ; pectoral, 
diaphoretic and diuretic. (Vide Flor. Cochin-Chin. 
vol. i. p. 202.) 


OPIUM. Jpini ^\JS^^ (Tam. and Tel.) 
Afeem ^j.h\ (Duk.) Ufyoon (j^>>>il (Arab, and Mai.) 
Chasa * also Apaynum (Sans.) Sheerildiaskash 
^Li^irs. ^^ (Pers.) Abim (Cyng.) Ufeem (Hindooie) 
Apium (Jav.) Hapium (Bali) Caritppa (Mai.) 

Opium (Fr.) Mohnsaft (Gei\) Madjoon (Turk.) 

Opium (Edin.) 

Opium is well known to be an inspissated juice, 
obtained by incisions made in the capsules of the 
white poppy, which is a native of Asia, though now 
cultivated in many parts of Europe. It is only, 
however, in India, Persia, and Turkey, that opium 
is prepared, and of late years in small quantities at 
the island of Celebes, and in Penang. The Indian 
opium is inferior to none: Dr. Thomson seems to 
think, that it has less of a peculiar, heavy, narcotic 
odour than the Tui^key article, is somewhat less 
compact in texture, and of a darker hue ; but that 
it agrees with it in other sensible qualities. 

* This is more properly the Sanscrit name of the poppy plant ; 
but, for either, it is not given with much confidence. 



The opium of Hindoostan is chiefly furnished in | 
the provinces of Bihar and Benares, where tlie plant 
is called post ; and is sold in Calcutta by public sale. 
A learned and ingenious inquirer, Dr. Keir, esti- 
mated the produce of one acre at sixty pounds of 
opium, but Mr. Colebrooke* thinks he must have 
made a mistake, and over-rated the quantity. The 
India opium Dr. Paris thinks inferior to the Turkey, 
being less compact, softer, darker in colour, and 
fainter in odour ; and Dr. Thomson found the 
Turkey opium to contain three times more morphia. 

The native practitioners of India use opium for |^ 
the same purposes that we do; with this exception, 
that they conceive it to be particularly injurious in r 
typhus fever. The Vytians administer it to procure 
sleep, shorten the cold fit of an intermittent fever, 
also in lock-jaw, and to afford ease in certain stages 
of dysentery. They likewise recommend it exter- 
nally, when mixed with arrack, and in conjunction 
with benzoin, bdellium, aloes, and ginger in rheu- 
matic affections ; but they at the same time, at least 
the most intelligent of them, maintain, that opium, 
though it may often alleviate distressing symptoms, 
cures few or no diseases, and but too often, by giving 
temporary relief, conceals deep-seated mischief. 

Opium, in moderate doses, increases the fulness 
of the pulse, and augments the heat of the body; 
also invigorates both the corporeal and mental func- 
tions, exhilirating even to intoxication ; these are, 
however, soon followed by languor, lassitude, and 
sleep. In large doses, Dr. Thomson t observes, the 

* See Remarks on the Husbandry of Bengal, p. 117. 

•f See London Dispensatory, article Opium ; the reader may 
also consult Reflexions Mddicales sur les EfFets sensibles de 
L'opium, par Fhilibert : Joseph Roux, who seems to be of opinion 
that opium is at once stimulant and sedative. 


primary excitement is scarcely observed, but the 
pulse seems at once diminished — stupor quickly en- 
sues, followed by delirium, sighing, deep and sterto- 
rious breathing, cold sweats, convulsions, apoplexy, 
and death. 

For excellent accounts of the uses and abuses of 
this extraordinary extract, the reader is referred to 
Dr. R. Pearson's work entitled Practical Synopsis of 
the Materia Medica ; to Chevalier Roque's valuable 
publication, entitled Phytographie Medicale, vol. ii. 
p. 58.; and to Dr. Thomson's London Dispensatory ; 
from the last of whicji I catinot resist copying the 
following passage. 

** Opium, for exhilarating the spirits, has long 
been employed in Turkey, Syria, and China, (he 
might have added the Malay countries,) and it has 
of late years been unfortunately adopted by many, 
particularly females^ in this country : its habitual 
use cannot be too much reprobated, as it impairs 
the digestive organs, consequently the vigour of 
the whole body, and gradually destroys the mental 
energies." Opium is efficaciously given in some 
diseases of debility, such as in typhus fever. It pro- 
duces constipation, and is hurtful where there is a 
disposition to local inflammation, or to visceral ob- 
struction, and in what is called ardent * remittent 
fever, it is a positive poison.f It checks intermittent 
fever, given a little before the approach of the pa- 

* Fever attended with great heat of skin. See Dr. James 
Smith on the fevers of Jamaica. 

t Marcet, in his Memoir on the Action of Poisons on Vegetable 
Substances, would appear to maintain, that vegetable poisons act 
on vegetables as they do on man, viz. on the nervous system ; and 
he thinks it probable, that there does exist in vegetables a system 
of organs which is affected by the poisons nearly as the nervous 
system of animals is. See Journal of Science, Literature, and 
the Arts, No. xxxix. p. 195. 

VOL. I. T - 


roxysni. In acute rheumatism it is only safely- 
given in conjunction Nvith ipecacuanha or antimon- 
ials. In hcTftiorrhagifr it is useful when the discharge 
arises chietlv from an increased desrree of irritability. 
In the hitter stages of catarrhal complaints opium 
may be given with advantage j but, in dysentery, 
never wlien the bowels have not been previously 
evacuated, and inflammatory symptoms mitigated. 
" It is in spasmodic attacks, such as tetanus, epilepsy, 
and cholera, that the good effects of opium are most 
evident. A quarter of a grain frequently repeated, 
is enough to keep up its stimulant effect ; and from 
gr.j. to gr. ij. act as a narcotic, and produce sleep; 
while in tetanus or hydrophobia, and some other dis- 
eases, f vss. of laudanum have sometimes been given 
in twenty-four hours, without occasioning any bad 
effects or bringing on sleep.** In violent pain from 
ophthalmia a solution of opium as an eye-wash affords 
immediate relief. 

Should the reader be desirous of any information 
regarding those medicines which might be substi- 
tuted for opium, he may consult Loiseleur Deslong- 
champs* valuable work, entitled ^' Manuel des 
Plantes Usuelles Indigenes** (vol. ii. fourth Memoir, 
from the end of the volume). The safest would 
appear to be that obtained fi'om the lactuca virosa, 
which was known to Plinv, Celsus, Galen, and Dios- 
corides ; (Vide Plin. lib. xix. cap. viii.) the dose from 
gr. ij. to gr. xviii. of the extract, according to circum- 
stance; he also mentions (I mean Deslongchamps) 
the datura stramonium as a substitute. The sopo- 
rific virtues of henbane are noticed in the same chap- 
ter. Those of the lactuca sativa are well known. 
Gray, in his supplement to the Pharmacopoeias, in- 
forms us, that the hypecoum pendulum yields a 


narcotic juice resembling opium. It would appear, 
by a paper lately published by Mr. J. Murray, in 
Brewster's Philosophical Journal (No. 4.), that the 
acetic acid is a perfect counter poison for opium. 

The substance to which the narcotic power of 
opium is referable has been examined with much 
attention by Mr. Serteurner, w^ho has given it the 
name of mxjrphia. It would appear in some respects 
to possess the properties of an alkaU ; it reddens tur- 
meric, and forms crystallizable compounds with 
acids • ; Magendie found moi'phia to be soluble in 
olive oil, and that the compound acted with great 

The poppy plant, papaver sommferumy is of the 
class and order polyandria monogynia, and nat. ord. 
rnoedaeae (Lin.). It is called cassa cassa in Tamool, 
khashkhash ^Li-ioL (Arab, and Duk.) Kooknar 

jUr^ (Pers.) Post (Hind.) It is the jeisokuj also 
the kes of the Japanese (Flor. Jap. p. 222.) ; and is 
what Homer speaks of under the name of Mr^^ccoy : 
it is the garien-molm of the Germans ; the mak of 
the Bohemians and Hungarians, and the maczek of 
the Poles ; the Cyngalese term it albin atta ; on the 
capsule, with its contents, the Tamools have be- 
stowed the name of postdkdi ; in Dukhanie it is 
Cw.^, Poost. The poppy is an annual plant, with a 
glaucous coloured stem, smooth, erect, and round, 

* I perceive, however, by Chevalier Eoque's Phytographie 
Medicale, vol. ii. p. 140., that late experiments, made by M. 
Robiquet, have brought the analysis of opium to very great per- 
fection ; that gentleman says, opium contains : ** de I'huile fixe, du 
caoutchouc, une substance vegeto-animale, du mucilage, de la 
fecule, de la resine, des debris de fibres vegetales, de la nar- 
cotine, de Tacide meconique, un acide nouveau decouvert par M. 
Robiquet, et un substance jouissant des raemes proprietes que les 
alcalis, designee sous nom de morphine*' See Formulae at the 
end of this volume. 

T 2 


seldom rising higher than five feet, with large, 
simple, obtuse, lobed and crenated leaves, embrac- 
ing the stem, on which they are alternately placed ; 
and flowers which are large, terminal, of a silver- 
grey, and tinged with violet at the base. 

The Arabian and Persian physicians * place opium 
amongst their Molcederrat c^S.^y^-^ (Narcotica). 
For much curious information respecting it amongst 
the ancients, t the reader may consult Pliny's Natural 
History : that writer tells us (lib. xx. cap. xviii. 
p. 652.) ; that the seed of the white poppy is a cure 
for elephantiasis ; he also informs us how opium 
was prepared in his day, and dwells on its pernicious 
effects, '^ non vi soporifera modo, verum si copiosor 
hauriatur, etiam mortifera per somnum.'* Some 
of the contemporary authors, it is true, approved 
of it when used cautiously ; its greatest enemies 
were Diagorus and Erasistratiis, who condemned it. 
*• Diagorus et Erasistratus iii totum damjimere^ ut 
mortifenim ;^^ and Andreas, as is quoted by Mr. 
Phillips in his History of Cultivated Vegetables, 
(vol. ii. p. 61.), was of opinion, that if it were not 
adulterated by the people of Alexandria, it would 
cause blindness. The remedy on which the ancients 
seem to have had most reliance in cases of poison- 
ing from opium was the artemisia : " Bibitur et haec 
ex vino adversus opium.'' Phny, lib. xxv. cap. x. 

* In the writings of Rhazes, a celebrated Persian physician, 
who published towards the end of the ninth century, I can find 
little more regarding opium than a theriaca, which he recom- 
mends to be taken to mitigate its bad effects, when used incau- 
tiously. Vide Oper. Raz. de Re Med. lib. i. p. 198. Avicenna, 
however, thought better of it : '' Importunae tussi medetur, dy- 
senteriae remediuui est accomodatum est." Canon. Med. lib ii. 
tract, ii. p. 51. 

t In speaking of the use of opium amongst the ancients, 
Murray says, " Veteres usum opii ad chronicos unice morbos re- 
strinxerunt." Appar, Med. vol.ii. p, 291. 


On the subject of opium the reader will find a 
great deal of curious and useful information * in 
Murray's Appar. Med. vol. ii. p. 254., Gottingen 
edition. Marcett in his Memoir on the Action of 
Poisons on Vegetable Substances, informs us, that 
a bean plant was destroyed in a day and a half by 
being watered with a solution of opium. For' the 
use of Morphine and Narcotine, in medicine, see 
Dr. Dunglison's Formulary of New Remedies, p. 1. ; 
also, Magendie's *^ Formulaire.^* 



Akooyeela semoon't-roomie ^^j (j^^c^^a^ '^\)y^ (Arab.) 

Roughen bulsan {^^ ^^y (Pers.) Balessan 

(Egypt.) Balsamter de la Mdque (Fr.) OpobaU 

mmo (It.) 

Amyris Gileadensis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Octandria Monogynia. Nat, Ord. 
Terebintacese (Juss.) 

This balsam is obtained from the tree just men- 
tioned, by ** cutting the bark with an axe ; at the 
time that the juice is in its strongest circulation, 
which is considered to be in July, August, and Sep- 
tember.*' When it first flows, it is of a yellowish, 

* Since I wrote this article, I have been informed by my friend 
Mr. George Read, who was acting collector in Coimbatore, that 
he obtained a specimen of opium from the hills near Nellgherry, 
which was pronounced by the house of Messrs. Letour and Co., 
Madras, to be nearly equal to the fine Patna opium ; and there 
can be no doubt from the climate of that country, but " that the 
poppy could be the^e cultivated with success.'' 

t See Journal of Sciences, Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix. 
p. 194?» 

1 3 


turbid colour ; but after standing sometime, it be- 
comes clear, and heavier, and the colour changes 
into a golden yellow. 

I have never met with opobalsamum in any me- 
dicine bazar of India ; I perceive, however, that it 
is an article in the Ulfaz Udwiyehj and, therefore, can- 
not be unknown to the Moguls. We are told by 
Alpinus, that the tree grows wild in Arabia, and 
there only ; on the other hand, we learn from Mr. 
Bruce, ^ that it is a native of Upper Ethiopia, and 
was thence, at an early period, transplanted into the 
Southern Provinces of Arabia. Niebhur tells us, 
that in most parts of Arabia they only burn the 
wood as a perfume ; but that in the neighbourhood of 
Hedsjas they collect the balsam. It is considered 
almost as a panacea in Egypt, where it is prescribed 
for bad wounds, ulcers, poisonous bites, and also in 
nervous and pulmonic affections. The Arabians 
reckon it amongst their Adviyah Heezeh ^;>aAi> aj^^! 
(Stomachica.) The opobalsamum of the ancients 
was an article in a famous Mithridate, which was re- 
commended by Celsus against poisons t, it is said to 
have been the green liquor found in the kernel of 
the fruit. The Carpobalsamum is made by the ex- 
pression of the ripe fruit. There is a third and 
very inferior kind of balsam, the xylohalsamum^ which 
Mr. Miller observes, was prepared by boiling the 
small twigs ; it is I perceive noticed by Celsus, as a 
medicine of value in nervous affections, see his 
recipe (Cels. lib. v. cap. xxiv.). The reader will 
find much curious information, regarding the amyris 
gileadensis, in the edition of Miller's Dictionary by 
Martyn. I have doubts, whether much of the real 

* See Bruoe's Travels, vol. v. appendix, p. 17. 
t Vide Cels. lib. v. cap. xxiii. 


balsam of gilead is ever brought to Europe, the 
dried Canada balsam being usually used as a sub- 
stitute. We are told by Mr. Lunan, in his Hortus 
Jamaicensis, that there is strong reason for believing, 
that the amyris balsamifera by incision would yield 
a balsam not much inferior to the balsam of gilead.* 

The odour of the real balsam of gilead is at first 
pungent, but that goes off after some time being 
exposed to the air, when it acquires the consistence 
of turpentine ; it is yellow outside, and paler within ; 
the taste is pungent and acrid j when good it dis- 
solves easily in water. As a medicine it is scarcely 
known now in Europe ; in Turkey it is used as a cos- 
metic. The tree which yields the opobalsamum 
rises to the height of fourteen or fifteen feet, with 
leaves thinly scattered, small, composed of one or 
two pairs of opposite leaflets, with an odd one ; these 
are obovate, entire, veined, and of a bright-green 
colour; the flowers are white, appearing upon the 
young shoots, three on one stalk, but two generally 
drop off*, and only one produces fhiit.t Nine species 
of amyris are growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta, few of which are natives of India ; our 
article was introduced by Dr. Berry, in 1798, from 
Arabia. I shall conclude what I have to say on 
this subject by observing that the Arabians call car- 
pobalsamum, hiibuUbulsdn ^i^IaJU!! c^^^, the Persians 
tokhem, bulsan /. -^L^L j*.:^^' ; they consider it as at- 
tenuant and caraiac ; dose two direms. 

The amyris ambrosiaca is a native of Cochin-china, 
and called there to-hap-binh-khang. By Laureiro*« 
account it yields a valuable fragrant balsam (Flo? • 
Cochin-chin, vol. i. p. 230.). This species would also 

* See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol, i, p. 147. 
t See Thomson's London Dispensatory. 

T 4 


appear to grow in the woods of Guiana; its Caribbee 
name is arouaou; the French call it Tarbre de 


OPOPONAX. Jawesheer ^^U (Arab-) Gaxv^ 
sheer ^.-yi^ir (Pers. ) Opoponax (Fr. ) Panax gummi 

(Ger.) Opoponace (It.) 

Pastinaca Opoponax (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 

I have never met with opoponax in any Indian 
medicine bazar; it has, however, a place in the Ulfaz 
Udwiyeh^ and is, therefore, known to the Moguls. 
The Arabian physicians consider it as discutient, 
placing it amongst their Mohelilat ^i)LW-«. 1 per- 
ceive by the work just quoted that they also con- 
ceive it to be deobstruent, attenuant, and diaphoretic: 
from the same work vv^e learn, that when fresh taken 
from the tree it is white, but afterwards changes to a 
yellow ; its solution resembles milk, and the dose is 
half a direm. 

Opoponax is a gum resin of a strong, unpleasant 
smell, and a bitter, acrid taste. The plant, from the 
root of which it is obtained by making incisions, is 
a species of parsnip ; it is a perennial, and a native 
of the South of Europe ; rising commonly to the 
heiglit of four or five feet, with a thick, branched, 
yellow-coloured root. The Arabians use the whole 
root occasionally in medicine, terming it ussul alje- 
"washeer. V/hat we find of the opoponax used in 
medicine in Europe, is brought from Turkey ; it is 
considered as antispasmodic and emmenagogue, and 


has been given in hysteria and chlorosis, in doses of 
from grs, v* to 5ss., but is not now, in England, in 
much repute. The ancients*, particularly Celsus, 
had a high opinion of the virtues of opoponax, and 
administered it in affections of the spleen, and in stric- 
ma (Cels* lib. v. cap, xviii.). The physicians on the 
continent speak of it as " bon discussif^ resolutif, 
chasse les vents, attenue dans Tasthme et les obstruc- 
tions } tien, selon Pelletier, resine 42,, gomme 33,, 
ligneaux 9., amidon 4., malate de chaux 3., cire et 
caut-choue 6., matiere extractive, &c.''t 


ORANGE. Kichlie pullum ^'^&Sl^i^\J:ld 
(Tarn.) also Collungie pullum (3c5"rr(5NS^^L-_(U_fy:iLD 
(Tarn.) Naringliie ^ts^U (Duk.) Ndriiiige gi^ij 
(Hind.) Kidiidie pundoo (Tel.) Jeroc manis 
y^J^ 6j;^j.^ (Mai.) Jeruk'legi (Jav.) Jaruk manis 
(Bali) Cay -earn (Cochin-Chin.) Panneh dodang 
(Cyng.) Naringe (Hindooie) Oranjen (Dut.) 
Laranga(Port.) Pomeranzin (Ger.) Fnemp(Jaipan.) 
Arancio (It.) Orange (Fr.) Pomeranster (Dan.) 
Usi (Celebes). Ndga runga ^'\T[JJ\ (Sans.) Saku 

limha (Mah.) ^\^ ^jj\j (Arab.) 

Citrus Aurantium (Lin.) 

CI. and. Ord. Polyadelphia Icosandria. Nat. 
Ord. Pomaces. Pomeranzin Citrone (Nom. Triv. 

* By I>ierbach*s account in his Mat. Med. of Hippocrates, the 
plant was the UfipayCKem of Hippocrates. See his work^ chap. vi. 
t See Virey*s " Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens," p. 220. 


The orange tree, though successfully cultivated 
in the West Indies and the South of Europe, is^ 
properly speaking, a native of India, Ceylon, and 
Persia. There are many varieties in Hindoostan, 
differing much in sweetness as well as appearance. 
In sheltered situations in the lower provinces^ such as 
at Sautgur^ near Vellore, in the Carnatic, and at 
Chittore, they are peculiarly fine. The following 
varieties are cultivated at the last mentioned place*: 

1. The cumbla nabla (Tel.), which is a large loose- 
skinned orange ; it is the hill orange of the Northern 
Circars, and is sometimes called mandarine orange. 

2. The hurray chin (Duk.), or huttai (Tel.), this is 
termed in Hindoostanie sautara or sungtura^ and is 
a fine smooth-skinned, cloved, large orange, and very 
sweet, resembling what is called the China-orange in 
Europe (citrus sinensis). S. The hydrabddie (Tel.), 
this is smaller than the last mentioned, but like it, it 
is cloved and smooth-skinned, and very sweet. 4. 
The chota chin (Duk.), or small cloved orange. 5. 
The large coffrie orange^ the skin of which is very 
rough ; it is a sweet, well-flavoured fruit. 6. The 
common orange of the country, usually called in 
Hindoostanie koula and kichlie (Tam.), it is austere 
and coarse. 

Oranges are brought to India of an excellent 
quality from Ceylon, and from Sumatra. They are 
growing wild in Cochin-China (Flora Cochin-China, 
vol. ii. p. 466.). Mr. Crawford informs us, in his 
" History of the Indian Archipelago,t'* that the 
orange and lemon tribe is widely spread over the 
Indian islands, but the culture of the best kinds 

* For this information, I am indebted to my excellent friend 
Mr. S. Skinner, Judge of Circuit, 
f See work, vol. i. p. 425. 


seems to have been introduced by foreigners. The 
whole tribe, he adds, is distinguished by a generic 
name, which in Java is jaruk^ in more Eastern dia- 
lects usi. Colonel Kirkpatrick tells us, that in 
Nepaul* oranges grow of a fine kind in the valley 
of Noakote^ and are there called santoluj which, he 
thinks, is probably a corruption of the word singter- 
rahy the name given to a particular sort in the upper 
provinces of India ; in which provinces the best 
oranges are those of Shahahad and Behar. 

Oranges are in great repute amongst the Hindoo 
physicians, who suppose that they purify the blood, 
allay thirst in fevers, cure catarrhf, and improve the 
appetite. A sherbet^, made with the juice of the 
ripe fruit, is a favourite beverage with Europeans in 
India in hot weather ; and is certainly much safer 
than that made with lemon juice, which is extremely 
apt to bring on cholera morbus. The rind of oranges 
is well known to be a useful carminative, and is a 
valuable addition to bitter infusions in cases of dys- 
pepsia and flatulence. It is with the rind of the 
chota-chinj or small clove orange, that the finest mar- 
malade is made in India, adding, to give a little bit- 
terness, some of the rind of the common countiy 

The citrus aurantium differs but little in appear- 

* See his Account of Nepaul. 

f See a Tamool medical Sastrum, entitled Aghastier Vytia 

\ An acid earth is found in great quantity at a village called 
Daulakie in the South of Persia, and on the Persian gulph ; which, 
singular to say, is used by the natives for making sherbet : a por- 
tion of this earth has been brought to England by Lieut. Colonel 
Wright, and on being examined by Mr. Pepys, he found that 
about a fifth of it was soluble in boiling water, yielding an acid 
solution, which, when tested, gave proof of the presence of 
sulphuric acid and iron, and on evaporation, yielded crystals of 
acidulous sulphate of h*on. (Philos. Mag. Ixii. p. 75.) 


ance from the citrus medica, except that the leaves^ 
not so large as those of the lemon* tree, are more 
pointed, are entire, smooth, and furnished with 
wings or appendages on the foot stalks; it may at the 
same time be observed, that the flowers are large, 
white, odorous, and arise from the smaller branches 
upon simple and branched pedicles. Willdenow 
notices but six species of citrus, of which our article 
is the fourth • Roxburgh makes what he calls citrus 
acida, and citrus medica, different species ; at least 
so it appears by the Hortus Bengalensis : of the 
ckriis acida (and by which, we would understand, is 
meant the lime tree, as distinct from the lemon) nine 
varieties are there noticed; of the citrus medica three 
varieties ; besides four other species of citrus : c, au- 
rantium, decumanus, myrtifolia, and inermis; they 
are all growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 
Forskahlt gives several species of c. medica ;- the 
g-X^ Qji^<^I (Arab.) comes nearest to the Indian fruit. 



ROOT OF. Irsd Lw^;! (Hind.) UssiiUalsosun" 
ulassmaryoonee f^^^^ (^^^^iS ^^^..^^5 J.a^! (Arab.) 
Iris de Florance (Fr.) Violemourzel (Ger.) Ireos 


Iris Florentina (Med. Bot.) 

* The lemon tree is a beautiful ever-green, of small growth ; 
with alternate leaves, of a pale green colour, avate, acuminate, 
about four inches long, and two broad, slightly indented at the 
edges ; and does not appear to have been cultivated in Italy (ac- 
cording to Willdenow's account,) till after the days of Virgil and 

t See Descriptiones Plant,; p. 142. 


CI. and Ord. Triandiia Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The iris root is a favourite medicine with the 
Arabians and Persians, who suppose it to have deob- 
struent and suppurative powers, and place it accord- 
ingly amongst their Mufettehat cX^^^^ and Munzijat 

cX^^"^^ The dose about two direms, to which fre- 


quently a little honey is added. It is found in the 
medicine shops of Persia, and the Southern parts of 
Europe, in mis-shapen, roundish pieces, evidently 
with the outer skin pared off, full of little holes, and 
of a dirty white colour. The roots are nauseous, 
bitterish, and extremely acrid to the taste : all this, 
however, disappears, or nearly so, on their being 
dried, when they are easily broken, and have a 
rather sweetish taste, slight degree of pungency, and 
agreeable odour, resembling much that of the violet. 

In Europe, this root used formerly to be reckoned 
as a cathartic of some value, in dropsies ; now, at 
least in England, it is almost never used. Virey 
says, *' il est errhine, sialogogue, et incisive." AlU 
berty '' cette plante passe pour faciliter Pexpectoration 
dans Pasthme, la dyspnee, et autre affections sem- 
blables." Vogel wouUr appear to have considered it 
as drastic and hydragogue. 

I find that the same Arabic and Persian names 
have been bestowed on our article and on what is 
called the blue iriSy which I conceive to be a variety 
of the iris germardcay and particularly distinguished 
by its blue standards and purple falls. Four species 
of iris were growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta in 181 4< ; none of them Indian plants. 
"The iris florentina, is a native of the island of 
Rhodes; it has a tuberous and jointed root, which 
sends oft'many fibres from the under part j the leaves 


spring directly from the root, spreading in opposite 
directions, and are of a sea-green colour, but 
yellow at the base ; the stem rises amidst the 
leaves upwards of a foot in height, and commonly 
bearing two large flowers, of a pale whitish colour/' 
I shall conclude what 1 have to say of iris florentina, 
by observing, that Celsus places the root of it 
amongst his purgatives (lib. v, cap. v.), adding, " ad 
discutienda vero ea, que in corporis parte aliqua 
coierunt, maxime possunt, abrotonum, alba viola, 
mel, iris, &c. &c.'' (Lib. v. cap. xi.). 


ORTOLAN. Bergherie iSj.^E^j^^ (Hind.) also 
Bageyra (Hind.) Ortalon (Fr.) Ortolano (It.) 

Emberiza Hortulana (Var.) 

This beautiful little bird* is not uncommon in 
many of the Indian provinces, particularly in 
the Puraniya country ; and, at certain seasons, is 
anxiously sought after by the European inhabitants, 
who consider it as a great delicacy, especially when 
fat. This Indian bird is a good deal like the ortolan 
of Europe, and by Dr. Hamilton's account (MSS.), 
resembles much the calandre lark of Latham, though 
he suspects that they are still a distinct species. The 
quill feathers are darkish, the three outer ones with 
whitish margins ; the tail feathers black, the two la- 
teral ones, externally, white ; it is somewhat smaller 
than the yellow-hammer, and makes a singular whist- 
ling noise. The real ortolan is not found in Great 

* General Hardwicke informs me, that he observed and drevv 
several species of emberiza; but our article is the only one 
sought after as food. 


Britain, but in various other parts of Europe. Those 
of the plains about Toulouse are reckoned superior 
to those of Italy. 


OYSTER. Alie 6^o\rP (Tarn.) PuttirJce seepie 
is^ c^y^i (Duk.) Ostrica (It.) Kustura (Arab, 
and Hind.) Tirram (Mai.) Cavatie (Cyng.) 
Ostras (Port.) Osters (Dan.) Huitre (Fr.) Tirim 
p^' (Mai.) also Badlan (^^^:ib (Arab.) Mooroo 
(Malealie). Mow-le (Chin.) Lj^^Z^J (Pers.) Ostrica 


The oysters of the Coromandel coast, though by 
no means large, are inferior to none in any part of 
the world, and are best in the months of May, June, 
July, and August. The places' they are found, of 
the best quality, are the following : at Alumpart>aj 
Ennore, and near Ramnad ; at these fisheries they 
are excellent; at KarikauU Topetory^ and Sadras, 
not quite so good ; at Fort St. David and Cuddalore 
tolerably good. On the Malabar coast the best 
oysters are procured at Callicut ; they may also be 
got of a good quality near Tellicherry, and, in fact, 
at many other places along the shore ; also at the 
mouths of several rivers, where oyster-beds have 
been made by the natives. They are best in Ma- 
labar in the months of March, April, and May. 

The oysters brought to the Calcutta market are 
mostly all from Chittagong ; they are very large, so 
much so, that they require being divided before they 
are eaten ; at certain seasons they are much prized. 

I have been informed, that the variety of oyste 


called rock'Oyster by the English fishermen, is occa- 
sionally met with in some parts of the Coromandel 
shores; distinguished by being thirty and having 
membranaceous plates, wrinkled into irregular, inter- 
rupted ribs ; the upper valve flat, and a corneous 
margin half an inch broad ; but I cannot say that I 
have ever seen it. 



e>aj^n-rP (Tarn.) Kowoonzu (Tel.) Ihn taJiir 

^ifcU:) ^^5 (Arab.) Kubak c/IaT (Pers.) Teetur yj3 

(Duk.) Fiyfir ^i^i (Pers.) Boorongsofo (Mai.) 

Tittira 1%f^^ or Tittiri frTf^tT (Sans.) Tetcr 

(Mah.) also ^>S (Arab.) y^^^ ^^j^j (Malay). Per- 

nice (It.) Perdria: (Fr.) 

Tetrao Cinerea (Lin.) 

Partridges are common in, I believe, every part of 
India, and during the season that the small, dry 
grains are ripe, are sought after ; though, generally 
speaking, they are inferior as food to the same bird 
in Europe, being dry, and rather insipid. They are 
chiefly sought after by the Mahometans, who keep 
them, as they also do quails, loha li)^^! (Duk,), for 
fighting, as we do cocks in England. There are 
several varieties of the tetrao cinerea in India, which 
have not, hitherto, been scientifically examined; and, 
I may add safely, some species* of tetrao (Lin.) or 
perdix (Cuv.), still to be more accurately described : 

* The excellent General Hardwicke informs me, that he had 
drawn eight species in the Bengal provinces ; in a valuable manu- 
script volume at the India House, prepared chiefly by Dr. F. 
Hamilton, thirteen or more species of partridge and quail to- 
gether, are well described. 


one not noticed by Buffon, Dr. Hamilton is inclined 
to call jperdix sylvatica^ MSS. ; and there is a large 
and most beautiful bird, of this kind, in the more 
Northern tracts of the Ganjam district, named the 
cattack partridge^ which I have met with no where 
else ; it is of a dark-brown colour, and has on its 
back, breast, &c. many golden-coloured spots ; the 
bird is scarce, and differs from the more common, 
kala titur. Chukwur jySi:^ is the Hindoostanie name 
of a species of partridge frequently met with, I 
understand, in the upper provinces of India, and also 
common in Nepaul, which the Hindoos suppose ca- 
pable of eating fire. As far as I can learn, it is a 
variety of the tetrao rufus of Linnagus, at least it 
would appear to come nearer to that than any other 
species. This is commonly known in Europe under 
the trivial name of the red or Guernsey partridge ; 
it is singular that all attempts to introduce it into 
England have hitherto failed. Of partridges, the 
Vytians of Lower India say, that the flesh of the 
cock bird occasions too much bile, but that that of 
the hen strengthens the body. The Arabians and 
Persians hold the eggs of the partridge in high esti- 
mation ; and place them (byzeh kubk jCaT ^a^xj) 
amongst their Aphrodisiacs {Mohthydt cXj^j^'). We 
are informed by Captain Macdonal Kinneir, in his 
" Geographical Memoir of Persia,'* that a black 
partridge, kala tituVy is common in the province of 
Scind (p. 244.). 

The quail (tetrao cotumix) is common in India, 
and, as food, is supposed to differ in nothing from the 
partridge. It is kikilivie (Sans.) also hartalo ; kaday 
(Tam.) ; /oAa l^^J (Duk.) ; Z^^/^r (Hind.) ; wurtung 
ff^J3 (Pcrs.) ; salway (Malay) ; surname jL^^ 
(Arab.) ; pooredoo (Tel.). The Vytians recommend 

VOL. I. u 


the flesh in incontinence of urine. It is also a 
medicine amongst the Chinese, who call the bird 


PEACOCK. Myle ldliSox^ (Tam.) Nilkantha 
^ft^^d^ (Sans.) Nemilie (Tel.) Mayura ^'^^ 
Varhi q'Hl" (Sans.) Moor jy^ (Hind.) Navelu 

(Can.) Moor (Hindooie) Tdous (j^^ll^ (Arab.) 
Mirrik 3^ (M^\.) Paon(Fr.) More (Mah.) Pa- 
vone (It.) Kung'tseo (Chin.) ^yi (Pers.) 

Pavo Cristatus (Lin.) 

Peacocks, though long naturalized in Europe, are 
of Eastern origin. They are found in abundance in 
many parts of India, and, it has been observed, 
commonly in those jungles most resorted to by tigers. 
On the islands of the Chilka lake, near Ganjam, 
there are great numbers, and so tame that they will 
allow you to pass them almost quite close without 
taking flight. To see them floating about in the air, 
if I may use the expression, in their native woods, 
their lovely plumage brightening in the sun, is cer- 
tainly amongst the most beautiful objects in nature. 

The peacock when young, or rather the young pea- 
hens, at certain seasons, are not inferior to turkeys, 
as food ; indeed, in India, they are generally pre- 
ferred. The flesh is amongst the medicines of the 

* Dr. Horsfield, in the xlli. of the Transactions of the Linnaean 
Society, describes three species of partridge as natives of Java : 
1. Perdix chinensis of Latham (Ind. Orn. 652.), which is the pikur rjl 
of the Javanese. 2. Perdix Javanica, the dagu of the Javanese. 
3. Perdix. orientah's (Horsf.). |j 


Hindoos, and may be found particularly noticed as 
such in the Poorna Soostrurrij a Tamool medical 
sastrum, which treats of religious disciples and of 
their forms of devotion, and also of the Materia 
Medica ; it is written by Aghastier, and consists of 
216 verses. In the Vytia Any our oo^ by the same 
author, we are told, that it is prescribed with great 
advantage in all cases of contracted limbs. 

** Peacocks had never been seen by Alexander till 
he entered India, where he found them flying wild 
on the banks of the Hyarotis, and was so much 
struck with their beauty, that he decreed a severe 
punishment on all who should molest them. They 
were introduced into Rome towards the decline of 
the republic, and the orator Hortensius was the first 
who had them presented at table, at a feast which he 
gave the Augurs/' Celsus believed the flesh of the 
peacock to be particularly wholesome : ** item om- 
nem grandem avem, quales sunt anser, et pavo, et 
grus.*"' Pliny, in speaking of the same bird, says, 
" qua in mentione significandum est pavones, fimum 
suum resorbere tradi invidentes hominum utilitatibus, 
accipiter decoctus in rosaceo efficacissimus ad inunc- 
tiones omnium putatur ; item fimi ejus cinis cum 
allico melle.f 

Peacocks are common in Guzerat, Cambay, the 
coast of Siam, and Java. As early as the days of 
Solomon they were imported into Judea, by the fleets 
which that monarch equipped in the Red Sea, and 
which, in all probability, traded to the coast of Ma- 

As in every animal capable of being domesticated, 
so there are varieties of the peacock ; for instance, we 

'^ Vide Cels. lib. ii. cap. xviii. 
•j- Vide Pliny, lib. xxix. cap. vi. 

u 2 


know that the peacock of Norway, and which mi- 
grates during winter into Germany, has the wings, 
cheeks, throat, and upper part of the belly white. 
The beautiful bird, however, which may be seen, 
well preserved, at the museum of the India House, 
and which was brought home from Java by the 
erudite and scientific Dr. Horsfield, is, no doubt, a 
distinct species: the neck and breast, in place of 
being of a glistening purple colour, is covered with 
moons, much resembling those of the tail of the 
common peacock. Dr. H. has bestowed on it the 
scientific appellation of pavo primus. In Bengal 
there are two varieties of peacock ; one with a white 
ring round the eye, the other with a yellow one. 


PEARL. Mootthoo ^^SJ (Tam.) Mootie 
JjyAi (Hind, and Duk.) Looloo ^^ (Arab.) Mir- 
war^e<^ «Xj^!^^ (Pers.) ikfoo/Ze (Hindooie). Mootium 
(Tel.) Muktd'^^} (Sans.) Moottoo (Cyng.) 
Mootara (Malay.) Perla (It.) Paarlen (Dut.) 
Perolas (Port.) Perle (Fr.) Perler (Dan.) also 
MiUya (Malay). 


There would appear to be several Arabic names 
for a pearl. Juhur j^J^y^ is a common name in 
Arabia for all precious stones, but is more particu- 
larly applied to the pearl. Other names for pearl in 
that country are gdmdn qjU^, also shuzzir jyi^. 
The Arabian physicians suppose the powder of the 
pearl to have virtues in weak eyes ; they also con- 
sider it as having efficacy when administered in pal- 
pitations, nervous tremors, atrabilarious affections. 


and hemorrhage. They have, besides, this strange 
notion, that when applied externally, while in its em- 
bryo state in the shell, it cures leprosy.* 

The pearl, though it formerly had a place in the 
British Materia Medica as an antacid, is now ex- 
ploded. The Indian practitioners, especially the 
VytianSj recommend it to the affluent, calcined, in 
cases of azirna pedie (Tam.) (lientery), and pittie 
erivoo (heartburn), as also in Jdstnah doshum (typhus 
fever). The Arabians place the pearl amongst their 
Mokewyatdil (Cardiaca) J^ ^^,^^ 

The pearl, which is well known to be a small, 
round or oval concretion, of a bright translucent 
whiteness, found in the inside of the shell concha 
margaritifera (Lin.), or mother-of-pearl fish, is of 
great value when of the best quality. Those pro- 
cured from the pearl oysters found in the bay of 
Condatchy, on the island of Ceylon^ are very beauti- 
ful ; as are those got at the Southern extremity of 
the Indian peninsula. Pearls are also brought from 
the gulph of Persia, near the Bahrin island^ and from 
the shores of the island of Kharrek\y in the same 
gulph J these, though large, are not so white or 
round as the pearls of Ceylon. Pearls are found, by 
De Comyn's account t, at MindanOy and on some of 
the smaller islands, not far from that of Zebu ; they 
may also be obtained, of a good quality and in 
abundance, at the Soolloo islands, and on certain 
shores of Japan ^j Sumatra, China, Java\\y in the 

* See Ahmed Teifasciies work on Precious Gems, as translated 
from the original Arabic by Antonio Raineri, Professor of Oriental 
Languages at Florence. Article Pearl, p. 5. 

\ See Morier*s Journey through Persia, p. 53. 

X See his State of the Philippine Islands, pp. 38, 39. 

§ See Tavernier's Indian Travels, part. ii. book ii. 

II See Asiatic Journal for Dec. 1816. p. 605. 

u 3 


islands of Mergiti and Borneo."^ What are called 
the occidental pearls, are procured, in vast quantities, 
near Panama^ in Terra Firma proper, between the 
islands of Cubaguaf and Coche^ and the coast of 
California ; in the gulph of Mea:ico ; along the coast 
of New Spain ; off St. Margarite^ or the Pearl Island ; 
in the Rio de la Hacha ; and in the islands of St. 
Marthay Quiho^ Gorgonia, &c. In Europe they 
have now and then been met with on the coasts of 
Scotland^ Livonia, Courland, in the river Ilts in Bo- 
hemia, in the Regeii (a river in Bavaria), and in 
certain lakes near Augsberg. 

The colour the most desirable in a pearl is a silver- 
like brightness, and with this quality the largest is, 
of course, the most valuable ; the most beautiful 
shape is round ; it has been observed, that the larger 
ones have often the figure of a pear. One of the 
most remarkable for size, hitherto known, was bought 
by Tavernier, at Catifa, in Arabia, for the sum of 
32,000 tomans (110,000/.), a fishery famous even 
in the days of Pliny $; it is regular, without blemish, 
and shaped like a pear ; the diameter of it is 0.63 
inch, at the largest part, and the length from two to 
three inches. The same writer tells us, that at the 
pearl fisheries in Eastern countries it has been ob- 
served, that the greater the quantity of rain that falls 
during the year, the more profitable is likely to prove 
the fishing. Mr. Crawfurd, in his Account of the 
Indian Archipelago, informs us (vol. iii. pp. 444, 
445.), that *' the pearls, and the mother-of-pearl 
oyster, are productions of the seas of the Indian 

* See Leyden's Sketches of Borneo, vol. vii, of the Batavian 

f See Anson's Voyage round the World. 

X " Verum Arabiae etiamnum fellcius mare est ; ex illo namque 
margarltas mittit." Pliny, lib.xii. cap. xviii. 


islands : the first, as an object of trade, are found no 
where but in the Suluk Islands^ and the last princi- 
pally there also. The quantity of pearls annually 
exported from the Saluk group to China is reckoned 
worth, on the spot, 25,000 Spanish dollars j and the 
quantity of mother-of-pearl shell obtained there, and 
exported to the same country, is about 5000 piculs, 
worth in China, at the rate of fourteen Spanish dol- 
lars the picul, 70,000 dollars, or 15,750//' The re- 
venue derived from the Ceylon pearl fishery, of late 
years, has not been more than 45,000/. per annum. 

The pearl oyster is found at a considerable depth 
at the bottom of the sea ; is very coarse, and forms 
no part of the food of the Indians ; it is called in 
Sanscrit shookti. The production of the pearl with- 
in it has excited much curious speculation amongst 
naturalists. While some suppose it to be an accre- 
tion, within the animal, of the superabundant matter 
called mother-of-pearl, which coats over the inside of 
the shell ; others, among whom is Reaumur, consider 
it a disease of the fish, similar to bezoar ; pearls 
like it being coiiiposed of lamellae, or coats formed 
round a foreign nucleus : in this way, the modern 
Chinese force certain shell-fish (mytilus cygneus), 
or swan muscle, to produce pearls, by throwing into 
the shell, when it opens, five or six minute mother- 
of-pearl beads strung on a thread ; in the course of 
one year these are found covered with a pearly crust, 
which perfectly resembles the real pearl. 

For curious instructions for making artificial* 

* The glass pearls, so much In vogue at present, and which ap- 
proach as near as possible to nature, were invented by a French 
bead-maker, named Jaquin ; they are made by covering the in- 
side of hollow glass beads with the soft shining powder obtained 
from water in which scales scraped from the fishes, called ablettes, 
had been allowed to remain some time. See Beckmann's History 
of Inventions, vol. ii. p. 12. 

U 4 


pearls, the reader may consult Smith's School of 
Arts (vol. i. p. 161,), as also a paper of Reaumur, 
in the Memoirs of the French Academy for I7I6 ; 
by which last we perceive, that what is used to give 
the pearly lustre, is often a fine silver-like substance, 
found on the under side of the scales of the blay, or 
bleak Jish. This mode Mr. Smith notices as the best 
for imitating pearls ; in all the methods he recom- 
mends, however, the seed pearls are required; but 
at Rome, where what is called the Roman pearls of 
commerce are made, and than which no real pearl is 
more beautiful, the purest and finest alabaster is 
preferred ; the pearly lustre being added by means of 
the substance above mentioned, procured from the 
bleak fish. 

I have noticed above, and generally speaking it 
holds good, at least in Eastern countries, that the 
pearl oysters are not used as food by the Indians; but 
I find from " Morier's Journey through Persia'* 
(p. 55.^ that those of that country are excellent ; 
not at all inferior to the common oyster. The same 
interesting writer tells us (p. 53.), that of the Persian 
pearl there are two sorts, the yellow and the white ; 
the first is commonly sent to the Mahratta countries ; 
the white is circulated through Bussora and Bagdad, 
into Asia Minor, and thence into the heart of 
Europe. The seed pearls are arranged round the 
lips of the oyster, the large ones are nearly in the 
centre of the shell and middle of the fish. I see by 
the Journal of Science *, that very beautiful pearls 
have lately been found in oysters procured from the 
river Tay, in Scotland. Hatchett, by analysis, found 
pearls to consist of alternate strata of a thin mem- 

* Journal of Science, No. xxix. p. 427. 


branous substance ; being a compound of 66 parts 
of carbonate of lime, and 24 of albumen. 

The pearl fisheries, at one time, in America* were 
most productive. We know that in 1587, upwards of 
697lbs. of pearls were imported into Seville, amongst 
those some of great value for Philip the Second, who 
had one from St. Margarita, which weighed 250 
carats, and was valued at 150,000 dollars. Those of 
the Seychelles Islands are often large and beautiful ; 
but they are, it would appear, got with difficulty, 
from the great depth of sea in which they are 


PEA. Puttanie L-'L^L- n-oryP (Tam.) Vdtand 
(Guz.) Buttani Ji\}L (Duk.) Goondoo Sdnighdoo 
(Tel.) Wan (Japan.) Muttir (Hind.) Harenso 
(Sans.) Muthur (Hindooie). Kirseneh aU*^ T 
(Pers.) Pois (Fr.) Pisella (It.) Watana (Mah.) 

PisuM Sativum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionaceae. Gemeine Erbse (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The pisum sativum is said to be a native of the 
South of Europe ; but we are told by Loureiro, that 
peas are natives of China, and Cochin -China, and 
called in the last mentioned country dau-tlon (Flor. 

* The pearl-fishery of Colombia, has of late years been con- 
sidered as of great value ; and I perceive by an excellent work, 
entitled, *' Journal of a Residence in Colombia, during the years 
1823, 1824/* by Captain C.Stuart Cochrane, that the exclusive 
right of that fishery had been granted by the last congress to 
Messrs. Rundell, Bridge, and Ricndelly of London, for the term of 
ten years. See more respecting pearl, in Part iii. of this work. 


Cochin-China, vol. ii. p. 443.). Thunberg says, the 
pea is cultivated in most provinces of Japan ; and I 
have every reason to believe, that it is indigenous in 
Central India, as we find whole fields of peas grow- 
ing in many parts of the Mahratta country. In the 
more Southern tracts of the peninsula they are only 
cultivated by the European inhabitants, who, with 
care, have them in great perfection in the cool 

Some people find peas flatulent, but with others 
they agree well ; and we know, that the pulses are in 
a peculiar degree nourishing. The variety of these 
cultivated in the Northern parts of Hindoostan is 
great. The Afghans, and the Persians of the South- 
ern provinces, who rear but little rice, feed chiefly 
on them ; and I am inclined to think, that this is 
one cause why they are the strongest, most mus- 
cular, and, perhaps, the handsomest race in the 
world. Two of the pulses most in esteem in those 
regions are the towaray (Tam.), and the carpoo woo- 
landoo (Tam.). The first the Persians call shakhoolj 
the Mahrattas toovj and the Bengalese urhur ; it is 
the tliora pceru of Rheed, the citysiis cqjan (Lin.), 
and is sometimes called by the English pigeon pea. 
The second is the mowng of the Hindoos of the 
higher districts; it is the mash jiU of the Arabians; 
the benoomash ^iU^xj of the Persians ; the kachang 
kddaU of the Malays, and the chiciidu of the Cana- 
rese ; in Bengal it is sometimes termed ticoray colai ; 
in Sanscrit it is mdsha 3^1^. 

The Greeks called the pea IliVoi/, from Pisa, a 
town of Elis, where, we are told, they grew in great 
plenty. Pliny seems to have entertained a strange 
idea, that lentils, when taken as food, had the effect 
of producing equanimity : ^* Invenio apud auctores, 


aeqiianimitatem fieri vescentibus ea.**' Celsust was 
of opinion, and perhaps he was right, that peas were 
less nourishing than what are commonly called the 
pulses or legumes : ** Ex leguminibus vero valentior 
faba, vel lenticula, quam pisum/^ A very good kind 
of coffee may be made from toasting the chick pea, 
which I find is sometimes done even where the true 
coffee should not be scarce, such as in Egyptj in 
which country this pea is called homus oa^^, accord- 
ing to Forskahl ; it is in Tamool cdddlei ; chdnd 
(Guz.); hurbhuri/ cfj.^jj,^ (Duk.) ; sanigheloo (Tel.); 
chenna (Hind.) ; nakhood ^.^j (Pers.) j chennuka 
(Sans.). It is the cicer arietinum of Linnaeus, and 
is, by Professor Link's account, much eaten by the 
lower classes in Spain J, where it is nwaedi garvanzos. 


PEACH. ^^^ Khowkh (Arab.) ^lUi^ SJmftaloo 
(Pers.) Persica (It.) 

Amygdalus Persica (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord, 
Rosacese (Juss.). 

The amygdalus persica, with care, now grows 
tolerably in the Mysore country, and in Upper 
India; and produces pretty good fruit. By Mr. 
Moon's account it also grows in Ceylon, whither it 
was brought from Persia (See his Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants, p. 39.) 

* See, Pliny's Natural History, lib. xviii. cap. xii, p. 449. 
f See Cels. de Medicina, lib. ii, cap. xviii. p. 84. 
X See Link's Travels, p. 195. 



cxLi^^c^^^n-/xLO (Tarn.) Parietaria (It.) Pa- 
rietaire (Fr.) Akkaraputta (Cyug.) Akkurkurha 
U>j3p>'U (Arab, and Duk.) Pyrethre (Fr.) Zahn 
wurtzell (Ger.) also Pietro (It.) Sesin (Chin.) 

Anthemis Pyrethrum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Compositae Discoideae. Speichelerregende Chamille 
(Nom. Triv. WiUd.). 

This root is to be found in most of the Indian 
bazars ; though I cannot learn, that the plant grows 
in any part of India. It is a native of Arabia, Syria, 
Calabria, Crete, and Bohemia ; and it is, no doubt, 
from the first mentioned of these countries, that it is 
brought to Hindoostan, an export from Mocha. I 
am much inclined to think, that it is the root we 
find noticed by Forskahl in his Materia Medica 
KJiairinay under the name of ood alkurrakh ^ys, 
^ JCl ; with regard to its Asiatic names, there is this 
peculiarity, that its Arabic, Persian and Dukhanie 
appellations are nearly the same. 

The pungency of the pellitory root (which is long 
and tapering, and not thicker than the finger), is not 
perceived till it has been chewed for a few seconds, 
when it occasions at first a glowing heat in the 
mouth, soon followed by a pricking sensation in the 
tongue and lips. The Vytians prescribe an infusion 
of it, in conjunction with the lesser galangal sitta- 


rittie (Tarn.), and ginger, as a cordial and stimulant 
in lethargic cases, in palsy, and in certain stages of 
typhus fever ; they also order it to be chewed, as a 
masticatory for the toothache. It certainly possesses 
powerful stimulant properties, but is scarcely ever 
employed in Europe as an internal remedy ; though 
it has been found useful as a sialagogue, and as such, 
Dr. Thomson says, has been given with success in 
some kinds of headache, apoplexy, chronic ophthal- 
mia, and rheumatic affections of the face. 

With regard to the chemical properties of the 
pellitory root, Alibert says, " par la distillation, 
cette racine fournit une huile butyracee tres acrimo- 
nieuse.*'* By the Persians and Moguls it appears 
to be considered as discutient and attenuant ; and is 
placed accordingly amongst their Muluttifdt c^LitJU : 
the dose two dangs. See a work entitled <J.xm\ ^-^ 
JX*i\s^ by Nafis Ben Abiez, dedicated to Sultan Ulugh 
Beig Gurgan. t 

The anthemis pyrethrum is a perennial plant, 
having leaves doubly pinnate, with narrow linear seg- 
ments of a pale green colour ; the flowers large, 
with the florets of the radius white on the upper, and 
purple on the under side : and those of the disc 
yellow. But one species of anthemis was growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814., the 
anth. cotula (Willd.), introduced from Europe. 

Celsus informs us, that pyrethrum was one of the 
articles contained in a famous malagma (cataplasm \ 
which was employed as a resolvent, and for maturing]; 

* See Nouveau El^mens de Therapeutique, vol.ii. p. 214. 

t The Arabian physicians, in the days of Avicenna, prescribed 
pellitory in rigors ; '* ante rigoris invasionem ex oleo corpori 
affricatum contra rigorem valet, sive cum febre veniat, sive citra 
febrem." Vide Canon, lib. ii. tract ii. p. 232. 

X Vide Cels* lib. v. cap. xvii. 


pus ; he also mentions it as useful for opening the 
mouths of wounds.* 


PEPPER, BLACK. i\/e7%//oo i^^~©(Tam.) 
Gamjniris (Cyng.) Minaloo (Tel.) Meeritch 
(Hindooie). Maricha 3^1^^ (Sans.) GoUmirch 
(Hind.) Kali mirchie ^^^ J^^^ (Duk.) Filfil 
Usxud ^^A-i Jjiii (Arab.) Filfil seeah sL*- yiM (Pers.) . 
Lada s^':^ (Mai.) Maricha (Jav.) Micha (Bali). 
Sahan (Palembang). Foivre (Ft.) Schzca?^ze?i 
pjeffer (Ger.) Pepe nero (It ) P'nniejito (Sp.) 
Piniejita (Port-) Kaly meerchingay (Mah.) Hoo- 

tseaou (Chin.) 

Piper Nigrum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Trigjniia. Nat. Ord. 

In no part of the world does this species of pepper 
grow in greater abundance than on the Malabar t 
coast ; whence it is a most lucrative export. It 
is, however, a production of many other Eastern 
countries ; but in all these, Mr. Craw^furd \ informs 
us, of a quality inferior to that of Malabar. The 
kino-dom of Bantam on Java, alone, used to furnish 
to the Dutch., six miJllions of pounds annually; 

♦ Vide Cels. lib. v. cap. iv. 

\ Dr. Buchanan says, in his " Travels tlirough ]\Iysore, Ca- 
nara,*' &c. (vol.iii. p. 269.)) that the best black pepper that grows 
in Southern India, is that of Sagara^ much better than that of 
the district of Malabar : that of Nagara, sells at the rate of 515 
lb. for 92 rupees . 

\ See his History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 481. 

II See Sketches Civil and Military of Java, p. ^7. 


though Mr. Crawfurd is of opinion, that the Java 
pepper is the worst that grows in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. On Sumatra, three different kinds of black 
pepper are cultivated ; the lada lauovj the lada 
manna J and ladajambee ; the first or lampoon pepper, 
is reckoned the be>t and strongest. On Boryieo*^ 
pepper was first cultivated by the Chinese, about 
tift}' years ago ; the produce of that island is not 
good. At Palembang there is now produced up- 
wards of fifteen thousand peculs annually. It is a 
common produce of Siam, at Prince of Wales's Is- 
land ; at Malacca, and at the Philippine t islands 
much attention is given to the rearing of this spice. 

The piper nigrum, the tieo-bo of the Cochin- 
Chineset, is the vieldghO'Codi of Rheede (Hort. Mai. 
vii. p. 23. t. 12.), is a vine requiring the support of 
other trees ; those commonly planted for this pur- 
pose in India, are the betel nut palm (arecha catechu), 
the moochie xcood tree (erythrina Indica, Willd.), the 
mango tree (mangifera Indica), the jack tree (arto- 
caq)us integrifolia), and the hyperanthera moringa ; 
but it has been remarked, that the vines which clino: 
round the two last thrive best. The trees commonly- 
preferred in the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, 
are what the Malays call the dapap (erj'thrina coral- 
lodendron), and the mdnghudii (morinda citrifoUa). 
The plants are about four years old before thev pro- 
duce fruit, and the berries are nearly five months in 

'^ See Dr. Leyden's Sketches of Borneo, in the seventh 
volume of the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 

f See De Comyn's State of the Phihppine Islands, p. 20. 
Pepper is there chiefly cultivated in the provinces of Tayabas and 

\ Lroureiro speaks highly and justly of the virtues of black 
pepper, extending its tonic virtues to the brain as well as the 
stomacii. Vide Flora Cochin-China, vol. i. p. 30- 


coming to perfection, from the time they first appear. 
The plant is the JJLJli of Serapio (c. 367.)- The 
Arabs consider pepper as powerfully deobstruent, 
and as such, I see it has a place amongst their 
Mufettehat c^L:^-** With regard to the notions of 
the ancients respecting pepper, the reader may con- 
sult Pliny and Celsus ; the first (lib. xii. cap. vii.") 
tells us where it was produced best in his day, and 
enumerates three sorts ; the second mentions both 
the round and long pepper amongst his diuretics* 
(lib. ii. cap. xxxi.). Nine species of piper are grow- 
ing in the botanical garden of Calcutta; eight species 
grow in Ceylon. 

As a medicine, the native doctors of India con- 
sider black pepper as stimulant and stomachic, and 
prescribe an infusion of the toasted berries in cases 
of cholera morbus ; and I have myself known it 
put a stop to the vomiting in this disease t, when 
many other remedies had failed. They also prepare 
with it a kind of liniment, which they suppose to 
have sovereign virtues in chronic rheumatism. In 
Europe it is occasionally employed as a stimulant in 
retrocedent gout, and in palsy. The watery infu- 
sion has proved a useful gargle in relaxation of the 
uvula. The dose of the black pepper may be from 
six grains to a scruple. What is commonly called 
white pepper^ is merely the black pepper blanched by 
steeping it for a time in water, and afterwards gently 
rubbing it, so as to remove the dark outer coat ; it is 
considerably milder than the other, and is much 

* The same virtue in pepper is noticed by Rhazes. Vide 
Opera Aphorismorum, lib. iii. p. 536. 

f Though a far more certain mode of combating that disease, 
in its sporadic form, is by a speedy use of calcined magnesia, 
given not in milk, but in tepid water. 


prized by the Chinese ; a great deal of it is prepared 
at Bencoolen. It appears from Avicenna (Can. 
hb. ii. tract ii,)j that in his day the white pepper was 
most esteemed as a stomachic ; and Celsus says, that 
it was one of the ingredients used in preparing a 
famous antidote (Hb. v. cap. xxiii.). The use of 
black pepper as a seasoner of food, will be noticed 
in another part of this work, suffice it here to ob- 
serve, that it is a never-failing ingredient in many of 
the Indian dishes, curries^ mellaghotanie^ pilloeSy &c., 
as well on account of its pleasant flavour, as from a 
conviction of its powerful stomachic* virtues; it is, 
doubtless, the most valuable of all the spice kind. 
Before concluding, I shall shortly state, that the 
piper nigrum is ** a climbing plant; the leaves^ which 
are ovate, entire, pointed, seven-nerved, and dark- 
green, are petiolate at the joints of the branches ; 
the j^ot^^r^ are sessile, white, small, and placed on 
terminal spikes, without any regular calyx or corolla; 
the fruit is a globular berry of a red-brown colour.'' 
The piper peltatum. Dr. Horsfield informs us, is 
common at Java, there called lamba-ang geliimho. 
The fruit is applied, externally, in swellings and 
dropsies, in many of the Eastern islands. Mr. 
Brande regrets, that the piper nigrum has not been 
satisfactorily analyzed ; it contains, he adds, a vola- 
tile oil, with starch and extractive matter. 

* A virtue Roques is quite sensible of: in his Phytographie 
Medicale he says, in speaking of it, *' il coriige par sa quality 
stimulante les alimens fades ou visqueux, reveille les facultes 
digestives ; et donne aux temperamens inertes un sentiment de 
force et d'alacrite." 

VOL. I. 



ghdi O^avTtFrTLU (Tarn.) Merdpdkdia (Tel.) 
Brahn maricha (Sans.) Ldl mirchie ^j.^ ^iJ also 
^r^ ^.LT (Hind.) Fulfill surkh ^^^ yxM (Pers.) ^ 
Felfel-achmar (Arab.) Meneshena (Can.) Lomhoh 
(Jav.) Lada rnira %^j^ ^^"S (Mai.) Tdbia (Bali). 
Poivre delude (Fr.) Spanischer oderkercJier pjiffer 
(Ger.) Pepperone (It.) Gasmiris (Cyng.) Tarn- 
bhiidda meercMngay (Mah.) 

Capsicum Frutescens (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord, 
Lu ridge. 

Our present article, which is universally called 
red or Cayenne pepper, or Chilie by the English in 
India, is not the produce of the capsicum annuum, 
but of the capsicum frutescens (Lin.), which is the 
capsicum Indicum of Ilumphius(Amb.5. d.248. t.8.); 
it is usually termed the shrubby capsicum plant by bota- 
nists, and is the cdpo-moldgo of Rheede, in contra- 
distinction to the capsicum annuum, which he calls 
the Vdllta'Cdpo-moldgo. The difference betwixt the 
two does not appear to be considerable, and would 
seem chiefly to consist in the nature of the stem, 
which in our article is shrubby ; while in the other 
it is herbaceous. The Chilie plant is the laUtsiao of 
the Cochin-Chinese, who use much of the fruit 
with their victuals (Flor. Cochin-Chin, vol.i. p. 128.). 
It is cultivated in every part of India, on account of 


the pod, or rather pod-like berry, so much used by 
the natives as a warm seasoner. As a medicine, the 
Vi/tians believe it J and justly, to be stomachic and 
stimulant ; and also prepare with it cataplasms, 
which they employ in cases requiring rubefacients. 
It has of late years been successfully given in Eng- 
land in atonic gout, dyspepsia, accompanied with 
much flatulence, tympanitis and palsy. Dr. Wright 
has recommended capsicum in dropsies, and other ca- 
chectic complaints, when chalybeates are at the same 
time indicated : — dose from gr. vi. to gr. x. in pills ; 
of the tincture, from ^i. ^ij. in a glass of water. 
As a gargle it is supposed to clean, without im- 
peding the healing of ulcers in the fauces ; this 
gargle. Dr. Thomson says, is prepared by beating 
into a paste 5i. of the cayenne pepper, and 9i. of 
common salt, then adding ^vi. of boiling water, and 
to the solution, when cold, 5 v. of vinegar. With 
hogs' lard, capsicum forms a good liniment for para- 
lytic limbs. 

There are growing in the botanical garden of Cal- 
cutta, six species of capsicum ; the annuum, grossum, 
frutescens*, baccatum, purpureum, and minimum. 
The grossum is called in Hindoostanie kaffrie-murich. 
Of our article, the frutescens, there are two varieties, 
the red and yellow, termed in Bengalese lall-lunka 
murich and hiildi'lunka miirich ; the two last species 
have been scientifically examined by Dr. Roxburgh; 
of these the minimum is named in Hindoostanie 
dhan'murich. The c. grossum bears a fruit as large 
as a small apple, which is called by the English in 

* Mr. Moon, in his valuable Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, in- 
forms us, that the Cyngalese name of the capsicum frutescens is 
gas mirisy and that there are three varieties of the plant in that 
island; a red, a yellow, and a black. See work, p. 16. 

X 2 " • 


India cojffrie Chilie ; it is preferred for pickling, the 
skin being fleshy and tender : the seeds are pre- 
viously taken out. Virey *, in his "Histoire Naturelle 
des Medicamens/' expreSvSes a singular notion, that 
it is owing to an abuse of this pickle that the in- 
habitants of hot climates suffer so much from liver 

The Chilie plant is constantly found in its wild ! 
state in the Eastern Islands t, though, from its being 
so commonly called Chilie, Rumphius argues its < 
American origin. " It seldom rises higher than four 
feet, with a roughish stem, and branches diffused, 
and often scandent ; the leaves are lanceolate, quite 
entire, waved, small, smooth, petioled, alternate or \ 
scattered ; fiowers^ axillary, small, white, and five or i 

Capsicum is supposed by the German physicians 
to be peculiarly injurious in gonorrhaea, "imo ges- 
tatum in linteo supra abdomen, gonorrha^um post 
octo menses resuscitavit'* (Murray's Appar. Med^i. 
voL i. p. 704,)» 


PEPPER, LONG. Tipilte .^i^L^cn^ (Tam.u 
and Cyng.) Pipuloo (Tel.) Pipilie J^^ (Duk.) 

Pipel (Hind.) Pippali f^^^^ also Krishna <*burr 

(Sans.) DarJilfilyfX3j\:^{AYdh.) Pilfili daraz j\j::^ ^^^ 

(Pers.) Tahee ^^^o (Mai.) Chahuja^a (Jav.)^ 

* See the work, p. 182. 
^ t See Crawfurd's Eastern Archipelago, vol. i. p. 377- 


Poivre tongue (Fr.) Langer pjeffer (Ger.) Pepe 

lungo fit.) Pimienta larga (Span.) 

Piper Longum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Trigynia. Nat. Old. 

This species of pepper, which is the cay-lot of the 
Cochin-Chinese*, is produced in abundance in many- 
parts of Upper as well as Lower Hindoostan. The 
berries are small, and lodged in a pulpy matter, like 
those of the black pepper ; they are at first green, 
and become red when ripe. Having been found to 
be hottest in their immature state, they are then 
gathered and dried in the sun, when they change to 
a dark grey colour. It is imported in the entire t 
spikes, which are about an inch and a half long, and 
indented on the surface. 

Dr. Cullen is right, when he says, this pepper has 
the same qualities as the black, but in a weaker de- 
gree ; the aromatic odour is rather faint, but its taste 
is pungent. The Vytians on the Coromandel coast 
prescribe it in infusion, mixed with a little honey, in 
catarrhal affections, when the chest is loaded with 
phlegm ; the plant is the catlu-tirpaU of the Hort. 
Mai. (vii. p. 27. 1. 14-). It is a perennial, a native of 
India, and also of Nepaul X and Java || ; ^' its stem is 
smooth, branchedi, slender, and scandent ; leaves cor- 
date, pointed, nerved, and of a deep green colour : 

* Loureir6 speaks highly of the medicinal virtues of long pep- 
per : << calefaciens, stiraulans, deobstruens" (Vide Flora Cochin- 
China, vol.i. p. 32.). 

f See the London Dispensatory. 

:j: See Kirkpatrick's Account of Nepaul, p. 205. 

II An export from that island to Surat. See Sketches Civil 
and Military of Java, p. 207. 

X 3 


the Jlowers are small, in short, dense, terminal spikes, 
nearly cylindrical.'* * 

There is a large variety of it sometimes met with 
in Lower India, called in Tamool ana tipilie (or 
elephant pepper), in Telinghoo it v^yeaniglia pipulloOy 
and in Sanscrit gaja kunnie. 

The root of the long pepper is a favorite medicine 
of the Hindoos ; it possesses the virtues of the berry, 
but in a weaker degree ; and is prescribed by them 
in cases of palsy, tetanus, and apoplexy. It is 

termed in Sanscrit granthika 3T f ^^^ and pippaU-mula 

ftfC'qf^iT^ J in Tamool by the various names of 

bengala modie^ kandam-tipili^ and tipili mooluni^ in 
Hindoostanee it is peeplamooly in Persian heik derucht 
Jllfil draz ^\^:, j^iXi C..^:^ g't^, and in Arabic ^^^ j^aj 
jiljil mooch. The Arabians consider it as cardiac. 



PHEASANT, ^/csi Tezurj (Arab.) ^^d^S Ted^ 
TOO (Pers.) Faisaii (Fr.) Fagiano (It.) 

Phasianus (Lin.) 

Several species of this beautiful bird have been 
discovered amongst the more Northern tracts of the 

* The Arabians, in the days of Avicenna, thought very highly 
of this medicine ; he said of it, *' concoquit digeritque cibum, et 
ventriculum roborat : libidinem concitat, zingiberis aequat effica- 
€itatem." Canon, Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 106. 


Indian continent ; thanks to the interesting research 
of General Hardwicke, and other naturaUsts. I 
have ah'eady noticed (under the head of fowl) the 
phasianus gallus, which is the gallus Indicus of 
Leach, the gallus sonnerati of Temmink, or "wild 
cock of Latham. For the following list of pheasants, 
distinctly so called, I am indebted to the kind atten- 
tion of General Hardwicke : 

1. Phas. criientus (Hard.), chelmiah (Nepaulese), 
noticed also by Latham (Gen. Hist. No. 19.) ; it is a 
native of Nepal, and the snowy mountains. 

2. A pheasant, which has only yet been examined 
by General Hardwicke, and of which he has a fine 
drawing ; it is a native of Nepal, and called by the 
inhabitants cheer. 

S. A pheasant, as yet only particularly examined 
by the same gentleman ; it is a native of the Almorah 
mountains, and named by the inhabitants pukraas ; 
the General has a drawing of the bird. 

4. Phasianusferruginis (Hard.). The native name 
of this species is not known ; it is found amongst 
the snowy mountains, and in Nepal. 

5. Phas. satyriis (Tem.). It is the horned phea- 
sant of Latham, and is a native of Sireenagur and 
Nepal ; it is of a reddish -brown colour, is a middle 
size, betwixt a common fowl and a turkey, and is 
distinguished by a callous blue substance, like a 
horn, which springs from behind each eye. 

6. Phas. impeyanus. This most beautiful species 
hmoorghizereen ^jj ^^< (Pers.) ; moonal (Hind.) -^ 
it does not correspond with the phas. pictus (Lin.), 
but is, unquestionably, the lophophorus refulgens of 
Temmink, so named from the brilliancy of its plu- 
mage, being made a bird of a new genus in France^ 
owing to its having a crest. 

X 4 


7. A pheasant only hitherto noticed by General 
Hardwicke, who has a drawing of the bird ; it is the 

jeelmeah of the inhabitants of the snowy mountains, 
who bring it for sale to Nepal, where the flesh of it 
is considered as a remedy for jungle fever. 

8. Phas. leucomelanus (Lin.). This is a lovely 
bird ; it is the coloured pheasant of Latham; and is 
a native of Nepal, where it is named kaledge. 

A gentleman sent lately from the Burmah country, 
for the museum of the Royal Asiatic Society, two 
^iuS^di pheasants : the one has purple wings, a brown- 
ish breast, a beautiful yellowish green neck, and a 
crest of dark reddish brown feathers ; it is the mee- 
nal of the Burmese, a name very much resembling 
the Hindooie name of the lophophorus refulgens^ 
above noticed, and of which it, no doubt, is a variety. 
The other sent, is called, by the Burmese, singchinis; 
it is also a most beautiful bird, being of a greyish 
mottled brown on the back, with small white ppots 
all over it ; the breast is a pale crimson, having, like- 
wise, numerous white spots all over it, with this dif- 
ference, that each spot on the breast is surrounded 
with a black margin ; it has no crest, but a neck 
of bright crimson. It becomes a question how to 
name it.* 

Pheasants, it will be seen by what has been just 
observed, cannot be procured in India in such quan- 
tity as to make them an object of much request as 
food. They are well known to be a great delicacy 
in Europe, and to be at once light and nourishing. 
The common pheasant p. colchicuSy so named from 
having been originally found in Colchis^ has, of late 
years, been ascertained to be a more hardy bird than 

* General Hardwicke believes this to be the species known in 
Nepaul by the name of mennur. 


it was, at one time, supposed to be, and thrives ad- 
mirably in the gentlemen's parks of some of the 
most Northern counties of our island.* 


PIGEON, DOMESTIC. Prra lj^ (Tam.) 
Kahooter y^jS (Duk.) Purewa (Hindooie). Pa- 
woorai (Tel.) Merapatti (Mai.) Humam A^^ 
(Arab.) Purexva (Hind.) Kahooter y^jS (Pers.) 
Kapota ^T^rf (Sans.) 


The natives of India, like us, consider pigeons, 
when taken as food, as stimulating and nourishing. 
The Arabians and Persians give them a place 
amongst their Aphrodisiacs, as they do also their 

^SS^ y-^y^^ ^^Aj. There are many species to be 
met with, chiefly reared by the Mahometans. 

What is called the rock pigeon on the Coromandel 
coast, is a variety of the columba oenas, or wild 
pigeon, beautifully speckled, and if killed young, 
and at certain seasons, when the small grains are on 
the ground, is excellent. The Tamools call it maley 
poruy or hill pigeon, the Persians jwigUe kebooter. 
The parula (Canarese), which Dr. F. Hamilton 
tells us is common in Canara, differs in almost 
nothing from the stock-dove or wild pigeon of Eng- 

The turtle-dove (columba turtur) is also very com- 
mon in the Indian w^oods, and has nearly the same 

* In a manuscript volume at the India House, I find two species 
mentioned as Indian birds ; the p, argiis ? and p. lineatus* 


plaintive note as in Europe ; it is small, of a blueish 
grey colour, but as food, it is dry and insipid. The 
Tamools call it caat pora ; on the Malabar coast it is 
termed ciangdlli ; in Malay j^ yS^Vs. 

What is termed the green pigeon by the English 
in India, is a beautiful bird, found, at certain seasons, 
on the topmost branches of the banyan tree (ficus 
Indica), on the small fruit of which it feeds. It is 
of a bright green colour, with a short bill, in a slight 
degree curved, and has very short legs ; it is, as food, 
the most delicate of all the pigeon kind. Where its 
proper place may be in natural history, whether a 
distinct species of the columba, or a variety of the 
col. turtur, has not, I believe, hitherto been fully 
ascertained. Its colour and form appear to come 
near those of the columba migratoria (Lin.), or 
Canada turtle, but it is much smaller, and has by no 
means the same habits. On the Malabar coast it is 
termed ciula ; the Tamools call it patchei pora^ or 
green pigeon.^ 


Pine apple. Anclsie piilhmi (ix-.^S)^"'!— n_iupLD 
(Tam.) Ananas q.vUU! (Duk.) Nanus naneh (j^ilJ 
^U (Mai.) Pandang (Macassar). Pandang (Bugis.) 
Usi hangala^ also Mangala (Amboynese). Koida 
Cheeka (Malealie). Ananas piindoo (Tel.) Kapa- 
tsjakka (Rheede). Anasi (Cyng.) Ananasso (It.) 

Bromelia Ananas (Lin.) 

* In a manuscript at the India House, I find noticed as Indian 
birds, by Dr. F. Hamilton, the c. nicobarica^ c. lijieata, c. Jmrsala, 
Ten species of columba are described by Dr. Horsfield as natives 
of Java. See Transactions Lin. Soc. vol. xiii. 


CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord, 

Bromelise (Juss.) 

The pine apple grows in great abundance* in 
most parts of India, and, with a little care, large, 
and of an excellent quality; it is, certainly, a de- 
licious fruit, and is too well known to require a 
description here. In hot weather it is most refresh- 
ing, but, owing to a certain pungency, it does not 
agree with every stomach ; and not unfrequently 
produces cholera morbus. 

There seems still to exist some doubt respecting 
the native country of the pine apple plant : it is, evi- 
dently, indigenous in Africa. It is common now in 
the Eastern islands : Mr. Crawford thinks it was first 
introduced there by the Portuguese, from America ; 
how that may be, I know not, but this is well known, 
that the plant is growing wild in the woods of 
Ceylon ; yet it is singular, that it is there called by 
the same name it has in America, or nearly so, anasi. 
The finest in the world are supposed to be the sugar- 
loaf pines of Brazil ; and next to them, those of 
Montserrat. A very pleasant wine may be made 
with this fruit, and which Long, in his '** History of 
Jamaica,'' says, is sometimes added to give zest to 
rum (see work, p. 793. J. The pine apple w^as intro- 
duced into Bengal, in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar, by the Portugese, who brought the seed from 
Malacca. In 1591^ it was cultivated in China ; 
brought, perhaps, thither from America, through the 
Philippine Islands : indeed, Acosta, in his Treatise 
on the Drugs and Medicines of the East Indies, tells 

* Four varieties of the plant grow in Ceylon : the queen red, 
the tvhite, the sugar-loaf , and the stone. See Mr. Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants, p. 24. 


US, that the fruit was brought from Santa Cruz to 
the AVest Indies, and that it was afterwards trans- 
planted to the East Indies and China. It would 
appear to have been first described by Gon9alo Her- 
nandez, who went to America in 1513. The plant 
grows in great abundance in the fields of Cochin- 
China, and is there called tlai-ihom (Flor. Cochin- 
China, vol. i. p. 19*2.)* 


PLANTAIN. Vdlei imllum (Tam.) JMaoz j^ 
(Duk.) Kaijla (Hindooie). Arittie pimdoo (Tel.) 
Pesang (Mai.) Gadang (Jav.) Biyu (Bali). Cha* 
*icuk (Sundu) Oiinche (Madagascar). Koyo (Banda). 
Tenia (Ceram.) Kehl lihang (Cyng.) Kella (Hind.) 
Vellacoy (Malealie). Kadallj or Kadala ^C^^ 
or ^^^ (Sans.) Kail (Mali.) 

MusA Paradisiaca (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polvo;amia Monoecia. Nat. Ord. 
Musae (Juss.) 

The plantain is certainly one of the most delicious 
of all the Indian fruits, and one of the safest for such 
as have delicate stomachs, being entirely free from 
acidity ; it is, moreover, very nourishing, and is 
always prescribed as food, by the Hindoo practi- 
tioners, for such as suffer from bile and heat of habit. 
It is improved in flavour by means of sweet milk 
and sugar, the rough covering being scraped off 
which is immediately under the skin. There are 


many varieties * of the plantain f, differing in size and 
shape : the best are the yellow, commonly about four 
inches long ; the rajah, not quite so long, and tipped 
with green at the end ; and the red, which last is 
luscious, but has a somewhat perfumed taste. The 
banana (musa sapientum), some botanists, such as 
Loureiro and Gsertner, thought did not specifically 
differ from the musa paradisiaca; Willdenow, how- 
ever, has made them different. The banana tree is, 
moreover, marked with purple spots ; the fruit is 
shorter and rounder, with a softer pulp, of a more 
delicate taste : besides, in the m. parad. the male 
flowers are permanent; in the other, they are deci- 
duous. The plantain and banana are the principal 
fruits of the Eastern islands ; unripe, they are sliced 
and made into curry, when they taste like potatoes. 
Rumphius noticed no less than sixteen varieties of 
plantain and banana in the Molucca islands. The 
wild banana (musa textilis) grows in Mindanao, 
and the Philippine islands ; it is remarkable for this, 
that the fibrous bark of it is made into cloth ; it also 
affords material for cordage and cables, called in 
Eastern countries, manilla ropes. 


POISON NUT. Yettie cottay (Tam.) Moos^ 
tighenza, also Miisadi (Tel.) Culaka, also Kutaka, 
also Veshamoostibeejum (Sans.) Kodakaddooruatta 
(Cyng.) Koochla ^j^ (Duk. and Hind.) Khanek- 

* On Ceylon, where the tree is called anaxvalii-kesel, no fewer 
than ten varieties grow. 

f The Tamool doctors prescribe the plantain aYjn'22)L-P 
Lji ^^L-PLO (Tam.) to strengthen the body. 


ulkelb cJl.^iJ! \juU^ (Arab.) Jawitz dllde ^Ij/:^ 
(Serapio) Ma-tseen (Chin.) 

Strychnos Nux Vomica (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord, Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Luridag. Gemeiner Krahenauge (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The seeds of the fruit of the nux vomica, which 
is the goda-kaduru, also divie kaduru^ of the Cynga- 
lese, are reckoned amongst the most powerful vege- 
table poisons of the Hindoos, and so Loureiro declares 
them to be. The fruit itself is about the size of a 
small apple, is covered with a smooth, somewhat 
hard, shell, of a beautiful orange colour when ripe, 
and is filled with a soft, jelly-like, bitter^ poisonous 
pulp. It is in this pulp that the seeds are immersed j 
they are usually from three to five in number, round, 
flattish, and about three quarters of an inch in di- 

The Vytians are of opinion, that if the seeds are 
not taken in sufficient quantity to cause death, they 
will produce mental derangement : about as much of 
the powdered nut as will lie on a sixpence is, they 
say, sufficient to kill a dog ; much less will cause the 
death of a man. When finely pounded, and inti- 
mately mixed with margosa* oil, the Tamools, like 
some of the Germaa and Swedish physicians, con- 
sider it as a tonic and astringent, given in minute 
doses ; they also recommend it in chronic rheuma- 
tism, and, blended with the white of an eggy they 
employ it as a repellent. Dr. Fleming informs us, 
that the natives of Upper Hindoostan are in the 
habit of adding the poison nuts in the process of 
distilling arrack, for the pernicious purpose of ren- 
dering the spirit more intoxicating. 

* A fixed bitter oil prepared from the fruit of the meha azadi- 
rachta (Lin.). 


The root of the tree, as well as that of the strych- 
nos colubrina (lignum colubrinum), is amongst the 
remedies used in cases of snake bites, on the Malabar 
coast. This last mentioned tree is the modira caniram 
of Rheede (Hort. Mai. 7- 10. t. 5.) ; our article is 
the caniram of the same writer (Hort. Mai. 1. 67. 
t 37.). In Malealie it is canyara. 

The Arabians would seem to prescribe the root of 
the poison nut tree*, as the Hindoos do, in cases of 
aake bites ; they call it adrakie ^]^i', which is, 
properly, a Syrian word. The seeds they place 
amongst their Mokederrat CfS^y;^ (Narcotica). See 
an Arabic medical work, entitled Shereh Asbab 
va Ildmut C^!^ ^ kJ^^xJs ^^, written by Nqfis 
Ben AvieZj and dedicated to Sultan Ulugh Beig 

The tree is a native of Cochin-China, and called 
cay-cU'Chi (Flor. Cochin-China, vol. i. p. 125.), also 
of Persia, and the nuts, by Elmore's f account, are an 
export from Mocha. It with three other species 
are growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 
The strychnos nux vomica is quite a common tree 
on the Coromandel coast. Dierbach in his Mat. 
Med. of Hippocrates, says, it may be the St^v;/vo^ 
of the Greeks. ^^ It is of a middling size, with a 
rather crooked, but thickish trunk, and irregular 
branches ; the leaves are opposite, on short petioles, 
ovate, shining, smooth on both sides, entire, three- 
five nerved, about four inches long, and from an 
inch to three inches broad; the ^Jlozcers are small, 
greenish, white, and collected in small terminating 

* Four species of strychnos grow in Ceylon. See Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants, p. 16. 

f See Elmore's Guide to the Trade of the Indian Seas, p. 268. 


Several medical men of distinction * on the con- 
tinent, have examined, with great accuracy, the de>- 
leterious qualities of the nux vomica : such as 
Gesnerj Heyde^ de Wepfer, de Hillefeld^ de Brunnerj 
and Loss^ and compared them with those of the 
upas tiente. Alibert, in his '^Nouveaux Elemens de 
Therapeutique,'^ has minutely described its effects 
on a dog, when given to the quantity of 30 grains ; 
the animal neither barked nor moaned, but was 
carried oft* by convulsions. It does not appear, how- 
ever, that the vomic nut, is equally poisonous to all 
animals, LiOSs assures us, that a hog may eat a con- 
siderable quantity of the nuts, without suffering in 
the smallest degree ; and we know, that Desportes 
gave very large doses to a goat, without doing it any 
harm. The seeds of the nux vomica, as well as 
those of another species (strychnos ignatia), have 
been chemically examined by Chevreid and Des- 
portes, who jfound, but I shall quote their words ; 
*^ que cette substance est formee de malate de chaux, 
de gomme, d'une matiere vegeto-animal, de matiere 
amere, d'une huile fixe, d'une matiere colorante 
jaune, et probablement d'amidon^' (starch). Later 
examinations, however, by Pelletier and CaventoUy 
have discovered in these seeds a peculiar principle 
which they have termed strychnine \ , and which, like 
morphia, they found to possess alkaline properties. 
Mr. Brande tells us, that it is nearly soluble in 

* Marcet, in his Memoir on the Action of Poisons on Vege- 
table Substances, informs us, that a bean plant, watered with a 
solution of extract of nux vomica, was killed in a day and a half. 
It has been supposed by some, that when taken by animals, the 
nux vomica poisoned by acting on the spinal marrow, while opium 
produced the same effect by acting directly on the brain itself. See 
Journal of Sciences, Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix. p. 194. 

f Loureiro informs us, that the seeds burnt till they have be- 
come black, may be safely given, and are useful in Jiuor albus* 
See vol. and page above quoted of Flora Cochin-China. 


water ; it dissolves in alcohol, and the solutions are 
intensely bitter (See his Manual of Chemistry, 
vol. iii. p. 73.). 

By experiments, made by Magendie and Delile, it 
appears, that the vomic nut has a peculiar action on 
the spinal marrow, through the absorbent and san- 
guiferous system ; and excites to motion the muscles 
to which that organ distributes nerves ; it has, in 
consequence, been given with advantage in cases of 
paraplegia and hemiplegia, in doses of four grains of 
the extract*, every three hours, for a few days to- 
gether. The same medicine has also been adminis- 
tered on the continent, with varying success, in 
mania, gout, epilepsy, hysteria, and dysentery,! In 
speaking of the vomic nut, I perceive Orfila, in his 
work on Poisons, has words to this effect (vol. ii. 
parti, p. 330.): '^ The upas tiente^ nux vomica^ and 
St. Ignace^s bean, are all powerful poisons on man 
and beast J*' and we know, that Hoffman mentions 
the case of a girl of ten years old, who was killed by 
taking fifteen grains for a quartan ague. As far as 
1 can judge from my own experience, its virtues, as 
a medicine, are rather equivocal ; though it may 
safely be said, that it often affords relief both in gout 
and acute rheumatism, but the dose should not be 
more than three grains, repeated thrice daily ; it 
inclines to sleep, producing a considerable degree of 

* In speaking of Vextrait alcoholique of this nut, Roques, in 
his Phy tographie Medicale, has these words : " i'extrait alcohoHque 
estpromptement delitere; suivant les experience de M. Bartelemi, 
six grains suffisent pour empoisonner un loup." Phytographie 
Medicale, vol. i. p, 281. 

f Mr. Martin, of Stutton, in Suffolk, tells me, that in doses of 
five grains, repeated every four or five hours, he has known it 
prove most efficacious in dysentery. 

VOL. I. Y 


As a remedy for the poisoning from the improper 
use of the nux vomica, Roques recommends emetics 
and purgatives, and a prompt administration of mu- 
cilaginous drinks (See Phytographie Medicale, vol. i, 
p. 2870- 


POMEGRANATE. Magilam palam LD^a\n- 
LDL-'L-PLD (Tam.) Andrj\j\ (Pers. Hind, and Duk.) 
Rdnci \ji\j (Arab.) also Roman (jjl^j (Avicenna). 
Ddrim (Hindooie). Dddima pundoo (Tel.) Dddima 
^\^^ (Sans.) Ddlemaj also Daime ^j\:^ (Mai.) 
Melagrana (It.) Gangsalan (Jav.) Grenade (Fr.) 
Granatass felschale (Ger.) Fomo Granato (It.) 
Roma (Port.) Delunghedie (Cyng.) Daleemb 
(Mah.) Voha (Mod. Gr.) Nar (Turkish). 

PuNicA Granatum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Pomacea^. Gemeine Granate (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The juice of the ripe fruit of the pomegranate, 
which is contained in the red succulent pulp which 
covers the numerous small seeds, is slightly acid, and 
extremely pleasant to the taste, not unlike that of 
an orange ; it is very refreshing, and well calculated 
to quench thirst in fevers. The Hindoo doctors 
prescribe it, combined with saffron, when the habit 
is preternaturally heated. The bark of the fruit, as 
well as the flow^ers, are useful astringents, and are 
commonly given by the natives in decoction, com- 
bined with powdered cloves, in such bowel affections 


as are not accompanied with tenesmus. The bark 
of the root the Mahometan physicians administer in 
diseases requiring astringents, and, moreover, con- 
sider it as a perfect specific in cases of tape worm* : 
it is then given in decoction, prepared with two 
ounces of fresh bark, boiled in a pint and a half of 
water till but three quarters of a pint remain ; of 
this, when cold, a wine-glassful may be drank every 
half hour, till the whole is taken. This quantity 
occasionally sickens the stomach a little, but seldom 
fails to destroy the worm, which is soon after passed. 
The pomegranate tree, which, by Dierbach'st ac- 
count, was the Poa Xi^ of Hippocrates, is a native 
of the South of Europe, of Arabia, of Japan J, 
Persia, and Barbary, but is now much cultivated in 
India and Ceylon. In the Indian Archipelago, Mr. 
Crawford tells us, it is only found in its cultivated 
state ; the same gentleman adds, that by far the best 
pomegranates II he ever saw, were those brought into 
Upper India by the caravans from Eastern Persia. 
The punica granatum often rises to the height of 
eighteen feet, or more, sending out branches the 
whole length ; the leaves are opposite, about three 
inches long, half an inch broad in the middle, pointed 
at each end, and of a light lucid green colour ; the 
flowers come out at the end of the branches, singly, 
or three or four together ; the fruit is pulpy, many- 
seeded, and is the size of an orange. Russel, in his 

* A practice most probably borrowed from a perusal of the 
writings of their favourite author, Avicenna : ** Radicis corticis 
ex vino lumbricos et ascaridas pellunt, sumantur autem vel per se, 
prout sunt, vel ipsorum decoctum." Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. 
tract ii. p. 272. 

f See Dierbach's Materia Medica of Hippocrates, chapter iv. 

% Where it is called sakaro (Flor. Japon. p. 199.). 

II Olivier, in his Travels in the Ottoman Empire, informs us 
(vol. ii. p. 9.), that those of Ghemlek are the finest in Turkey. 

Y 2 


History of Aleppo (vol. ii. p. 85.), observes, that 
there are three varieties of the punica granatum, 
differing in the degree of acidity of the fruit. The 
Arabians and Persians hold the pomegranate fruit in 
great estimation ; placing the juice amongst their 

Cardiacs Mokewyat-dil ^^ oLyU. The flowers of 
the male plantj^.UXjr gulnar^ they rank amongst their 

Styptics Manyatroqfwuisshaluddum }^V^\\^ c iisj cAju\^ , 

^iX!l ; the blossoms amongst their Modumilatkerough 
^^ji oiUJwc (Cicatrizantia) ; and the seeds, which 
they term (j^U^J! c^^ Hubulruman, amongst their 
Stomachics. See Madeni Shefd liLi (^Jsx^, or the 
Mine of Remedies, an Arabic work on medicine, 
by Aby Ben Husserij of Bokhara. 

The ancients valued the pomegranate fruit as a 
stomachic : Celsus especially speaks of it amongst 
those things, *^ stomacho aptissima'' (lib. ii. cap. 
xxiv.) ; and Pliny informs us, that its flower, called 
balaustiuniy ** medicinis idoneus, et tingentibus vesti- ' 
bus, quarum color inde nomen accepit'* (vide Hist. 
Nat. lib. xiii. cap. xix.) ; he describes five different 
sorts. Murray cautions us against the internal use 
of the bark of the fruit, in cases of haemorrhage, as 
unsafe : " non satis fidus tutusque'' (See Appar. 
Med. vol. iii. p. 264.). Sloan e, in his Nat. Hist, of 
Jamaica, tells us, that the leaves of the pomegranate 
tree, beaten with oil of roses, applied to the head, 
cures its aching (See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. 
p. 89.)- ^^ China the pomegranate is of a fine 
quality, and is there called sheh-lew. 



POMPHLET. Vewal meen a\-javjn-a\!)L£5^(5Dr 

(Tarn.) Sunddnapoo chdpoo (Tel.) Pdtdmedi 

(Cyng.) Hulva mahie ^it>U Sy"^ (Duk.) Aoly meen 


Stromateus Paru (La Cepede.) 

This excellent fish is common on the Coromandel 
coast, and is much prized, both by the Europeans and 
natives, for its delicacy, being at once light and nou- 
rishing ; and after the whiting, and perhaps the sole, 
may be considered as the safest of all fish for the sick. 
The pomphlet has the distinguishing characters of 
its genus ; it is greatly compressed and oval, usually 
about eight or ten inches long, and not much less 
in breadth. Five species of stromateus have hither- 
to been ascertained, the s. Jiatola has been longest 
known, and is remarkable for the brilliancy of its 
colours : it inhabits the Red Sea. The natives of 
India, generally speaking, are great fish-eaters ; their 
medical men recommend them to such as have weak 
digestions and flatulence, in preference to all other 
food. Aghastier, however, in his Vytia AnyouroOj 
a celebrated Tamool medical sastrum, forbids the 
use of fish taken for the first meal in the morning 
supposing it to be more proper after fatigue, or the 
usual bodily exertion during the day. 

y 3 



POPPY. Casa cam u^^m^rr (Tarn.) also 
Cassa cassa (Tel.) Post (Hindooie). Khushkhash 
^L^>i^ (Arab, and Duk.) Koolmar jx^^^<=^ (Pers.) 
Post * (Hind, also Sans.) Abin atta (Cyng.) Gay- 
sugussa (Can.) Capsules des pavots blancs (Fr.) Die 
hopse des weissen mohns (Ger.) MiqKa)^ (Grr.) Kes 
(Japan.) Ying-suh (Chin.) Pappavero (It.) 

Papaver Somniferum (Lin.} 

CI. and Ord. Polyandria Monogynia. Nat Ord. 
Rhoedaee (Lin.). Garten Mohn (Nom. Triv. 

The small, numerous, white seeds of the poppy 
are not considered as narcotic in Europe j but the 
Indians conceive them to be in a shght degree so ; 
and the Vytians^ under that notion, prescribe them in 
certain cases of diarrhoea : they also, occasionally, 
order a weak decoction of the dried capsule in 
those complaints which require sedatives. The 
Romans bruised the calixt of the poppy in wine, 
which they took to procure sleep ; and we have 
already noticed, that Pliny affirmed, that the seeds 
were an excellent remedy in elephantiasis. The 
same seeds, however, were sometimes used by the 
ancients as food, or rather, as a seasoner of food. 

'* Post is also a name given, in the higher provinces of India, 
to an intoxicating liquor, prepared by beating the husks, or cap- 
sules, of the poppy, with jaggary and water, 

f Vide Pliny's Histor, Nat. lib. xx. cap. xviii. 


Hippocrates * believed them to be nourishing. The 
native Indians not unfrequently put them into sweet 
cakes, which are much eaten, by the higher ranks 
of Hindoos, at some of their festivals. Three 
species of papaver grow in the botanical garden at 
Calcutta; of our present article, two varieties, 
single and red single (See article Opium). 

The oriental poppy (papaver orientale) is common 
in many parts of Arabia, and is called in that 
country mameesa Ux^U ; it is the papaver hirsutissi- 
mum flore magno of Tournefort. The papaver 
somniferum, is the reisjiin of the Japanese (Flor. 
Jap. p. 222.). 



Marra ooppoo i on-2> i 'i | (Tam.) Kshdra-lavana 
^T^^^fH" (Sans.) Hindee looiioo (Cyng.) Manie 
ooppoo (Tel.) Jhdr kd nemuck jC«J LT J^:^ (Duk.) 
Carbonate alkalinule de potasse (Fr.) Koloeiisaures 
kali (Ger.) 

Carbonas PotassuE Impura (Lond.) 

The more enlightened Vytians know how to pre- 
pare an alkaline salt from the ashes of burnt veget- 
ablest, which they usually distinguish by the name 
of the plant from which it is obtained ; such as 

* Dierbach, in his Materia Med. of Hippocrates, observes, 
that opium appears to have been little, if at all, used by Hippo- 
crates, which is the more strange, as it was known before his time, 
and great abuses afterwards committed by it* 

f The plants in Europe which contain most potash, are fumi- 
tory, wormwood, vetches, beans, and cow-thistle. See Sir 
Humphry Davy's Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, p, 113. 

Y 4 


"valley elley ooppoo (the salt of the plantain leaf.) 
The Vytians consider it as diuretic, and prescribe it 
accordingly : it is the potash, or pearl-ashes of com- 

The same description of men also know how to 
prepare from that salt, though in a clumsy way, a 
sort of subcarbonate of potass, which they consider 
as diuretic ; they are also in the habit of making 
with it a kind of travagum or strong liquor, by 
adding to it certain hot seeds : this they also con- 
sider as diuretic. 

The subcarbonate of potass has long been con- 
sidered by European practitioners as diuretic, deob- 
struent, and antacid ; and prescribed in doses of 
from gr. viii. to gr. xv. or more, in dropsies, gravel, 
and stone. The principal use of this salt, however, 
is for the formation of saline draughts, gi. of the 
salt, to ^iv. of the lemon-juice. The dose of the 
solution of potass* (Lond.) may be from ten drops 
to a drachm, in any convenient vehicle ; the dose of 
the aqua supercarbonatis potassse (Edin.), which is 
tonic, diuretic, antacid, and lithontriptic, is about 
gviii. taken thrice daily. 

In Travancore, the impure carbonate of potass 
is obtained by burning cocoa-nut leaves, and thence 
called tennam mutt ay chdriim. The people of that 
country, as well as the Cyngalese, who know not the 
use of impure carbonate of soda, overmunnoo (Tam.) 
for the purposes of bleaching and washing linen, 
employ the ashes of burnt vegetable, which serve 
the same end. 

* Dr. Willan, in his work on Cutaneous Diseases (p. 141.), says, 
he found the best effects from the internal use of this solution, in 
lepra ; it is given in chicken-broth, and Dr. Thomson observes, 
that it is most efficacious in the various species of psoriasis, which 
are consequent of acidity in the primae viae. 



POTATOE, COMMON. Wallarai kilangoo 
(?\_javav)Cr.^^rreg^L-prFo(g7 (Tarn.) Ooralay gudda 
(Tel.) Rata innala (Cyng.) Pomme de terre (Fr.) 
Pome de terra (It.) 

SoLANUM Tuberosum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Potatoes were first introduced into India from the 
Cape of Good Hope, and have, for many years past, 
been cultivated with great success in the Bengal 
provinces ; and, lately, of an excellent quality, in 
several situations in the Mysore country; particu- 
larly at Bangalore and Nundydroog. They are not 
so large as the potatoes of Europe and America ; 
but not inferior in mealiness and taste to any in the 
world : the round kind is chiefly cultivated.* For 
many years the Hindoos would not eat potatoes, 
but, latterly, they appear to have got over all their 
prejudices in this respect, and like them as much as 
they do the white yam, which they resemble greatly 
in taste.t There are several species of yam : the 
white dry yam is by far the best, and is the yamslm- 
lung of the Tamools; perinvullie kelunghu (Malealie) j 
rosakenda (Cyng.). The plant is the dioscorea alata 
(Lin.), and is indigenous in the Indian islands, 

* Of the genus solanum, no less than fourteen species grow in 

t Thunberg informs us, that potatoes grow at Nagasaki^ but of 
an inferior quality, and that they are reared with difficulty. Flora 
Japan, p. 92. 


where, however, though the yam often grows to a 
large size, it is not so dehcate a root as in India. 
In the Western parts of the Archipelago it is called 
ubi ; in Ternate ima ; in Macassar lami ; in Am- 
boyna heli ; and in Banda lutii. Our name yam is 
evidently taken from the Portugese word igname. 
It would seem that no less than fifteen species of 
dioscorea were growing in the botanical garden of 
Calcutta, in 1814. The species alata is the kamaaloo 
of the Bengalese. What is termed the purple yam, 
dioscorea purpurea (Roxb.), many people prefer to 
the white yamj it is seldom so dry, however, and 
has, I think, a somewhat perfumed taste ; it is called 
in Hindoostanie lal-guranya-aloo. Mr. Lunan*, of 
Jamaica, considers the purple yam as only a variety 
of the white yam ; the stem, leaves, and manner of 
growth being exactly the same. On Ceylon the 
species bulbifera is common ; it is the katu-katsjil of 
Rheede (Mai. vii. p. 69. t. 36.), and only differs from 
the d. alata in having stems even, in place of winged. 
Notwithstanding the great quantity of yams grown 
in India, such is the consumption, that they are 
brought to the Coromandel coast, for sale, from 
Acheen. For an account of the cultivation of yams 
in the Eastern islands, the reader may consult Rum- 
phius (Herb. Amb. tom. v. p. 347. )• What is called 
by the English in India sweet-potatoe, is a root about 
four or five inches long, and about two or more 
round ; of a sweetish pleasant taste ; in other re- 
spects resembling the potatoe, but seldom so dry ; it 
is much sought after both by the Europeans and 
natives, and is considered as extremely nourishing. 
It is sukkaray vuUie kdhmg(Tam.)'y ghendsa (Can. J; 

* See Hortus Jamaicensis, vol. ii. p. 309. 


pendaloo yi\^j (Duk.) ; sukkara velligudda (Tel.) ; 
shukkerkund iSjSj^i^ (Pers.) ; castilian ( Amboynese) ; 
batata (Malay) ; catela (Jav. and Bali.). It is the 
convolvulus batatas of botanists, and is now quite 
common in the Eastern Archipelago ; it would ap- 
pear to be a native of both the Indies, China, Cochin- 
China, and New Zealand. We are told by Mr. 
Crawford, in his Indian Archipelago (vol. i. p. 373.), 
that there is a tuberous root much cultivated by the 
Javanese, and called by them kantang^ which greatly 
resembles the common* potatoe, both in appearance 
and quality ; it is, he says, the root of the ocimum 
tuberosum (Roxb.). The Tamool doctors consider 
the sweet potatoe as proper food when the natural 
heat of the body is diminished, and for such as have 
an aversion to victuals. See Aghastier^s Vytia An-^ 
youroOy a Tamool medical sastrum. 


PRAWN. Eeral llSc^C5>o (Tam.) Jhenga LJtj:^^ 
(Duk.) Roielloo (Tel.) Issoo (Cyng.) Oodang 
(Mai.) Agni matsya 3]"tT5Ffjf^fjf (Sans.) Ingrha 

(Hind.) Gambero marino (It.) ^:^^ (Mai.) 

Cancer Serratus. 

* The process of making brandy from the common potatoe has, 
of late years, been much adopted in Germany, and the Northern 
parts of Europe. In Sweden it has been recommended to the 
government by Berzehus, and in Denmark, by Oersted. The 
method of the last is said to be the best : the potatoes are ex- 
posed to the action of steam, which heats them more than boihng 
water, and facilitates their reduction to paste ; to this paste, boil- 
ing water is added, previous to distillation, and also a little potash, 
rendered caustic by quick-lime. The Professor frees the potatoe 
brandy from its peculiar flavour by means of chlorate of potass, 
which makes it equal to the best wine-brandy. 


The prawns in India are excellent, especially on 
the Coromandel coast. As food, they are considered, 
by the Hindoos, as stimulating and aphrodisiac, and 
to possess virtues in diabetes, which they, and pei'- 
haps with some reason, suppose to be often produced 
by an insufficient quantity of animal food. Prawns 
make a delicious currie. 


QUINCE SEED. Behddnd Qi^^rr^s^ (Tam.) 
Beddnd i6\^j (Pers. and Arab.) Kt>8oi//a (Gr.) 
Huhalsujirjul ^^jxJ!^ 4-0* (Arab.) Bekeekey beej 
(Hindooie). Semen de coignassier (Fr.) Quitten- 
homer (Ger.) Melacotogna (It.) Abee (Hind.) 

Quincuna: (Fr.) 

Pyrus Cydonia (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Pentagynia. Nat. Ord. 
Pomaceae (Lin.) Quitten Birne (Nom Triv. Willd.) 

The little of this article which is found in Indian 
bazars, is chiefly in use amongst the Mahometan 
practitioners, who occasionally order an infusion or 
decoction of the seed, as a demulcent in gonorrhoea, 
and in cases of tenesmus. It is brought to India 
from the sea-ports of the Persian Gulph. 

The juice of the fruit when sour, ^ip* ^j\ ^5, 
the Persians and Arabians place amongst their Sto- 
machica A>i/.i> X)^^l ; so they also do the apples them- 
selves when fried JL'S ^A <^i ^^jS" (jjL*^ v^^^ C5^'* 

The seeds, which are inodorous, nearly insipid, 
ovate, angled, reddish brown, and coriaceous, are 
contained within the cells of the pear, which is of a 


yellowish colour ; when long chewed, they have a 
degree of bitterness ; and are directed, by the Lon- 
don College, to be made into a decoction, recom- 
mended in aphthous affections. 

Phny informs us (lib. xv. cap. xi.), that the quince 
used, in his days, was brought from Crete ; and 
hence, no doubt, as Dr. Thomson observes, its name 
jtxTjXea Ku^wuia taken from Cydon in that island. 
The pr/rus cydonia is growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta; its Hindoostanie name abee. 
The pyrus commimiSj and p. malus^ are now growing 
in Ceylon. The pyrus cydonia has been found wild 
on the shores of the Danube, and thrives well in 
England ; it is described, botanically, in the London 
Dispensatory, p. 460. Thunberg found it growing 
in Japan, where it is called umbats (Flor. Japon., 
p. 200.) 


RAISINS. Dividdtsipdldvuttil ^oTi^grri g^LJ 

i-L(Tus"S"a>o (Tam.) Velitcha moodika gheddie 
(Cyng.) Kishrnish ^~^^ (Hind, and Duk.) Af^- 
wuz yj^yQ (Pers.) Zebeeb osx^y (Arab, and Mai.) 
Raisin (Fr.) Uvapassa (It.) Kishrnish (Hindooie). 


CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Hederaceae (Lin.) 

Though grapes are common in many parts of 
India, yet, I am not aware that raisins are ever pre- 
pared from them. The small kind called kishrnish^ 
and which are common in the bazars, are brought 


from Persia, and arc made from the Sliiraz* grape. 
'I'lie natives of India employ tliem in tfieir cooling 
and opening electuaries. The Persians consider 
them as emollient and suppurative, given to the 
quantity of ten direms for a dose ; they have no 
seeds inside, and on that account are termed by them 
^u\iy.J^Jyt.j\ 'yjyc mewez ungoor heydanek. The raisins of 
Europe are well known to be made from the varieties 
named the black-raisin grape and white-raisin grape ; 
and are considered as more laxative tfian the fresh fruit. 
'^Jlie ripe fresh fruit is cooling and antisej)tic; 
and is much prized by the natives of India, who 
conceive it to be liighly useful in many diseases, es- 
pecially in pulmonic afiections. The juice of the 
grai)e, the Arabians call umaseen ^>^Iju<! ; in Ilijulooie 
\t\^ drakkkaypanee ; in Persian ^^It J! k^^ k^\ ahgkoW' 
ra ungoor. The vitis viniferat is called in Sanscrit 
^T'^T drdkska. Six species of the genus were growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta, in 1814. It would 
appear that but two species are as yet growing in 
Ceylon, the vitis viniiera, and vitis Indica ; the 
first known to the Cyngalese by the names of mud- 
drajy-palarriy wccl-midiy and oowas. See Moon's Cata- 
logue of Ceylon Plants, j). 18. 


RENNET. Punccrmayeh x*l>o^^ (Pers. Hind, and 
Duk.) Unjckhch ^i-*-*' (Arab.) Chuslak (IlindooieJ. 

♦ There are two sorts of Shiraz-wine, a red and white ; the 
greatest quantity, by Morier's aceount, comes from the district of 
Cor/jal, near the village of Bend Emir, See his Journey through 
Persia, p. 74'. 

f l'hunl)erg found grapes growing at Nagasaki, and the plant 
culled by the Japaneseyr;/o, also Oudo. Flor. Jap. p. 103. 


A knowledge of the preparation and use of 
rennet in Lower Hindoostan seems to be entirely 
confined to the higher classes of Mahometans ; and 
there is this peculiarity in it, that it is the stomach 
of the kid that is employed for makin<^ it, and not 
that of the calf, which is used in Lurope by the 
^rmer for making cheese, and by the pharmaco- 
polist for preparing whey. The Europeans in India, 
in making what they call cream-cheeses (and which 
are excellent), also employ the stomach of the kid, 
or a little lime-juice, which answers the same pur- 
pose. The Arabians suppose rennet to possess 
considerable medical properties, and to be of a 
deobstruent* and attenuant quality. They are in 
the habit of preparing it from the stomach of dif- 
ferent animals ; for instance, from that of the horse, 

which they call ^yui Si*^* ; the rennet of a hare, is 
Jiy^j2L ajU jxIj, ; the rennet of a male kid of a 
mountain-goat, is ^Xi^II iiiSl ; tiie rennet of a 
camel, is ^^' H^^i thatofacalf^isj^JJ Si*^; the 
rennet of the ewe, which the Arabians call unfekheh- 
zan i^La /k^K they place amongst their Cephalics. 
The rennet of the camel, which the Persians term 
jXi xA^jjSjpuneer mayeh shooter^ they place amongst 
their Aphrodisiacs, t 

* See the Materia, Medica of Nooreddeen Mduumned Abdullah 
Shirazjy article Un/ekeh. 

f We are told by I^ny, that in his days the rennet of a rabbit 
was a medicine in dysentery. The rennet of the calf the ItaKam 
call appiuola. 



kilium ©overoNSLULo (Tam.) Rail ^\j (Arab.) 
Dhoond Uyfc^ (Hind.) Googhilum (Tel.) Dammar 
(Mai.) Yakshadhupa 2[^U^" (Sans.) Dummula 

Chloroxylon Dupada (Buch.) 

CI. and Ord. Enneandria Monogynia. 

Of the substance usually termed dammar, and 
improperly, country rosin, in India there are three 
sorts to be met with in the bazars, called in Tamool 
vullay coonghiliumj carpoo coonghilium, and noray 
coonghiliumj or white, black, and coarse dammar. 
It much resembles the rosin obtained by distillation 
from the turpentine of the pinus sylvestris, both in 
appearance and natural qualities, and would seem to 
be a common product of many Asiatic countries. 
I perceive it is to be procured in great abundance 
in Sumatra, from a tree called by the Malays canari 
(dammara nigra legitima, Rumph.). In Java, Borneo*, 
Joanna, and several of the Soloo Islands, it is quite 
common, and a regular export to the continent of 
India. The coarse, or stony kind, the Malays call 
damar hatu^ and the Javanese damar selo ; the white, 
or fine sort, they term damar-putch. 

We are told by Colonel Kirkpatrick, that the resin 
of a species of pine was an export from Nepaul ; 
the tree yielding it he found growing in luxuriance, 

* See Leyden's Sketches of Borneo, 7th vol. Transactions o^ 
the Batavian Society. 


on the banks of the river Beckicoriy the tui'pentine of 
which was used by the natives in religious cere- 
monies : it is called by them, sulla *, also siirendhool, 
also doohhee. 

The Mahometans employ dammar as we do resin 
and Burgundy pitch, in the composition of plasters ; 
but its chief use appears to be as a pitch for the 
bottoms of vessels, for which purpose it finds a 
ready sale in the Bengal and China markets. 

Dr. Buchanan (now Hamilton), in his interesting 
<' Journey through Mysore, &c.'' informs us, that he 
found the tree which yields dammar, growing in the 
woods of Malabarf, and bestowed on it the scientific 
appellation of chloroxylon dupada ; though I know 
well, that the greater part of the dammar met with in 
India, is an import from more Eastern countries. 
How far the chloroxylon dupada differs from the 
dammara nigra legitima of Rumphius, I regret that 
I am not now prepared to state ; but the reader may 
refer to the work above mentioned, and compare what 
is there said of the chloroxylon dupada^ with what 
Rumphius says of the dammara nigra legitima (tom.ii, 
lib. iii. cap. ix.), also with what Willdenow says of the 
piniis dammara (Spec. Plant, vol.iv. p. 303.); this last is 
the dammara alba of Rumph. ( Amb. ii. p. 174. t. 57.)* 
TheTamool name of the chloroxylon dupada (Buch.), 
i^chadacida ; in Malealie pay ana. (See articles Rosin, 
and Dammar, in another part of this work. See also 
article Turpentine, in this part and chapter.) Son- 
nerat tells us, that pitch is common at Pegu. Fir- 
trees, by Turner's account, grow in Bootan. Dr. 

* Hence the tree is called the sula pine. See Kirkpatrick's 
Account of Nepaul, pp. 33. and 205. 

f Also in the mountainous tract which separates the Travancore 
country from the Madura district. 

VOL. I. Z 


Buchanan s ' A\*a a pine-tree, where, Symes in- 
forms us, it is called toeftyo ; and that the natives 
actually extract £ram it turpentine (See his Embasy 
to Ava, vol. ii. pp. 373, 574.) ; this, I should ima- 
gine, can be no other than the pfnu^ dammara (Willd.), 
w the dammara alba (Rumph.). 


RICE. Arisee 2,-r^ (Tarn.) Cha-dcl ^W (Hind- 
and Dak.) Aruz j^ (Arab.) Barinje ^J^ (Pers.) 
Beeum (Tel.) Chamd (Hindooie). Bras (AlaL) 
FHAi ^Tf^ (Sans.) Riz (Ft.) ^rro5 (Port.) Riis 
(Dan*) Motsf^ also Gome (Japan.) Tandool 
(Matu) Rise (It.) Ko (Jap.) Lua (Coch. Chin.) 

Oryza Sativa (Lin.) 

CL and Ord. Hexandria Monogj-nia. Nat. Ord 

This excellent grain is too well known to require 
a minute description here. It is cultivated in every 
Eastern and Asiatic country ; in the West Indies ; 
in many parts of America ; and also in some of the 
most Southern tracts of Europe. It is a light, 
whcdesome grain; but, I should be inclined to think, 
contains much less of the nutritive principle than 
wheat. Rice having become decayed, constituting 
what has been called the oose rice in Bengal *, Dr. 
TyUer supposed to be the chief cause of the spas- 
modic cholera ; an opinion successfiilly combated. 

The different sorts of rice cultivated in India, are 

* See Mr.W. Scot's admirable RqM>rt oo the Epidemic Choler?, 
as it appeared <m the territories bekmging to the Madras Estab- 
Ushmenf, p. 4-3. 


almost endless ; the author of the Hortus Bengalensis 
informs us, that on tlie Coromandel coast alone he 
found upwards of forty, well known to the farmers : 
of all these, simply speaking, what are termed the 
white and red are the best. The various kinds of 
rice have commonly been called varieties, but Dr. 
Buchanan, in his " Journey through Mysore,** &c. 
(vol. i. pp. 85, 86.), has given it as his opinion, that 
many of them are different species of the oryza, as 
distinct as the different kinds of barley that are cul- 
tivated in Europe. 

In Southern India, three modes of cultivating 
this grain are pursued: 1st. the seed is sown dry in 
the field ; this mode is called in Canarese hai^a hutta. 
•find. It is made to vegetate before it is sown, and the 
field when fitted to receive it, is reduced to a puddle ; 
this mode is called mola-hattu (Can.). The third 
mode is, when the seed is sown thick on a small 
piece of ground, and when the plant is a foot high, 
it is transplanted ; this is called nafi. Some account 
of the manures employed in cultivating rice will be 
given in another ])art of this work. The rice-plant 
would appear, by Mr. Crawfurd*s* account, to be in- 
digenous in the islands forming the Indian Archi- 
pelago ; that gentleman mentions with his usual 
accurac}^ the different descriptions of tliis grain 
reared in tliose countries ; tlie most singular of 
winch is the species termed by the Malays pulut^ 
and by the Javanese kattan^ and which appears to be 
the oryza glutinosa of Rumphius : it is never used 
as bread, but commonly prepared as a sweet-meat. 

What is called hill-ricc in Lower India, is that 
which is raised in upland, arable lands ; in short, 

* See Crawfurds Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 358. 

z '2 


such lands, as from their locality cannot be subjected 
to the process of flooding. These, in Malabar, are 
manured* with ashes and cow-dung, like other dry 
grain fields ; the hill-rice itself is called in Malealie 
moduny and is a smaller and less valuable article than 
the common rice. The hill-rice does not appear to 
be known in Bengal : it is much cultivated in the 
Eastern islands. Rice, in the husk, is termed in 
Tamul, also in Malay, paddie, in Dukhanie ddhn 
, . V^^, in Persian shalie JLi. In Tellingoo the plant 
is oorif the grain in the husk oodloOy and the rice 
itself beeum. 

The chief distinction, with regard to appearance 
and taste, betwixt the Bengal and coast rice, would 
seem to be, that the former is whiter, boils dryer, 
and is more delicate in flavour ; it is commonly, on 
those accounts, preferred by the people of rank, to 
eat with curry : and the Patna is deemed the best. 
But the native Indians of both coasts do not like 
the rice of the higher provinces ; they call it dry and 
insipid, and say it is apt to bring on constipation. 

In a medicinal point of view, rice may be said to 
be of a less aperient quality than any other grain, 
and is therefore invariably ordered as the safest and 
best food in all dysenteric complaints 5 for which 
purpose, in the form of gruel, it is excellent. The 
Vytians are very particular as to the kind of rice 
they prescribe, supposing the rices of different 
crops to have very different effects. The two great 
crops of rice in Southern India, I mean for flooded 
rice, are the caar and soombah crops ; the last of 
which is also called the peshdnum crop : it is reapt in 

* The rice reared on marshy land, or rather, that rice which 
requires being flooded, is usually manured with leaves and branches 
of various trees. 


the months of February and March. The produce 
of this crop, Aghastier informs us, in his Vytia 
AnyouroOy is peculiarly strengthening to the body ; 
he adds, that '^ the very sight of it induces appetite , 
in fact it is worthy of being served up to the gods J* 
The produce, on the other hand, of the caar crop, 
which is reapt in October, he considers as of a dif- 
ferent quality; this he says, ^^will bring on indiges- 
tion ^Jlatulency^ eruptions on the skin, and other evils/* 
he finishes by saying, that ^^ a person had better beg 
his bread, than eat the rice of the caar crop.** The 
I fact is that this rice usually is of an inferior sort, but 
certainly not at all unwholesome. 

In the Pddurtdsinddumanie, a Tamool sastrum, 

I exclusively written on diet and regimen, I perceive 

I some strong cautions against using rice that had 

i been boiled over night, and allowed to remain in 

cold water for hours before it was eaten. This, it is 

said, will ^' bring on hypochondriasis, and however 

pleasant it may be to the taste, is often productive of 

bad consequences to the body, inducing drowsiness and 

stupor.** It would appear by Pliny, that in his day, 

rice was much used in Italy j ^^ Italica maxime quidam 

oryza gaudent, ex qua ptisanam conficiunt, quam 

reliqui mortales ex hordio'' (Nat. Hist. lib. xviii. 

cap. vii.). Celsus says of rice, "oryza imbecillis- 

simis adnumerari potest, crassiorem pituitam fecit, 

stomachico idonea est, sorbitionem praestat in phthisi. 

; See book ii. cap. xviii., also book ii. cap. xxiii., 

book iii. cap. xxii. 

In Moon's Catalogue of Ceylon Plants, we find 

^ no less than one hundred and sixty-one varieties of 

■ the oryza sativa enumerated, as growing in Ceylon ; 

the common Cyngalese name for this annual is 

1 OorU'Wee. 




RHUBARB. Variatoo kdlung cru^Lun-g-g^ 
^^L-pn=u© (Tarn.) Rewund chini ^i^,^ ^y^j (Duk.) 
Rawend <>j^|^ (Arab.) Reywand ^y^y^j^ CPers.) RuU 
harbo (Port.) Rhuharher (Dut.) Rhubarb (Fr.) 
Ta hoam (Coch. Chin.) Ta-hwang (Chin.) Rey- 

ifoun-chinie (Hindooie), Reubarbaro (It.) 

Rheum Palmatum (Lin.) 
Rheum Undulatum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Enneandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 
Holoraceae (Lin.) 

It is well kown that three varieties of rhubarb are 
to be met with in the shops, the Russian, Turkey, 
and the Indian, or Chinese ; the last I conceive to 
be the rheum palmatum, and is what is commonly 
found in Indian bazars. It is brought from China, 
where it grows in the province of Shdnsee. * It is 
also a native of Tartary, Thibet t, and Bootan ; and 
would appear to be the produce of the hardiest of 
all the species of this valuable plant. It may be 
known from other rhubarbs by its strong odour, and 
somewhat nauseous taste ; it breaks smoother, and 
affords a powder of a redder shade. There is some- 
times to be procured on the Malabar coast, an in- 
ferior sort of rhubarb, called by the Mahometans 
rewund esbij and rewund khuttdi ; which is, perhaps, 

* Loureiro says : ** In provinciis Borealibus imperii Chinensis 
habitat, intra, et extra murum celebrem'' (Flora Cochin-Chin, 
vol. i. p. 255.). 

f See Tavernier's Indian Travels, part ii. book ii. chap. xv. 


that kind mentioned by D'Herbelot, as the produce 
of Khorasan ; it is coarse and very nauseous. 

Rhubarb is not always to be purchased in the 
interior parts of the Indian Peninsula, and rarely of 
a good quality ; which is strange considering the 
value of the drug, and that it could be brought wdth 
so little trouble from China. The Hakeems (Ma- 
hometan doctors) are better acquainted with it than 
the Hindoo practitioners ; which is no doubt owing 
to the knowledge the former have of Arabic and 
Persian books, in which they find its good qualities 
properly appreciated. It is one of those articles 
first introduced into practice by the Arabians * ; and 
it is a fact, that no mention is made of it by either 
Pliny or Celsus.t 

Dr. Thomson has very properly said, that rhubarb 
is stomachic, astringent, or purgative, according to 
the dose ; hence its use in dyspepsia, hypochon- 
driasis, and diarrhoeas. In the first mentioned com- 
plaint, it is well to combine it with ginger, soda, or 
bitters, according to circumstances. 9i. or 5ss. of 
the powder will open the bowels freely ; in smaller 
doses from gr. vi. to gr. x. it is usually given as a 
stomachic ; and is also of the greatest service in 
those bowel affections of children which are so 
troublesome during dentition : in these cases gr. vi. 
of rhubarb, with four of magnesia, given night and 
morning, for two, three, or four days together, often 
prevent serious ailments, and avert much irrita- 
tion in the bowels, till such time as the tooth 

* See Histoire de la Medicine, par Le Clerc, p. 771. 

f In the days of Avicenna its virtues, however, were fully ap- 
preciated: " Dolores internos lenit, singultum sedat, extenuat 
lienum ; diarrhceae, torminibus, dysenteriae, renum, vesicae, uteri 
doloribus auxiliatur, diuturnis febribus opitulatur." Canon, lib. ii. 
tract ii. 

z 4 


comes through the gum : the dose of the tincture of 
rhubarb is from 31]. to ^i. 

We are told by Mr. Barton *, that the root of the 
convolvulus panduratus, is in its operation somewhat 
like that of rhubarb ; its dose must be a little larger 
than that of jalap : it is mildly cathartic. 

The following are the component parts of the 
finest kind of Turkey rhubarb : 

Water .... 


Gum - . - _ 


Resin - _ . _ 


Extract, tan, and gallic acid 


Phosphate of lime 


Malate of lime 


Woody fibre - - , 



See Quarterly Journal of Science and the Arts, 
X. 291. 

The species compactum and palmatum are growing 
in the botanical garden of Calcutta. 1 shall con- 
clude what I have to say of rhubarb by observing, 
that I have found it only essentially useful in dysentery 
in India, when combined with ipecacuanha, gr. viii. 
of the first, and gr. vi. of the last, made into pills, 
and taken in the twenty-four hours ; the ipecacuanha 
appears to act, by exciting a kind of antiperistaltic 
action, and by exciting diaphoresis. 

* See Barton's Materia Medica of the United States (vol. i. 
p. 252.). 



ROSE. Goolabu-poo (^(y\Dn'[_^LjLj) (Tarn.) 

Gooldbka phool ^y^A.^=> v^-^ (Duk.) Wurd ^^ 

(^Arab.) Gul J.jE=> (Pers.) Hoa-houng-tau (Coch. 

Chin.) Mei'kwe-hwa (Chin.) Mdwdr J\^Lc (Mai.) 

Gool'db (Hind, and Beng.) Rose a cent feuilles (Fr.) 

Blassen rose (Ger.) Rosa (It.) 

Rosa Centifolia (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Icosandria Polygynia. Nat. Ord. 
Senticosae (Lin.) 

With a little care, roses of a delightful fragrance 
grow in the lower provinces of India ; though not 
in sufficient quantity to make the distillation of rose 
water an object. It is, however, I am informed, 
made in the higher provinces of Hindoostan, but 
most of what is used in India comes from Persia ; 
it is the Mdiilwurd :^jy\ULQ of the Arabians, who 
place it amongst their Cephalics. There are several 
different kinds of roses to be met with in India, but 
the rosa centifolia is the most prized ; and is, I be- 
lieve, the true gid ^E=> of Hafiz, who, with Sddy 
and Jdmy have celebrated it in many of their poems : 
the first, in speaking of it, says. 

Thus paraphrased by Mr. Nott : — 


When the young rose, in crimson gay, 
Expands her beauties to the day, 

And foliage fresh her leafless boughs o'erspread; 
In homage to her sovereign power, 
Bright regent of each subject flower, 

Low at her feet the violet bends her head. 

But no Eastern poet, I shall be bold to say, has 
been half so eloquent on the subject of the rose, as 
the Rev. Mr. E. Smedley*, who, in his *' Fables of 
my Garden,'' has given us some stanzas on that 
lovely flower, which are even more beautiful than 
the flower itself. I quote the two last, — 

In spring I watch its opening hue, 

Fair promise of a leaf to be ; 
And long before they burst to view, 

Its swelling folds have charms for me. 
I count each bud with silent hope, 

Which summer ripens into flower ; 
And when the glowing petals ope, 

I treasure them within ray bower. 

Scarce can the enamour'd nightingale, 

More closely woo it for his bride ; 
The bird which in the eastern tale, 

Sits warbling music by its side. 
I love it in its earliest blade, 

I love it in its richest bloom ; 
And when its living blushes fade, 

I court its memory in perfume ! ! 

The rosa centifolia, which is, according to Dier- 
bacht, the PoSoi; of Hippocrates, and is the }.^d y^9 
of the Persians, is that chiefly employed in making 
both rose water and uttir. Those of the province 
of Kerman are of a peculiar freshness. Kaempher 

* Author of Prescience. 

t See Dierbach's Materia Medica of Hippocrates, chapter iv. 


in his Amcenitates Ea:otica (p. 374.), speaks highly of 
those of Shiraz, where, it would appear, that a 
great quantity of the essential oil, or .kc is prepared ; 
nor are the roses and uttir of Cashmire held in less 
estimation in the East, as is particularly noticed 
hy the excellent Monsieur Langles in his " R^- 
cherches^ sur la Decouverte de V Essence de Rose^^ 
(p. 13.) The same writer informs us, that the uttir 
drawn from the roses of Syria and the provinces of 
Barbary is of an inferior quality to the Persian. 
The method of making the perfume so called, he 
moreover says, was first discovered in 1020 of the 
Hejira, by the mother of Nour-djihan Beygum. 
Captain M. Kinneir in his Geographical Memoir of 
Persia observes, that in the vicinity of Bussora 
whole fields of roses are cultivated (p. 291.)? ^^^ the 
purpose of making rose water. 

In India the petals of the rosa centifolia are con- 
sidered as a good laxative for infants, given in the 
form of a syrup. Rose water is much employed as 
a perfume, also for softening the flavour of tobacco 
in smoking, and in preparing collyria. I have seldom 
met with the rosa gallica * in India, but it is more 
common in the higher provinces, and in Persia, 
where it is called gul surkh ^,^ ^^. The petals of 
this species make the best rose confection in Europe j 
they are also used in making the infusion and honey. 
For the syrup, the rosa centifolia is preferred : this 
rose in Sanscrit is tarani. 

The following are the species of roses, natives of 
India, Bootan, and Nepaul, which were growing in 
the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814. : 1. rosa 

* It is common at Japan, in the neighbourhood of Deziraa (Flor. 
Japon., p. 214.). Forskahl in his Mat. Med. Kahirina tells us, that 
it is the BavisX of the modern Greeks. 


Indica ♦ (Roxb.) ; 2. rosa glandiilifera (Roxb.), the 
Beiiiralie name of which is S/iercufi ; and, 3. the rosa 
involucrata (Roxb.), a native of Bootan. But three 
species appear to grow in Ceylon, the rosa Indica 
(kappe-sewuwandi-mal), rosa semperflorens, and rosa 

The powder of the red rose petals m doses of 51. 
is purgative. That of the root of the rosa canina t, 
has been recommended in hydrophobia. The leaves 
of tlie species eglantaria, are a good substitute for 
tea. The uttir of the Levant and Tunis is prepared 
from the rosa semper\'irens. The petals of the rosa 
damascena are tlie most purgative. The rosa 
moUissima is cultivated on account of its large 
edible fruit.i In speaking of the rose, Celsus says, 
"simul reprimit, refrigerat et discutit" (lib. ii. 
cap. xxxiii., lib. v. cap. xi.). 

The Persians and Arabians place rose seeds 
amongst their Mufiittetat cIJUjU (Lithontriptica) ; 
red roses ^^ ^t gul sw^lh^ they class amongst their 
carminatives, cephahcs, and tonics. The reader is 
referred to a Persian work, entitled o^'^'^ ^Aj J^p^^ 
i-JJl IJxhtiari Budia va Aghrdzy-al Tibby for many 
particulars regarding the virtues of roses, also to 
AA-icenna. See Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 114. 

* A native of Cochln-China, where it is called hoa-hounz-counz' 
gdi* Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 323. 

f This is the julnisrin ^j^i\^ of the Arabians, also the 

nesrin ; in Hindoostanie it is sovstee^ or xvurd chinie ; it is the 

Jbosen of the Japanese, and grows in Dezima (F!or. Japon. p. 214.) 

J See Mr. Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia. 



ROSEMARY. Ta7/-rJi;on;f^cJ?oi (Cochin-Chin.) 
Bxmarin (Fr.) Gemeiner r irin (Ger.) Romuu 
rino (It) ^^1 QjLjJUs2* Hd^^alban achsir (Arab.) 
Asv^^o/.i iavo fMod. Gr.) 

CI. and Ord. Diandria M . ^ _ .. ,. Nat- OrcL 
Labiatse (Juss.) 

Having learnt from Loureiro's Flora Cochin- 

Chinensis, that this plant grows in China and 
Cochin-China, I have thought proper to i' it a 
place here. It has long been highly prized in 
Europe, and the Greeks are supposed to have 
known it under the name of AiSaiwri^, according to 
Disoscorides ; though there may still be doubts if 
that was the same plant, Pliny simply observes, 
speaking of hbanotis : '^ the plant is considered 
when it is one year old, as an excellent stomachic 
(vide XaL Hist. lib. xix. cap. xiL) It grows now in 
Spain, Italy, Greece, and the Northern tracts of 
Africa ; also, by Loiseleur Deslongchamps* account, 
on the lower hills of Languedoc and Provence; "it 
is an erect evergreen, seldom rising higher than 
five feet, with opposite leaves, which are nearly 
sessile, about two inches long, and a quarter of an 
inch broad, dark green above, and grcrvi-h under- 
neath ; the flowers are placed on axillar)\ leafy 
branches, having a corolla, which is ringent, of a 
pale blue colour, with sometimes white and purple 
spots and dots.'^ There is a wild sort of rosemarj; 
with much larger flowers, and of a deeper colour. 


Both the leaves and flowers have a very grateful 
and aromatic odour, with a pungent and slightly 
bitter taste, depending on an essential oil. Dr. 
Thomson says, combined with camphor ; this corres- 
ponds with KunckePs * opinion : and we know tliat 
Proust found 10 parts out of 100 to be camphor in 
this plant. 

Rosemary has liad particular virtues ascribed to it, 
as a stimulant and cephaUc ; and I believe its good 
effects in nervous headache, and hysteric affections 
wdll not be doubted, given in powder or infusion, 
the first is the best mode, in doses from gr. x. to 9i. : 
there is also an oil and spirit prepared with it. Widi 
regard to its uses in China, Loureiro merely says, 
^^ ceplialica^ toiiicuy 7iervina.^^ The plant is an in- 
gredient in the famous " Eau de la reine (VHongrie^^ 
which was prepared by the queen lierself, and by 
wliich she is said to have cured the gout. 

Rosemary as a medicine, however, has not of late 
years been much employed in England. The medical 
writers on the continent think more highly of it. Ali- 
bertt says, it is beneficial in the glandular enlargements 
of children, " et tres avantageuse daiis la chlorose.^^ 
The Italians make use of the plant, to give a pleasant 
aroma to rice ; and the German surgeons prescribe 
it as an external application (in infusion), to improve 
the growth of the hair, and give it a glossy and healthy 
appearance ; a use I find lately adopted in England 
with success. To conclude, rosemary grows in 
abundance in Egypt, near Cairo, w^here itj^^^l UJUai* 
is greatly esteemed as a cephalic. 

* See Virey's Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 175. 
t See Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. ii. p. 128. 
French edition. 



RUE, COMMON. Arooda -nrvy^ (Tam.^ 
kJ\Sm4 (Arab. Pers. and Duk.) Arooda (Cyng.) 
Sudddb (Mall.) Satiiree (Hindooie). Sddsd U:sU 
(Mai.) Suddapoo akoo (Tel.) Brdhmi ^T?TT also 
Somalatd ^Sf^rTT (Sans.) Inghoo (Jav.) also 
Sendib ^^dJ.^ (Arab.) Rue sawvage (Fr.) Raute 
(Ger.) Ruta (Russ.) Ruta de derpesado (Span.) 
Mats-kase-so (Japan.) Ruta (It.) 

Ruta Graveolens (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Multisilique (Lin.) 

The glaucous, pulpy, dotted, doubly pinnate leaves 
of the ruta graveolens, are well known to have a 
peculiar strong odour, and a bitter and nauseous 
taste ; possessing considerable acrimony in their fresh 
state, but which is a good deal dissipated on drying. 

The leaves dried and burnt are used by the natives 
of India for the purpose of fumigating young 
children, suffering from catarrh ; they are also used 
fresh bruised, and mixed with arrack, as an external 
remedy in the first stages of paralytic affections. 

The same leaves, dried in the shade, and powdered, 
the Hindoo doctors prescribe, in conjunction with 
aromatics, in cases of dyspepsia ; and suppose them, 
when given together with camphor, and the sugar of 
the palmyra toddy, to be inimical to the foetus in 
utero, an opinion which was also entertained by 


The modern Greeks call the plant by the name of 
IlrjyoLuoi/ ^ua-ay^sgy and consider it as a valuable me- 
dicine in epilepsy. * The Arabians t class rue 
amongst their Attenuentia c^liLXx:, and Vesicatoria 
cA^JL<y also amongst their Stimulantia oljA^. 

Rue was held in high estimation by the ancients, 
and was a principal ingredient of the celebrated 
antidote of Mithridates king of Pontus. Pliny notices 
it in several parts of his Natural History, and calls 
it one of the best medicinal herbs ; but informs us, 
at the same time, that the juice of it taken in con- 
siderable quantity is a poison, especially that of those 
plants which grow near the river Aliacmon, and in 
Galatia. Boerhaave extoUs highly the virtues of 
rue, particularly in promoting perspiration. In the 
Schola Salerni we have the following lines : 

" Ruta facit castum ; dat lumen, et ingerit astum, 
" Cocta facit ruta, de pulicibus loca tuta." 

Amongst many other good qualities, Celsus no- 
tices of rue, " urinam movet, sensus excitat, purgat, 
mollit ; cum allio, recte miscetur ad scorpionis ic- 
tum" (See books ii. v.) Hippocrates considered rue 
as resolvent and diuretic, and notices it in his chap- 
ter on female diseases. European practitioners be- 
lieve rue, which old English writers called herb grace^ 
to be antispasmodic, stimulant, and emmenagogue, 
and order it occasionally in hysteria and flatulent 
colic : a strong infusion of it exhibited per anum, 
relieves the convulsions of infants, arising from 

* See MicheFs Delia Corciresse Flora, p. 52. 

f Avicenna, who notices three species, imagined that rue had 
pow€?rs as an antidote against poisons : ** Venenis resistet ; itaque 
qui timet et suspicatur venenem sibi exhibendum, aut mordendum 
se a venenatis, seminis drahman cum foliis ex vino bibat." Vide 
Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 222. 


flatulence. On the continent it is a medicine of 
more note than with us. Ahbert'**' says of it, 
^'Cette plante a un grande action sur le systeme 
nerveux, et particuHerement sur le systeme uterin. 
Beaucoup de femmes en prennent dans les men- 
strues laborieuses.t*^ The dose of the powdered 
leaves, from grs. x. to 9iss. or more, twice or 
thrice daily, t The plant is an ever-green, pe- 
rennial, a native § of the Southern tracts of Eu- 
rope, and also of Africa, where it was found by 
SweerthiSy and called ruta Africana maxima (Sweert. 
Hort. 24. ). What of it is met with in India is 
brought from the Arabian coast, where it is sold 
under the names of suddab ^\d>^ and sendih c^j^a^. 
Thunberg found it in Japan growing near Jedo^ and 
called by the Japanese Mats-kase-so (Flor. Japon. 
p. 180.). 

I conclude this article by the following most 
singular quotation from a celebrated German author, 
as cited by Murray (Appar. Med. vol. iii. p. 116.). 
"In debilitate visus saepe prodest halitus hominis 
sani et integri oris, qui rutam masticavit, oculo al- 
terius aperto adspirandus, in ea praesertim oculorum 
caligine, que ex lectione assidua originem traxit'^ ! ! ! 

* See his Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. ii. p. 550. 

t Roques, however, recommends great caution in the use of rue, 
particularly when there is any considerable degree of irritation or 
plethora (See Phytographie Medicale, vol. ii. p. 235.). 

\ The officinal preparations of it are, an oil, and extract ; of 
the latter, Alibert says, that prepared with water is more abundant 
than with alcohol, but the last more active and acrid. 

§ It is growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta, introduced 
from Europe and Asia in 1800. It is also growing now on Ceylon. 
A species of wild rue is a medicine amongst the Moguls, and is 

called in Arabic ^^!1 alsuriy and in Persian aIaa^w? ashund. 

VOL. I. A A 



SAFFRON. Khoongoomapoo ©/7v(^ldl-.'ljj )| 

(Tarn.) Zafran (^Mj (Arab, and Duk.) Keysur 

(Hindooie). Khoonkoomapoohoo (Tel.) Abeer^ju^v 

(Pers.) Sqfaron (^^^J^xm* (Mai.) Khohoon (Cyng.) ) 

Acqfrao (Port.) Sqfran (Fr.) Zafferano (It.) Sa- 

fran (Ger.) Kasmirajanma ^T^WT-^^P^T (Sans.) ; 

also Kunlmma ^R^rf (Sans.) Kgoxo^ (Gr.) 

Crocus Sativus (Lin.) ) 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The saffron of the shops is prepared from the 
stigmas, with a proportion of the style, of the 
flowers of the crocus sativus, a plant which thrives ^ 
well in England, and is a native of the Southern i 
parts of Europe and of Asia. When of good qua- 
lity, it has a sweetish, penetrating, diffusive odour, , 
its taste is a little bitter, united with a certain degree 
of warmth and pungency, its colour a deep red. 

The Hindoo doctors prescribe saffron in nervous 
affections, unattended with vertigo, and where there 
is no disposition to apoplexy ; they also believe it to ^ 
have considerable virtue in melancholia, hysteric de- 
pressions, and kistnah doshum (typhus fever). Tq i^ 
w^omen soon after the pains of childbirth, an infusion ij 
of saffron is frequently administered by the Tamool I 
midwives, to prevent fever, to support the spirits, , 
and gently to assist in carrying off the lochia. This s 
medicine is besides used by the Indian practitioners. 


as an external application in ophthalmia, when mixed 
with a small portion of pounded kadukai (Chebulic 
myrobolan), and lime-juice, and applied round the 
eye and close to it. 

The saffron procured from Asiatic countries is of 
an inferior quality to what we see in Europe ; being 
often dry and deficient in odour. It is brought to 
India from the sea-ports of the Red Sea*, from Persia t, 
and in considerable quantity from Cashmere : hence 
its Sanscrit name. The Arabians t place saffron 
amongst their Mosebetdt cAXx*h^ (}ly^no\xcdi)j Mo- 
kewyat'dil J:^ <^L>y^ (Cardiaca), and Mitfettehat 
ic»Ltf^^ (Deobstruentia). The reader will find its 
virtues fully discussed in a Persian work, entitled 
^yew-o ^j:i*x^'/5 Krabidinie Massumi/y a Treatise on 
Medicine, by Massum Ben Ibrahim Shirazy, A.D. 


Few things are more subject to adulteration § than 
saffron, a fact which, I find, was noticed by Pliny, in 
whose days it would appear that the best grew in 
Cilicia, on a mountain named Carcyrus. The Greeks 
called the plant l^qoxog j its English name is evidently 

* A great quantity of saffron grows in Egypt ; the best in the 
vicinity of Cairo ^ about 1,800,000 pounds used formerly to be 
annually prepared in that country. See Niebhur's Travels in 
Arabia, vol.i. p. 96. 

; f Captain M. Kinneir, in his valuable Geographical Memoir of 
Persia, informs us, that saffron is a staple export from Herat, a 
town in the province of Khorasan. See his work, p. 182. 

:j: Avicenna says of saffron, ** roborat cor et exhilarat ; sed 
cephalalglam inducit, capitique officit ; venerem stimulat, urinam 
(novet." Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 123. 

§ It is often adulterated, Roques informs us, with the flowers of 
the carthamus tinctorius; the same intelligent writer says of 
jaffron, that when taken in moderation, either In food or as medi- 
cine, it gives tone to the stomach, strengthens the circulation, and 
^'avQurs the functions of the skin ; but if taken in an overdose, it 
lets as a narcotic poison, and injures the brain and nerves. See 
Phytographle Medlcale, vol.i. p. 132. 

A A 2 



borrowed from the Arabic. To enumerate all the 
good quahties, which have been at different times 
ascribed to saffron, would occupy too much room 
here ; it has been supposed to promote the eruption 
of the small pox, keep off sea-sickness, relieve palpit- 
ation at the heart, induce sleep, &c. Galen*, how- 
ever, thought less favourably of it, and believed that 
when too liberally taken, it might destroy the in- 
tellect. Celsust is the only author I am aware of who 
considered it as having a purgative quality. 

European practioners have considered saffron as 
stimulant and antispasmodic ; but from the experi- 
ments of Dr. Alexander, its powers do not appear 
to be considerable. Boerhaave had some singular 
notions respecting saffron, and supposed it to have 
the effect of dissolving the blood when taken to ex- 
cess ; but if properly administered, he conceived it 
to be a valuable aromatic, pectoral, anodyne, hyp- 
notic and alexiteric ; adding, that when applied to 
the forehead it sometimes removed phrenzy. Pro- 
fessor Ungarelli^ expresses his firm belief in its de- 
bilitating quality ; and Murray thinks that taken in i, 
an overdose, it powerfully excites the uterus. Dr. 
Thornton informs us, that he has often known the i 
fits of infants removed by the syrup of saffron. Or- 
fila § in his work on poisons, tells us, that a strong 
infusion of saffron kills dogs in four or five days ;& 
they do not appear to suffer, but gradually sinki 
without pain. The syrup is given in doses of froniH 
Sij. to 3iij. in cinnamon-water : Dr. Alston used to 
prescribe 9i. of the substance, ^ss. of the tincture, 

* De Simplic. Medicament. Facult. lib. v. cap. xix. 
f Vide Cels. lib. v, cap. v. 

% See Alibert's Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol.i. 
p. 552. 

§ See Traits des Poisons, vol.ii. part i. p. 197. 


and gr. xii. of the extract. There is but one' other' 
species of crocus besides our article, the c. vernuSj a 
native of the Alps, but which was growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814.* The crocus 
sativus ^^ is a bulbous perennial plant ; the flower, 
which appears before the leaves, is sessile on the 
bulb, of a violet or lilac colour, and raised on a long, 
slender, white tube ; the leaves are linear, a little 
revolute, of a deep rich green colour, with a white 
nerve in the centre. '' 

To the extract of saffron has been given the scien- 
tific appellation of polychroite ; it is of a deep yellow 
colour, deliquescent, readily soluble in water and in 
alcohol, but insoluble in pure sulphuric ethen 


SAGAPENUM. Sugbenuj ^l^t^ (Arab, and 
Duk.) Kundel (Sans.) Kundel (Hindooie). Saga- 
penum (Fr.) Sagapengummi (Ger.) Sagapeno (It.) 


I have never met with this acrid, bitter, and allia- 
ceous-smelling gum resin in any of the bazars of 
Lower India ; though I find that it has both a Sans-r 
crit and Hindooie name, and also a place in the 
UlfazUdwiyeh. Dioscorides tells us (Kb. iii. cap. 95.) 
that it is the juice of a ferula, growing in Media ; 
Dale and Miller say, it is brought to England from 
Alexandria ; Geoftroy would lead us to believe, that 
it is a product of Persia (ii. cap. 44.). The fact iSj 

* Introduced by Mr. M^Mahon, in 1810. 

aa 3 


that the plant which actually yields this substance 
has not been hitherto ascertained, but Willdenow 
supposes it to be the ferula Persica. 

Sagapenum has been considered, by the Arabians*, 
as lithontriptic and attenuant, and placed accordingly 
amongst their c^UxiU and v:^LilaJL<», Micfuttetat and Mu- - 
littifat (Attenuantia and Lithontriptica). European i 
practitioners consider this gum resin as antispasmodic 
and emmenagogue, and, externally, discutient; and I 
order it in cases in which assafoetida has been found I 
useful ; it is usually given in substance, in doses of ' 
from gr. viii. to jij. Vireyt, in his " Histoire Na- 
turelle des Medicamens,'' expresses an idea, that 
sagapenum may be the produce of a species of \ 
laserpitium ; and at the same time informs us, that, 
according to Pelletier, it consists of " resin 54*, 
gomme 31*, huile volatile 12% malate acide, de chaux, 
debris vegetaux, &c.*' For the notions of the Per- 
sians respecting this gum resin, the reader may 
consult a work, entitled Tukiiim al Advia "SS ^^^xj 
*j^^, or the Apothecaries' Vade Mecum. 

Sagapenum would appear, by Murray's account, 
to be now little used in Germany, except in pre- 
paring certain plasters for hastening suppuration 
(Appar. Med, vol. vi, p. 234.). 

* Of all the Arabian writers, Avicenna appears to speak in 
highest terms of sagapenum : " Paralyticis auxiliatur, valet ad < 
musculorum tendonumque contractionem ; cephalalgiam a frigida 
causa et flatibus excitatam discutit." Canon. Med. lib.ii. tract, ii. 

f See his work, p. 225. 



SAGE. Sayselley Ge^^s/mD (Tarn.) Simie car- 
poorum elley (Tarn.) Saoohal (Cyng.) Velaitie 
capoor ha paat cXj\S jy\S ^^^^ (Duk.) Shingjin 
(Chin.) Sauge (Fr.) Salbei (Ger.) Salvia (Span.) 
Salvia (It.) Salva (Port.) Salbiah aaaJU (Pers.) 
Sefakuss uaaSUU* (Arab.) 

Salvia Bengalensis (Rottler). 

CI. and Ord. Diandria Monogynia* Nat. Ord. 
Verticillatas (Lin.) 

This species of salvia was first scientifically de- 
scribed by the learned and excellent Dr. Rottler, and 
subsequently by Dr. Roxburgh. The leaves differ 
but little, in any respect, from those of the salvia 
officinalis*, excepting that they have a peculiarly 
strong smell of camphor, much of which they, no 
doubt, contain ; and hence their Dukhanie and Ta- 
mool names. 

Sage is but little employed in medicine by the 
Hindoos ; the Mahometans cultivate it in their gar- 
dens, and use it for the same purposes that we do ; 
preparing with the leaves a sort of grateful tea, 
which they prescribe in certain stages of fever, and 
as a gentle tonic and stomachic. 

The leaves ought to be carefully dried in the 
shade ; they then have an agreeable fragrant odour, 
with a warm, bitterish, aromatic, and grateful taste j 


It appears by the Flora Japonica, that the s. officinalis is 
growing in Japan, and called by the Japanese babinso. Flora 
Japon., p. 12. 

A A 4 


and are considered as tonic, carminative, and slightly 
astringent. The infusion alone, or mixed with honey 
and vinegar, makes an excellent gargle in cases of 
sore throat. Internally, the powder has been given 
from gr. X. to 5ss. ; or, of an infusion, made with 
^i. of the dried leaves to Oj. of boiling water, ^ij. 
may be taken every three hours. Virey tells us, 
in his ^^ Histoire des Medicamens peu connus*," 
that haisonge is the name of an apple gall, or excres- 
cence, found occasionally on the salvia officinalis ; 
and which is eaten by the Turks at Constantinople. 
Eight species of salvia were growing in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta, in 1814 ; but only three of them 
natives of India, the Bengalensis, brachiata, and 
parviflora. Three species grow in Ceylon, one of 
which is the officinalis, or true sage. The Greeks 
called this ExsX^o-cpaxo^, from the parched colour of 
the leaves. The well-known verse of the school of 
Salernum will show in what estimation sage was 
held in those days : 

" Cur moriatur homo, cui salvia crescit in horto." 

The species salvia Indica, or clary (sclarea Indica, 
Miller's Diet.), is much cultivated in India ; its 
leaves, from their fresh and pleasant smell, are 
bruised and put into country beer to improve its 

Murray, in his Appar. Med. vol. ii. p. 201., speaks 
favourably of an infusion of sage in debilitating night- 
sweats, as well as of the juice of the leaves in 
cases of tertian fever, and the aphthous affections of 

* See Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 322. 



SAGO. Show drisee 9=aYJ0\_jrr'^ (Tarn.) Sd- 
oukd chawal j^l:^ (^3^ (Duk.) Sdbuddnd (Hind.) 
Zowbeeiim (Tel.) Sdgu (Mai.) Sehihme (Chin.) 
Sdgu (Jav.) Sdgu (Bali). 

Cycas Circinalis (Lin.) 

Dioecia Polyandria. Nat. Ord. Palmae. Ge- 
meine Sagapalme (Nom. Triv. Willd.). 

The fact of the pith of different trees being eaten 
by the natives of Eastern countries has created no 
little confusion respecting what is the real sago tree j 
or that which yields the sago of commerce. Dr. 
Fleming, in his Catalogue of Indian Medicinal 
Plants, makes it the produce of the sagus Rumphii of 
Murray (v. 13.). Willdenow believes the common 
sago tree to be the cycas circinalis*^, which is a 
native of the Eastern islands, Friendly Islands, and 
the New Hebrides. It is the todda panna of Rheede 
(Hort. Mai. iii. p. 9. 1. 13. 21.), and the olus calap- 
poides of Rumphius f Amb. i. p. 86. t. 22, 23.), and 
may be seen mentioned in another Part of this work, 
under the Canarese name of moondichilL Then 
again, sago has been said, w^ith much confidence, to 
be obtained from the cycas revoluta of Thunberg 
(Japan. 229.) tessjo (Japan.) This Willdenow also 
allows to be a sago palm, calling it by the trivial 
name of zuruchgerollte sago palme^ and Mr. Phillips 
gives it as the actual sago tree. It is a native of 

* And grows in Ceylon, where it is called in Cyngalese maddu- 


Japan and China, is the tetsjee or ai^bor calappoides 
sinensis of Rumphius, and is supposed by Miller to 
be the true libby* tree of the Eastern islands, which 
is mentioned by Dampier and others, as that afford- 
ing the sago which is so much eaten by the inha- 
bitants of Tonquin, Ternate, Tidore, Mindanao, 
Borneof, and all the spice islands ; and which is ex- 
ported into other countries in the form of small 
round grains, t 

Mr. Crawfurd, in his History of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, says, that ** sago§ is the produce of the 
metroxylon sagu, and that it thrives best in marshy 
situations. The tree is the huda of the Ternatese ; 
at Amboyna it is lapia ; on Banda romiho ; in Ma- 
cassar ramhiya (and the farina of it palehu) ; on 
Mindanao it is labi. Except the nipa^ the sago palm 
is the humblest of the palm tribe, seldom rising 
higher than thirty feet ; and, except the gomuti, it is 
the thickest or largest.'' Its different portions have 
various economical uses: the hard wood of the 
trunk, called kiirurung, is used in ship building, 
bridges, &c. ; the stem of the branch, termed gabd- 
gdbd, is used in house building, fortifications, &c. ; 
the leaf is used as thatch ; and the bran or refuse of 
the pith, called ela^ is employed for feeding hogs. 

Dr. Fleming, under the article sago, observes, 
that sago is procured from the trunks of several other 
palms besides that mentioned by Murray ; such as 
from the saguerus Rhumphii (Roxb.), which is the 

* See Forrest's Voyage to New Guinea, and the Molucca 
Islands, pp. 35 — 40. 

t See Leyden's Sketches of Borneo, in the 7th volume of the 
Transactions of the Batavian Society. 

If. Loureiro says, under the head of cycas inermis, that in 
Tonquin good sago is made from the trunk of it. Flora Cochin- 
Chin, vol.ii. p. 632. 

§ Seethe work, vol.i. p. 383. 



gomutus gomuto* of Rhumphius (Amb. i. p. 57.)* 
The pith of a tree, called on Ceylon tdlaghas, and in 
Malabar codda-panna (corypha umbraculifera), is also 
used as sago, as is that of the erimpana (caryota 
urens). t A substance somewhat similar is likewise 
prepared from the meal-bearing date tree (phoenix 
farinifera, Roxb.), the Telinghoo name of which is 
chittie cita ; the Tamool sirroo eetchum. Kirkpat- 
rick, in his Account of Nepaul (p. 79. )> informs us, 
that the pith of a tree, called in that country kaholo, 
is eaten by the natives ; and Thunberg tells us, that 
the pith of the zamia caffra (zamia lanuginosa, Willd.) 
may be considered as a sort of sago ; indeed, Barrow 

* This tree is mentioned by Mr. Crawfurd (vol.i. p. 397.) under 
the name of gomuti, and botanical appellation of borassus gomutus; 
he informs us, that much excellent toddy is obtained from it in 
the Indian islands ; that it is the thickest of all the palms, and 
may be easily distinguished by its rude aspect. The inhabitants 
of the Moluccas are in the habit of using in their wars, in the 
defence of posts, a liquor, afforded by the maceration of the fleshy 
outer covering of the fruit of the gomuti, which the Dutch call 
hellvoater. The interior of the fruit, freed from this noxious 
covering, is prepared by the Chinese as a sweet meat. A pro- 
duction of great value is obtained from the gomuti tree, resem- 
bling black horse-hair, found, in a matted form, betwixt the 
trunk and the branches ; with it the natives prepare a useful 
cordage. This palm, it would appear, is to be met with in the 
Eastern Archipelago only. In Malay the tree is anaOf and its 
toddy tetvak^ and the hair-like material iju. The Javanese call 
the tree aren, the horse-hair-like produce duk, and the toddy 
lagen. At Amboyna the tree is naivay and the material for 
cordage maksee. At Ternate the tree is seho ; in the Bali tongue 
jahaka. The Portugese, and all other European nations, call the 
tree sagmre; at Macassar it is monchono, and the toddy Juro, 
Most of the sugar used by the natives of the Eastern islands is 
made from the toddy ; and with this toddy, when fermented into 
wine, the Chinese prepare arrack. I perceive that the tree is 
one of the many interesting objects that called the attention of 
Mr. Philebert, during his voyage in the Indian and Asiatic Seas. 

t A most useful tree in the Indian Archipelago, where it is called 
by the Malays nibung, or nipa. Sugar, toddy, and sago, are all 
got from it ; at the top of the tree, as in the cocoa-nut tree, 
and several other palms, the germ of the new growth affords a 
substance which is an excellent substitute for cabbage. 


says, that it is used as such by the KafFres of Southern 

Sago, in India, is more used by the Mahometans 
than the Hindoos ; but, even by the former, it is not 
nearly so much eaten as by the inhabitants of the 
Eastern islands, whose principal food it is. Mr. 
Crawfurd tells us, that " there is but one species of 
the true sago palm, but four varieties : viz. the cul- 
tivated, the wild, ONE distinguished by the length 
of the spines on the branches, and one altogether 
destitute of spines ; which last is usually called by 
the natives the female sago. The first and last 
afford the best farina ; the second a hard medulla, 
from which the farina is difficultly extracted ; and 
the third, which has a comparatively slender trunk, 
an inferior sort of farina. 

As a diet for the sick, sago is light and bland, and 
is particularly indicated in bowel affections, and in- 
ternal inflammations, when it is best given boiled 
with milk. Brande, in his Manual of Chemistry, 
vol. iii. p. 35., places sago amongst his starches, 
making it his third variety. 



CAROB TREE. Khinioob nubti J^ v>^> 


Ceratonia Siliqua (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Polygamia Dioecia. Nat. Ord. 
Lomentaceae (Lin.). 

This article, which had formerly a place in the 
British Materia Medica, was termed by the Greeks 
keraha ; and has a place in the Ulfaz XJdmyelh 


where the pod, called by the Arabians ^Li v>j;^> 
is spoken of as cold, dry, and astringent; the dose 
three direms. Dr. Alston, in his Materia Medica, 
informs us, that the husk of the pod has been 
considered as antacrid, purgative, pectoral, and as- 
tringent ; and that the Egyptians extracted from it 
a sort of honey, with which they preserved fruits. 
Sonnini* tells us, that the carob trees grow in Pales- 
tine. Pocock found them flourishing in the island of 
Scio. We also see by Link's Travels in Portugal, 
that the tree is a native of that country ; he speaks 
of it as one of the most beautiful in the world. It 
is common in the island of Diu, or Standiat, where 
the luscious pulp, contained in the pod, is eaten by 
the poor and children, and also made into sherbet ; 
the wood of the tree is delicately marked with dark- 
red veins. The tree itself " grows to a considerable 
size, with leaves pinnate, leaflets roundish, entire, 
thick, and rigid ; the legume is four or five inches 
long, compressed, becoming four-cornered when dry, 
of a dusky ferruginous colour, smooth, fleshy, many- 
celled, valveless.'' See Gaert. Fruct. ii. 310, Bauh. 
Pin. 402. 


SAL AMMONIAC. Ndvdchdrum ^(j^j^^rrrru^ 

(Tam.) Urmeena \1j<^j\ (Arab.) Nowshdder j^Vi.^ 

(Pers.) Vayvagarra loonoo (Cyng.) Nuosadur 

(Sans.) Sel ammoniac (Fr.) Salmiac (Ger.) Sale 

ammoniaco (It.) 

MuRiAs Ammonite. 

* See his Travels, p. 395. 

f See Olivier's Travels in the Ottoman Empire, p. 233. 


Many years ago sal ammoniac was made in Egypt 
only, and from that country all Europe was supplied 
with it ; it was there prepared by subHmation from 
the soot of fuel *; within the last sixty years, however, 
it has been manufactured in various other parts of 
the world ; what of it is used in England is made in 
some of the Northern counties. Tavernier mentions 
sal ammoniac amongst the articles, which in his time 
were brought from Amadabat to Surat (Reisen ii. 

p. 114.). 

This inodorous, bitterish, acrid, and cool-tasting 
salt, the Tamool practitioners, like us, use in solution, 
as a repellent in cases of local inflammation and tu- 
mour ; they also believe it to possess emetic and diu- 
retic virtues, and accordingly administer it in nidg- 
hodrum (ascites), and 7ieer amhul (anasarca) ; it is 
moreover supposed to be a useful remedy in certain 
female obstructions and uterine enlargements, called 
raypoo pdvay (Tam.). 

Sal ammoniac X is now seldom given internally by 
European practitioners. On account of the cold it 
produces during its solution in water, it is often 
advantageously employed as a lotion to abate the 
pain of inflammation, or allay head-ache. It also 

* The fuel commonly used was the dung of camels. See 
Niebhur's Travels in Arabia, vol. i. p. 97. Bartolomeo tells us, 
in his Travels (p. 82 ), that sal ammoniac used formerly to be 
brought to India from Persia and Arabia. 

"j* What was called sal ammoniacus by the ancients was no 
otiier tlian impure common salt^ perhaps rock salt; the first 
distinct traces of sal ammoniac are to be found, I believe, in 
the writings of the Arabians. In Geber there is a prescription 
how to purify sal ammoniac by sublimation, and he flourished iu 
the eighth century, and wrote on alchymy. Avicenna, the chemist, 
who lived, it is supposed, in the year 1122, was the first that told 
us that sal ammoniac came from Egypt, India, and Forperia. See 
Beckman's History of Inventions, vol.iv. p. 364;. also p. 375. 


forms ai) excellent discutient for indolent tumours, 
gangrene, or psora, when dissolved in the proportion 
of |i. of the salt to ^ix. of water, with J^i. of al- 

In some parts of the world this salt is found 
native, a product of volcanoes ; as in the vicinity of 
Mooshki/f in the province of Mekran in Persia*, close 
to Basmarty where there is a mountain called Koh 
NoiLshadir or Sal Ammoniac Mountain. In Europe 
sal ammoniac is prepared by sublimation from a 
mixture of common salt and sulphate of ammonia, 
or what has been called secret sal-ammoniac ; by 
this process sulphate of soda is also formed. 

The volatile salt of sal ammoniac, which the Ta- 
mools call ndvdchdrd acranum^ and in Dukhanie is 
termed soongna ^ITj^a*., is prepared by the former 
in the following manner : — 

Take of ndvdchdrum (sal ammoniac) one polum, 
simie chundmboo (chalk) two pollums ; dry the two 
Ingredients carefully, then mix them, and sublime 
with a strong heat. 

The sal volatilis, the native practitioners of India 
do not appear ever to administer internally, using it 
merely as a local stimulant to the nose, in fainting 
fits, languors, and hysteria. European practitioners 
recommend it in cases requiring diaphoretics, ant- 
acids, stimulants, and antispasmodics ; in large doses 
it proves emetic. The common dose is from gr. iij. 
to gr. XX. in pills, or dissolved in water ; to produce 
vomiting 3SS4 may be given for a dose. 

By a paper which has lately been published in 
Brewster's Philosophical Journal of Science (No. 4.), 

* See Macdonald Kinneir^s Geographical Memoir of Persia, 
p. 224. 


it appears, that ammonia has been found to be a 
complete antidote to the hydrocyanic or prussic 


SALEP. Sdldmisrie f?=rrav)^Tu5^^/-r (Tam.) 

Salibimisri (Sy^i^ 4-Jjc5 (Arab. Hind, and Duk.) 

Salep (Fr.) 

Orchis Mascula (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Gynandria Monandria, Nat. Ord. 
Orchideae. Salep Ragwurz (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

Salep used formerly to be imported from Eastern 
countries, but is now prepared in several parts of 
Europe ; and Mr. Mault of Rochdale has given us the 
method of drying and curing the orchis root, from 
which it is obtained. The plant thrives well in 
England, and Withering has in consequence ex- 
pressed a hope that we shall no longer be supplied 
from foreificn markets with an article our own coun- 
try can furnish us with, in almost any quantity. 

Salep is considered as a medicine possessing great 
invigorating virtues by the Egyntians, who call it, 
according to Forskahl, khoosie tdleb c-JLxi ^:L (Mat. 
Med. Kahirina). As an article of diet it is light, 
bland, and nutritious, and is particularly indicated, 
and recommended by Dr. Percival, in dysentery, 
dysuria, and internal inflammation ; it is to be met 
with in most of the bazars of Lower Hindoostan, 
and is an export to that country from the Levant.* 

The Arabian physicians prescribe it with great 

* See Macgill's Travels in Turkey, vol. ii. p. 173. 


confidence in consumption ; the Indian practitioners 
believe salep to be a powerful strengthener of the 
body, and prescribe it in conjunction with mastick, 
and some other ingredients in cases requiring tonics.* 
The French call the male orchis ^* satyrion/' and 
" testicle de chien ;'' the last name is from the appear- 
ance the two bulbs have that are fixed to the base of the 
stem, ^' which is round, smooth, upright, and about a foot 
high ; naked above, but below surrounded with leaves, 
which are lanceolate, alternate, and broadish : the 
flowers are numerous, and on a loose spike.^' Deslong- 
champs in his " Manuel des Plantes Usuelles In- 
digenes'' (vol.ii. p.546.), informs us, that judging from 
the testicle-like appearance of the bulbs, composing the 
root of this plant, the ancients had a strange idea that 
it had a powerful influence on the organs of generation 
of man; and such it was no doubt supposed to have by 
Theophrastus, Pliny, and Galen. It is about eighty- 
five years ago, since Geoffroy, the brother of the 
author of the Materia Medica, first published in the 
Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, the mode of 
making salep from the indigenous orchis of France, 
of a quality not inferior to that of Eastern countries. 
Brande t gives salopj obtained from the roots of 
several species of orchis, as his fifth variety of starch. 
Of the seventy-eight species of orchis hitherto scien- 
tifically noticed, but six appear to be natives of 
Asiatic countries (see Willd. Spec. Plant.). Three 
species grow in Ceylon ; the viridi Jlora^ the cubi- 
talis and the strateumatica. 

* Salep has the singular quality of depriving salt water of its 
salt taste, a property which might be turned to good account in 
long voyages ; the mucilage is best used for this purpose. 

t See his Manuel of Chemistry, vol. iii. p. 35. 

VOL. I. B B 



SALT, COMMON. Ooppoo 2_lilj, (Tarn.) 
Nemuck ^4tJ (Pers.) Nimmiik c^^J (Duk. and 
Hind,) Loonoo (Cyng.) Loon (Hindooie). La- 
vana ^^DT (Sans.) Lawanum (Tel.) Gar am u 
(Mai.) Uyah (Jav.^) Uyah (Bali.) Muriate de 
soude (Fi\) Salzaures natrum (Ger.) Sal commune 
(It.) M^/A ^A-^ ( Arab.) Mee^(Mah.) re/2 (Chin.) 


Besides the common method of procuring culin- 
ary salt by evaporating* sea water, which is that 
adopted in the Sunderbunds, where a quantity is 
made equal to the consumption of all the Bengal 
provinces, the native Indians prepare it by percol- 
ation, and crystallizing, from certain red soils which 
contain it ; such as that found near Malaya BanarUy 
in Mysore, in Ayudh^ and in the district of Benares.t 
They also prepare it in inland situations, from salt 
springs or lakes t, similar in their nature to those of 
Luneburg, and the salt lake mentioned by Russel 
(see his Account of Aleppo) ; a lake of the same 
kind we find noticed by Macdonald Kinneir, in his 
excellent Geographical Memoir of Persia (p. 60.), at 

* In Java salt is procured by a similar process. See Crawfurd's 
History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 199. 

f See Remarks on the Husbandry of Bengal, p. 181. 

X There is a singular salt lake, called lake of Loonar, in Ferar, 
in lat. 19° 10' and long. 75° 3' E. The salt of this lake is of a 
greyish colour, crystallized in cubes ; it is used for seasoning food 
by the Mahometans, and in cleaning the shawls of cashmere. See 
Edin. Philosophical Journal, pp. 310, 311. 


Bagtegariy about ten miles from Shiraz, in the pro- 
vince of Fars. Kirkpatrick, in his Account of 
Nepau], tells us (p, 207.)> that salt is an import into 
that country from Thibet ; it is a valuable export 
from Java* to the West coast of Sumatra. In India, 
that of the finest quality is manufactured in CuttacJcy 
bringing, I understand, an annual revenue of not 
less than sixteen lacs of rupees ; it is there got by 
evaporating sea water ; that which is subsequently 
purified by boiling is called pangah. 

Hindoos, of all descriptions, set a very high value 
on salt ; using the phrase " / eat his salty ^ to express 

I a sense of gratitude, as much as to say ** / am 
hound to serve him faithfully. ^^ They ascribe many 
ailments to the want of good salt, which, indeed, 
they often experience at places remote from the sea, 

f where they get an impure, bitter sort, obtained in 
the preparation of salt-petre, from certain earths 

I which contain it. The Vytians consider salt as we 
do, to be tonic, anthelmintic, and, externally, stimu- 

I lant ; but do not appear to be aware, that in large 
doses it has been found to check vomiting of blood ; 

I nor that it has a considerable aperient quality t when 

' largely taken. The Brahmins, who eat nothing but 

j vegetable food, believe, that without salt they would 
die. For an admirable account of the different 

' methods of manufacturing salt, the reader may con- 

I suit Aikin's Dictionary, art. Muriate of Soda. Ana- 
lysed by Berzelius, salt was found to consist of 46*55 

i of muriatic acid, and 53*44 of soda. 

* See Sketches Civil and Military of Java, p. 41. 
f There is, perhaps, no passage more just and true in all his 
. writings, than those words of Avicenna : " Sal foecum excretionem 
' ac ciborum descensum promovet ; ad putrifactiones et humorum 
crassitiem valet." Canon, lib. ii. tract, ii, 

B B ^ 



SALT, ROCK. Iiidoopoo ii2'3CSJ''—^^ (Tarn.) 
Lahorie nemiick jC^J (Sj^*S (Duk.) Scnchida loonoo 
(Cyng.) Kiymiki swig jC;^ S^ (Pers.) S'nidahon 
(Hindooie). Saindhava V(^\\^ (Sans.) 

Rock salt is brought into Hindoostan from Thibet, 
where, as well as in Bootan and in Nepaul, Turner* 
tells us, it is used for all domestic purposes ; it is 
also an export from Lahore t, in which countrj', ac- 
cording to Rennel, in a tract betwixt the Indus and 
Ihylum rivers, it is found of a quality hard enough 
to make into vessels. It is a product of Persia, in \ 
the province of Mekran ; and Mr. Elphinston, in i 
his interesting Account of Cabult, informs us, that 
near Callabaiigh^ on the bank of the Indus, there are 
immense quantities of rock salt, in large blocks, like 
rocks, in a quarry ; and thence exported to India 
and Khorassan. The rock salt mine of Wiliska, in i 
Poland, we are told by IMr. Coxe, in his Travel- 
(vol. i. p. 197-)' ^s 6695 feet long, and 743 feet deep. 
Rock salt, in England, is chiefly procured from . 
Cheshire^ where there is a stratum, no less than fift; 
feet thick. In December, 18-23, Chaptel made a 
report in the Academy of Sciences, of Paris, on the ' 
rock salt of the mine discovered, in 1820, at Vich, 
in the department oiLa Meurthe^ in France ; there are ^ 

* See Turner's Embassy to the Court of the Tishoo Lama, 
pp. 406, 407. 

t See Pennant's View of Hindoostan, vol. i. p. 42. 

t Sec his work, p. 40. Also found at Bidlh. See same work 
p. 147. 


there, it would seem, four sorts ; white, half grey, 
grey, and red ; the w^hite is peculiarly fine, and alto- 
gether fit for the table. A valuable quality of the 
rock salt of Vich^ is, that it is not deliquescent ; the 
mine occupies about thirty square leagues, and its 
thickness such, tliat it may be worked for several 
thousand years without being exhausted !! 

Rock salt is the chloride of sodium of modern 
chemists, and, according to Brande*, consists of 

1 Proportional of chlorine - ^Q*5 
sodium - 22 


having all the properties of common salt.t I shall 
conclude what I have to say on the subject of rock 
salt by observing, that the native farriers think it has 
particular virtues in clearing and softening the coats 
of horses, by mending their general health. 

In Western countries, such as in the great Peru- 
vian Desert, near Huaray there is a rich rock salt 
mine; in Africa, again, in the desert of Sahara^ near 
Tombuctoo, there is also a rich rock salt mine, 


SALT PETRE. Potti^ooppoo G— '^l«l 

QO/LJi-_i (Tam. and Tel.) Shorah ^j^i. (Pers. and 
Duk.) Bqjee (Hindooie). Sandaxca i^LvjL- (Mai.) 

* See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 48. 

f For an account of the bit-laban, or cala nemeCy which is a 
preparation made with the muriate of soda, and fruit of the phyl- 
lanthus emblica, see the second volume of this work, article Bit- 

B B 3 

374 Materia indica, part i. 

also Mesiu mentah (Mai.) Ubicir ^^j\ (Arab.) Ya- 
va-kshdra ^^^|< fSans.) Wedie loonoo (Cyng.) 
Nitrate de potasse (Fr.) Salpeter saures kali (Ger.) 
Salpeter (Dut.) Nitro (It.) 

Nitras Potass^ (Edin.) 

It is well known that this article, has, for many 
years past, been procured in great quantities from 
the earth containing it in several provinces of Hin- 
doostan, but especially in those lying west of Bihar^ 
where the hot winds are more prevalent, than in the 
tracts extending farther east ; and it is observed, 
that the production of nitre is greatest during the 
period when the hot winds blow : from Bengal it is 
brought to England in an impure state. Salt petre 
appears to be obtained artificially in various ways in 
different countries ; in Podalia, in Poland, it is got 
from the tumuli or hillocks, which are the remains 
of former habitations. In Cabul it is made almost 
every where from the common soil ; in Spain from 
the land after a crop of corn ; in Hanover by col- 
lecting the rakings of the streets ; and in India, in 
some parts, from the earth of old walls, scrapings of 
roads, cow-pens, and other places frequented by 

There is little salt petre manufactured in the 
lower provinces of India ; in the Coimbatore country 
it is made at considerable expence, and of an inferior 
quality to that which comes from Bihar. Salt petre 
is a product of the soil in the Burmah dominionSy in 
Siam (in the province of Corie), also in Mekran^ 
and amongst the mountains behind Tehraun* in ij 

* See M. Kinneir*s Geographical Memoir of Persia, pp. 319. 
224. 40. 


Persia. On Java"^ it is prepared by boiling the soil 
of caves, frequented by bats and birds, chiefly swal- 

The native doctors prescribe salt petre f for nearly 
the same purposes that we do j to cool the body 
when preternaturally heated, and in cases of iieer- 
ciittoo and kull-addypoo (ischuria and gravel). 
They are also in the habit of cooling water with it, 
(which it does by generating cold while dissolving), 
for the purpose of throwing over the head in cases 
of phrenitis. Given in repeated small doses, not ex- 
ceeding ten or twelve grains, it abates heat and thirst, 
and lowers arterial action. Dr. Thomson says it is 
contraindicated in typhus fevei^ and hectic affec- 
tions ; and that a small portion of it, allowed to 
dissolve in the mouth, has been found to remove 
incipient inflammatory sore throat. Mr. Brande in- 
forms us, that nitre consists of one proportional of 
acid =50*5 + one proportional of potassa =45. t 


^ALT GLAUBER. Sulphate de sonde (Fr.) 

Sulphas Sodje, 

* See Crawfurd's History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. 
p. 201. 

\ Native salt petre Cronstedt was not acquainted with ; sucli as it 
is, often seen as well in Portugal, Spain, and America, as in the 
East Indies, chiefly as an efflorescence on certain damp and ruin- 
ous walls ; it is the earthy salt petre, and to be distinguished from 
the cubical salt petre of Professor John Bohn ; incrustations on 
walls are not arlways, however, salt petre ; they are not rarely soda 
combined with more or less calcareous earth. The name nitrum 
appears to have been indiscriminately applied to both incrust- 
ations. See Beckman's History of Inventions, vol. iv. pp. 529, 530. 

X See Brande's Manuel of Chemistry, vol.ii. p. 37. 

B B 4i 


I perceive by Dr. F. Hamilton's Account (MSS.) 
of the district of Purniya, that he there found a coarse 
kind of Glauber salt brought from Patna,^ and called 
in Hindoostanie khari numuk also khara noon.*^ 


SANDAL WOOD. Chandanum fF/3^6c5OTLO 
also SJidnddnd-cuttay (Tarn.) Sundel ^*M^ (Duk.) 
Saiidoon (Cyng.) Sundel ahiez ^jhjJi ^sx*^ (Arab.) 
Sundul svffeid j^i^w. j jyL^ (Pers.) C/^z/^z^^^w (Hindooie). 
Sandalo (It.) Sandale (Fr.) Chandana (Hind, and 
Beng.) Sri gunda (Can.) Tsjenddnd (Mai.) Chenda- 
num (Tel.) Chandana ^f^?|- also Malay qj a ST^^T^I 

(Sans.) Aikamenil (Timur). Ay asm ( Amboynese). 
also Katchandan (Hind.) Cayhuynhdan (Cocli. 
Chin.) Tan-muh (Chin.) 

Santalum Album (Lin.) 
SiRiUM Myrtifolium (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Onagrae (Juss.) 

Sandal wood in powder is prescribed by the 
Vytians in tava jorum (ardent remittent fever), from 
its supposed sedative and cooling qualities ; they 
also look upon it as a valuable medicine in gonorrhoea, 
given in cow's milk ; a virtue we see by Rumphius, 

* It is to be presumed that it is a very impure sort ; Dr. Ha- 
milton does not know whether it is prepared at Patna or found 
native, which it often is, in combination witli oxide of iron, and 
muriate and carbonate of soda, and sometimes effloresced on the 
surface of the soil, as in Hungary. 


that it is considered to possess at Amboyna (Rumph. 
Amb. torn. ii. p. 42.). In cases of morbid thirst it 
is recommended to be taken in cocoa-nut water ; 
and in hot weather, after bathing, the powder is 
rubbed over the body, equally to cool it, and check 
too copious a perspiration. The Mahometans are in 
the habit of preparing with the most yellow and 
finer parts of the w^ood, an oil which they highly 
value as a perfume. The sandal wood tree grows in 
great abundance in Travancore, in the Coorgh and 
Wynade districts, and in Mysore. The same tree 
yields the white and yellow sandal wood, the last is 
the inner part of the tree, and is of great hardness 
and fragrance, particularly near the root of the tree ; 
the white is the exterior part of the tree, is less firm 
and has but a faint odour. 

The tree which grows in Ceylon and is there called 
rat'kihiri has "somewhat the appearance of a myrtle, 
with stiff, brachiate branches, everywhere jointed ; 
leaves opposite on short petioles, spreading, lanceo- 
late, entire, waved, shining, about two inches long, 
and three quarters of an inch broad ; the flowers are 
small, red, in a terminating compound, small, erect, 
thyrse-like raceme ; the fruit a small berry, by 
which the tree is propagated. *' The santalum album 
is common in the Indian islands, particularly in 
Sumatra * and Timor ; at Siam and Malacca it 
grows with luxuriance. Mr. Crawfurd however in- 
forms us, that the sandal wood of the Eastern islands 
is inferior to that of Malabar. From the first men- 
tioned of these countries it is imported into Java, 
and brings there about from 8 to IS Spanish dollars 
per picul. 

* See Marsden's Sumatra, p. 129. 


What is called aghilcuttay in Tamool, and aghir- 
kagore by the Mahometans, is a reddish-coloured 
resinous-fragrant bitter wood, sometimes added in 
powder to powdered sandal wood, to increase its h 
fragrance. I am not altogether certain what it is, 
but am inclined to believe it to be an inferior sort of ( 
aloes wood, called by the names of aghallachitm^ and I 
calambour (aquilaria ovata). The tree is a native, 
Turpin says, of Siam, it is also to be met with on i 
Cambogia, Timore, Cochin-China *, Borneo t, and I 
the Sooloo Islands. 

It would seem that much uncertainty had arisen 
from the two trees aquilaria ovata and ea:coecaria 
agallochaj having been confounded together (and the 
English terms of aloes wood and eagle wood indis- 
criminately applied to both), but they are very 
different ; the first being of the class and order 
Decandria Monogynia, and the latter of those of 
Dioecia Triandria. Mr. Martyn seems to have no 
doubt, but that the perfume we allude to is from the 
aquilaria ovata, which is the aloexyluyn agallochum of 
Loureiro, and agallochum (Rumph. Amb. ii. 1. 10.). 
He says, the wood itself is naturally inodorous j and 
that when it has aroma, it is a disease ^ caused by 
oleaginous particles stagnating in the inner parts of 
the trunk and branches into a resin, till at length the 
tree dies ; and when split, the valuable resin is taken 
out: he adds, ** that all the true lignum aloes t pro- 
ceed from this tree, even tlie most valuable, com- 
monly called calumbacJ* Perfumes from this wood, 
Loureiro says, are highly esteemed by Eastern 

* See Borris's Account of Cochin-China. 
f See Lokyer's Account of the Trade of India, p. 129. 
X See further particulars on this subject, under the head of i 
Wood Aloes, in this volume and chapter. 


nations; being useful remedies, they suppose, in 
vertigo, palsy, and in restraining vomiting and 

The Arabians place sandal wood amongst their 
Mokeuoyat'dil J^ cXj.^ (Cardiaca) ; the dose half a 
miscah The tree is fully described by Loureiro, who 
also notices the virtues of the wood : ^^ Resolvens, 
diaphoretica, cardiaca,*' &c. Vide Flor. Cochin-Chin. 
\ vol. i. p. 87. 


SANDARACH. Sundroos u^^j^^ (Arab.) 

JuNiPERUS * Communis (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Dioecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 

This resinous substance is commonly met with in 
loose granules, a little larger than a pea, of a whitish 
yellow colour, brittle and inflammable, of a resinous 
smell, and acrid aromatic taste ; it exudes, we are 

* I have given juniperus communis as the plant from which gum 
f sandarach exudes in warm climates, from the authority of Dr. 
Thomson (Lond. Dispens. 3d edition) and Dr. Hooper ; but I find, 
that Virey, in his '^ Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens," says, it 
is obtained from the thuya articulata of Desfontaines (p. 31 8.) ; 
and Nicholson, in his Dictionary of Chemistry applied to the 
Arts, mentions the same thing, which he does on the authority of 
a Danish traveller, Schousboey who is of opinion, that the juniperus 
communis does not grow in Africa, whence the sandarach comes ; 
and we know that Broussonet affirms, that the resin called sanda- 
rach flows from the thuya articulata^ in the kingdom of Morocco. 
How all this is, I cannot pretend to say ; had there been any simi- 
larity betwixt the two plants, I could have imagined a mistake, 
but the juniper is of the class and order Dioecia Monadelphia, 
and the thuya articulata of the class and order Monoecia Mono- 
delphia ; the first has leaves narrow and awl-shaped, the last has 
no leaves at all, but scales at the top of the joints. Then, on the 
other hand, we find, that the Italian name of sandarach is gomma 
de ginepro ! 


told, from cracks and incisions in the stem of the 
juniper bush, which the Greeks knew by the name 
of A^xsuSo§y and which, by Jackson's account, is 
common at Morocco, and is there called thuya^ and 
arar ; the roofs of the houses and ceilings are made 
of the wood of it (See his Travels in Morocco, 
p. 78.). 

Sandarach is seldom seen in India; the Arabians, 
as a medicine, consider it as drying, and order it in 
the quantity of half a miscal, in cases of diarrhoea 
and hemorrhage. I cannot learn that they use it as 
a varnish, the purpose to which it is applied in 
Europe, dissolved in spirits of wine. See article 
Varnishing, in Imison's work on Science and Art, 
vol. ii. pp. 3 i3, 344. 

The juniperus communis is a native of Japan, 
called by the Japanese hjaJaisi. Flor. Japon. p. 264. 


SARCOCOLLA. Unzeroot c^^jyS (Arab.) Kun- 

judeh jsj^aT (Pers.) 

Penaea Mucronata (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Tetrandria Monogynia. 

This subviscid, sweetish, and somewhat nauseous 
gum resin, is but rarely met with in India ; and 
what is found, is brought from Persia or Arabia ; it 
is seen in small grains of a pale yellow colour. It is 
an article of the Mogul Materia Medica, and is well 
known to the Arabians, who suppose it to have vir- 
tues, applied externally, in agglutinating wounds 
(hence its Greek name cra^^ ;^oAXa); and a ord- 
ingly place it amongst their Yabisaiit keroiih oUwL) 


^^j; (Epulotica). Some of the more ancient Arab 
writers, such as Mesue, seem to have considered it 
as, in a certain degree, cathartic ; he says of it, 
*' purgat pituitam crudam, et alios humores crassosj'* 
though it does not appear to have been in much re- 
pute. Of an ounce of sarcocolla, Newman found 
three drachms soluble by alcohol, and five drcichms 
by water.* 

The shrub which yields the sarcocolla, by sponta- 
neous exudation, is a native of ^tliiopia; having 
leaves accuminate and smooth, with red terminating 
flowers. For an account of the plant, the reader is 
referred to Dr. Duncan, junior's, excellent Edinburgh 
Dispensatory, p. 302. 


SARSAPARILLA, substitute for. Numiarivayr 
n3(:5"ar,£^n^C(TL-JCr (Tarn.) Muckxvy <s^Si^ Oshba 
Iaxc^\ (Arab.) Mugrahoo (Hindooie). Shdriva 
^ifX^T (Sans.) Soogundapala (Tel.) ErramaS'- 
soomool (Cyng.) also Irimiisu (Cyng.) 

Periploca Indica (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord- 
Contorta?. Indische ScJiUnge (Nom. Triv. Willd.) 

Wliat is commonly called by the English in India, 
country sarsaparilla^ is not the root of the smilaxt 
sarsaparilla, which is, hov/ever, occasionally brought 

* Avicenna, speaking of it, says, '* vim habet sini mordacitate 
glutinandi ; et carnem gignit ; inflammationes omnes mitigat, more 
emplastri imposita." Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii.* p. 36. 

-f The smilax perfoliata (Lin.) is a native of Cochin-China, where 
it is called ti-giai^ and is supposed to have similar virtues to 


to the Coromandel coast from America ; but that of 
the periploca Indica^ a common Indian plant, and 
which is the periploca Jbliis angustis acutis glabris of 
Burman (Burm. Zeyl. I87. t. 83, f, 1.). The two 
roots very much resemble each other in appearance 
and natural qualities ; both being inodorous, mucila- 
ginous, and, in a slight degree, bitter. The nunna- 
rivayr is recommended, by the Tamool doctors, in 
cases of gravel and strangury, given in powder, 
mixed with cow's milk ; they also give it in decoc- 
tion, in conjunction with cummin seeds, to purify 
the blood, and correct the acrimony of the bile. 
The perip. emetica is a native of India, and grows 
on the Coromandel coast. The p. esculenta is de- 
scribed by Roxburgh (Cor. Plant, i. t. 11.) 

On the Malabar coast, the root of the cari vilandi 
(smilax aspera*) is used for the same purposes that 
the root of the periploca Indica is on the Coroman- 
del coast ; it is the Sju^/Xayya of the modern Greeks, 
who use it to purify the blood. The cari vilandiy I 
doubt not, is the plant we find mentioned by Barto- 
lemeof, under the name of the red Jlowered vella- 
damha^ and which is, he says, used for sarsaparilla on 
the Malabar coast. 

The decoction of the root of the periploca Indica 
is prescribed by European practitioners in India in 
cutaneous diseases, scrophula, and venereal affec- 
tions, to the quantity of ^iij. or |iv., three times in 
the day. In America it would seem that various 
plants have, at different times, been used for purify- 

See Hort. Malab. vol. vii. p. 78. See also Virey*s Histoire 
Naturelle des Medicamens, p. 151. 

f See his History of the East Indies, p. 417. Michelle, in his 
Delia Corciresse Flora (p. 128.), informs us, that the modern 
Greeks call the smilax aspera Ao-/>ttXa%t xoivovj and that the root 
possesses virtues similar to those of sarsaparilla. 


jing the blood. Ruiz*, in his Flora Peruviana, par- 
Iticularly mentions the following: viz. lapageria rosea^ 
iluzuriaga radicans^ and herreria stellata. 

The periploca Indica, or country sarsaparilla t 
plant, *' has a twining, round, ash-coloured stem; a 
pair of leaves from each joint, almost sessile, bright 
green above, and pale underneath, with many flowers, 
which sit close.'^ It is a native of Lower India and 
Ceylon, though I do not see that it is noticed by Miv 
Moon, in his Catalogue of Ceylon Plants. I have 
already noticed the powerful alterative qualities which 
the China root (smilax China) is said to possess j it 
is the ToO'fuh of the Chinese. 


SASSAFRAS. Cay-vang-dee (Cochin-China), 
j^l^U'^ Sasqfras (Arab.) Sassafras (Fr.) Sassa- 
frasso (It.) Sassafras lobbeer (Ger.) 

Laukus Sassafras (Lin.) 

Enneandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. Lauri 

This plant has a place here from its being a native 

i of an Eastern country (Cochin-China), as well as 

North America. Loureiro \ describes it fully : 

* See Flora Peruviana, vol. iii. pp. 65^ 66* 69. 
t It would appear by the Gazette de Sante, that M. Galileo 
I Poliotta, an Italian physician, has recently discovered an active 
\ principle in sarsaparilla, which he calls parigline; it is white, pul- 
j verulent, light, unalterable on exposure to the atmosphere, of a 
' bitter taste, and slightly astringent ; it unites with all the acids^ 
forming various salts ; in its medical qualities it is sedative and 
X See Flora Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 254. 


" Arbor magna, trunco erecto, ramis in vertice pa- 1 
tentibus, ligno levi, cinerio, odorato/' &c. It is for i 
this last property in the wood, that the tree is culti- 
vated ; it generally rises to the height of twenty or i 
thirty feet, with a trunk about twelve inches in ' 
diameter, covered with a furrowed bark, which, like 
the wood, has an agreeable fragrant odour, and a 
sweetish aromatic taste ; the wood is of a brownish- 
white colour, and the bark, as Dr. Thomson well 
describes it, is ferruginous within, spongy, and in 
divisible layers. In Cochin-China, where the tree 
grows in the woods towards Borea and Tunkin, the 
wood and bark are considered, as in Europe, diapho- 
retic, sudorific, and diuretic ; and are taken in infu- 
sion in cases of rheumatism, and wandering pains. 
The character which this medicine once had, as a 
powerful antisyphilitic, is now somewhat doubtful ; 
and more is, perhaps, justly to be ascribed to the 
guaiaCy with which it is usually combined. Alibert* 
holds out a caution in prescribing the essential oil of 
sassafras, but he does not say why ; of the bark and 
wood he speaks in the highest praise, and cites a case 
of obstinate rheumatism in which the infusion was 
used with the happiest effect, when many other 
medicines had failed. The sassafras met with in 
Egypt, Forskahl tells us, in bis Mat. Med. Khairina, 
p. 148, was brought from the Archipelago in his days, 
and used by the Arabians in venereal complaints. 

* See Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique, vol. ii. p. 302. 



SAUNDERS, RED. Segdpoo shdnddnum 5^^_t 
L-i^C5S^6TOrLD (Tarn.) Lai chwidend iXJ^x;:^ ys 
(Duk.) Sundal ahmer y^ }^\sj^ (Arab.) Ruckut 
chundun (Hind.) Sundul soorkh ^^ j^xJ^ (Pers.) 
Kuchandana ^^^5^5=f also Tilaparni fr{^'^^ 

also Ranjana "^Tsf^T ^^^ Rakta-chandana "^ch^?^^ 
(Sans.) Ruct handoon (Cyng.) Honnay (Can.) 
Kuchandanum (Tel.) Rackta chandana (Beng.) 
Santale rouge (Fr.) Sandalholz (Ger.) Sandalo 
roso (It.) Undum (Hindooie). Buckum JL 
(Pers.) Undum -tXls (Arab.) SandeUhout (Dan.) 

Pterocarpus San.talinus (Keen.) 

CI. and Ord. Diadelphia Decandria. Nat. Ord. 
Papilionacese (Lin.) 

This heavy, insipid, and nearly inodorous colouring 
wood, is little used by the Indian medical practi- 
tioners, though they sometimes recommend it in 
powder, in conjunction with certain herbs, and 
mixed with gingiUe oil, as an external application 
and purifier of the skin after bathing. 

The pterocarpus santalinus is a useful timber tree, 
and grows on Ceylon*, on the island of Timor, on 
the Malabar coast, and in Mysore; in which last 
mentioned country it is termed whonnay ; the bark 
of it contains much colouring juice. The tree itself^ 
which was first scientifically described by Koenig, "is 

* Mr. Moon notices another species as growing on that island, 
the bilobus (ganmalu)* 

VOL. I. C C 


lofty, with alternate branches ; leaves petiolated and 
ternate, ovate, blunt, and entire ; the flowers are in 
axillary spikes ; the corolla papilionaceous and of a 
red colour/* Mr. Brande tells us, that the deep red 
colouring matter of this tree is insoluble in water, 
but readily so in alcohol. We learn from Virey*, 
that Pelletier prepared with the reddish coloured 
resin, obtained from the tree, a valuable red-colouring 
extract, which he termed santaline. Red saunders 
does not appear to possess any medicinal properties. 
It may be found noticed by Avicennat (p. 241.), 
under the Arabic name sundul J*>J^. Five species 
of pterocarpus were growing in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta in 1814, all Eastern plants, except the 
draco, a native of America, introduced in 1812, by 
Captain Young. 

The pterocarpus santalinus, and another species, 
which the Cyngalese call gan-malu (pterocarpus bilo- 
bus), grow in Ceylon. See Moon's Catalogue of 
Ceylon Plants. 


SCAMMONY. SukmooniaijJy.^ {Ar^h.) Meh^ 

moodeh (Hindooie). Scammon^e (Fr.) Scammonium 

von Aleppo (Ger.J Scammonea (It.) Sukmoonia 

\j3y^ (Duk.) 

Convolvulus Scammonia (Willd.) 

* See his Histoire des Medicamens, p. 286. 

t Avicenna mentions three kinds, luteum, rubrum, and palli- 
dum. <* Affluxum humorum coercet, maxime rubrum, calidos 
tumores discutit, imponiturque erysipaliti." Vide Canon, lib. ii. 
tract ii. p. 250. Loureiro informs us (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. 
p. 432.), that a decoction of the root of the pterocarpus flavus, is 
an excellent and permanent yellow dye. 


This gum resin, which is obtained by incision 
from the root of the plant, does not appear to be at 
all known to the Hindoos. The Mahometan prac- 
titioners are acquainted with it ; but, I presume, 
seldom prescribe it. The Dukhanie name of this 
article, as we learn from Secunder*, is a Syrian 
word ; and we also learn from the same author, that 
the Arabians sometimes bestow on it the appellation 
of mahumooda^ and hence, no doubt, the Hindooie 

I find that scammony is mentioned f amongst the 
medicines which might be sent to Europe from 
India ; it is otherwise, as we see by the Ulfaz Ud- 
wiyeh, brought to India from Antioch of a good 
quality, which it is, when light, glossy, of the colour 
of raw silk, and easily friable, with a peculiar heavy 
odour, and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste. The 
plant is a native of Syria and Cochin-Chinat; and 
is, Russel informs us, found in abundance between 
Aleppo and Latachea. The gum resin is procured 
in the form of a milky juice from the root, which is 
perennial, often more than four feet long, and three 
or four inches broad ; the plant itself) which is of 
the class and order Pentandria Monogynia, and nat. 
order Campanacea (Lin.), " rises commonly to the 
height of sixteen or eighteen feet, sending up many 
twining stems, with arrow-shaped green leaves on 

* See his work, entitled cgi^XijC;^ obJuc Mufurdatie Secunder, 

on the Materia Medica. It was originally written in Syrian, by 
Yahiakoorb, and translated into Persian by Secunder. 

t See Remarks on the Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal, 
p. 205. 

X It grows wild in the woods of Cochin-China, and is called by 
the inhabitants khoai-ca-hoa-vang. Vide Flor. Cochin-Chin, vol. u 
p. 106, 

c c 2 


long foot stalks ; flowers in pairs, having a funnel- 
shaped, pale yellow corolla.*' Scammony is a very 
powerful cathartic, operating quickly, and is particu- 
larly indicated in cases of dropsy, torpor of the in- 
testines, hypochondriasis, and mania ; as well as in 
worm cases, and in that sUmy state of the bowels 
to which children are subject (See Thomson's Lon- 
don Dispensatory.). 

It has been by some authors considered as an irri- 
tating and unsafe medicine ; this, however. Dr. 
Thomson appears to think it only is, in an inflamed 
state of the bowels. Dioscorides takes no notice of 
the dangerous qualities of this powerful cathartic ; 
but Aitius, Mesne*, and some other Arabian writers, 
scruple not to say, that it ought nevert to be used. 
The more modern Arabians and Moguls place 
scammony amongst their Mooshildt-sicffraX vi^i^^M^ 
\jx^ (Chologoga). The usual dose is from gr. v. to 
gr. XV. 

The inferior sort of scammony exported from 
Smyrna, called Smyrna scammony^ and which is 
black, heavy, and splintery. Dr. Thomson seems to 
think is obtained from the same plant that the better 
kind is ; but is, he says, mixed by the Jew mer- 
chants with impurities. Mr. Gray, however, in his 
" Supplement to the PharmacopoeiaSy^ tells us, that it 
is procured from a different plant, periploca scam- 
monium (See his work, p. 62.). 

Celsus recommends scammony in cases of lum- 

* Vide Mesue, Simp, lib.ii. cap.i. fol.47. B. 

f I perceive, however, that Rhazes allows it to be taken cau- 
tiously : " Scammonea bilem rubeam vehementer expellit." Vide 
Oper. de Re MtJ. lib.viii. p. 206. 

X See Noureddeen Mohammed Abdullah Shirazy*s work on the 

Materia Medica, article Lxi^JtAw. 



brices (lib. iv. cap. xvii.). The French * and Ger- 
mans are in the habit of temperating its acrimony, 
by means of a preparation they term diagrydium 
rosatum. The preparations of scammony are the 
confection^ dose from a scruple to a drachm ; the 
compound powder, dose from gr. x. to 9i. ; extract 
colocynth. comp. from gr. v. to 5ss. ; pulv. sennce 
comp. from 9i. to 5i. Twenty-one species of con- 
volvulus grow in Ceylon. 


SENNA. Nildverei also NUavaghet rg^ov)a- 
<nScHy)T (Tam.) Soond mukki ^SC^ IJ^a^ (Hind, and 
Duk.) Sana pat (Beng.) Sund Ua^ (Arab.) Nay- 
la tungddoo (Tel.) Nildverie (Cyng.) Amshun- 
dttydivdndivd also Bootallapotaka (Sans.) also Nela 
ponna (Tel.) Stne (Fr.) Sennabldter (Ger.) Sena 


Cassia Senna (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

This is reckoned one of the best and safest pur- 
gatives that is to be met with in India, where the 
plant grows in great abundance. The natives are, 
however, in the habit of quickening its operation, 
with the addition of a little castor oil, which would 
not be necessary were it the pointed-leaved senna 
(foliis acutis) ; but it is the blunt-leaved senna (senna 

* Of this medicine Duroques says, ** Les persorines qui ont la 
fibre molle, la sensibilite obtuse se trouvent fort bien de ce purga- 
tif, mais on doit en user sobrement dans les climats chauds." See 
Roques Phytographie Medicale, vol. i. p. 262. 

c c 3 


Italica) (foliis obtiisis), and by no means so powerful 
as what is called the Alexandrine senna, on the con- 
tinent of Europe ; and which Niebhur infonns us, 
grows in the territory of Abiiw^ishj and is brought 
bv the Arabs to Mecca and Jedda ; neither is it 
nearly so strong as the pointed-leaved variety w^hich 
is usually carried for sale to Eastern countries, and 
which growls in Arabia Felix in the neighbourhood 
of Mocho. 

Most of the senna used in England is the produce 
of Egypt, the best sort called in Nubia, gtiebell^j 
where it grows wild. The leaves when carefully 
dried (in the sun), have a faint, rather sickly odour, 
and a slightly bitter, sweetish, and nauseous taste. 
It would seem that they are sometimes adulterated 
with tlie leaves of the coronilla emerus, and periploca 
Gr^eca, which last increase their purgative quality; 
these may be detected by being larger and more 
pointed (Delille, Egypt.). 

The usual and best form of giving senna is in in- 
fusion, the dose from about f^iij. to f^iv. prepared 
according to the London Dispensatory, where it is 
i^commended that tlie leaves should be infused in 
boiling hot water for one hour ; but it has been 
ascertained, I have reason to believe by Dr. Gillies 
of Bath, that the infusion becomes infinitely more 
powerful, if the leaves are permitted to infuse for 
the whole night : 5ij. prepared in this mode, with as 
much manna, is an effectual dose for an adult.* 

I was sm'prised to see on reading '* Wadding ton^s 

* Roques, in his Phytographie Medicale, vol. ii. p. 255. ^ give* 
us quite an eulogium on senna, as a purge, in cases of head-ache, 
vertigo, pulmonary catarrh, rheumatism, &c., but cautions us 
against its use : " Lorsque I'embarras des intestins est accom- 
pagne d'une irritation vive, que le langue est rouge, sechc, et 
i'abdomen j^ensible." 


Journey to Ethiopia^^ (p, 227), that in the district of 
Darmahass senna is only used as a dye, and not 
known at all as a medicine. Mr. G. Hughes of 
Palamcotah, a few years ago, succeeded perfectly in 
cultivating the true senna of Arabia, in the Southern 
part of the Indian peninsula ; it is sincerely to be 
hoped, that it may soon become general throughout 
our Asiatic territories. The Arabians place senna 
amongst their Mooshildt sowda b^A*. c^'^.,^ (Mela- 
nogoga), and sometimes give it the name of heyjasie 
(S\\^^i prescribing the infusion in doses of 6 or 7 
direms. Thirty-four species of Cassia were grow- 
ing in the botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814., 
twenty-four of which were oriental plants : fourteen 
Species grow in Ceylon. 

Loiseleur Deslongchamps, in his " Manuel des 
Plantes Usuelles Indigenes" (p. 30. of the 2d. Me- 
moir, vol. ii.), gives us no fewer than six different 
plants which might be substituted for senna ; viz. 
globularia alypum (Lin.), anagyris faetida (Lin.), 
three species of daphne, and the cneorum tricoccon 
(Lin.), the best of which seems to us the first ; three 
drachms of the leaves, in decoction, produced ten 
evacuations. In America and the West Indies, the 
two species, cassia emarginata, and c. marylandica, 
are both occasionally used as senna* 

Senna leaves, according to Legrange (Annales de 
Chemie xxvi.), would seem to be characterized by a 
peculiar extractive matter, which, on being boiled 
for a long time, passes into a resinous substance by 
absorbing oxygen ; they at the same time contain a 
resin, which resists the action of water, but is soluble 
in alcohol. * The officinal preparations of senna, 

^ See Brande's Manual of Chemistry^ vol.iii. p. 1 16. 

c c 4 


are, extract, cassice senncej in/us. senncej already men- 
tioned ; infus. sennce composit. dose from ^ij, to ^iv. ; 
pulv. sennce composit. from 3i. to 3!. ; tinct. sennce from 
31). to^i. ; syrup, sennce from 3!. to 3ij,* ; and conf. 
sennce from 3!. to 3V. 

The Cassia senna " seldom rises higher than two 
feet and a half; the leaves are pinnate, and placed 
in alternate order ; the leaflets, of which each leaf 
has five or six pairs, are sessile, oval, pointed, and of 
a yellowish-green colour ; the flowers yellow ; and 
the fruit an ovate membraneous leafy compressed 
legume." * 

I perceive, Dr. Paris, in his Pharmalogia, p. 513. 
informs us, that senna leaves are adulterated with 
those of the chynanchum oleafolium (arguel), and 
those of the colutea arborescens. 


, SNIPE. Wooldn s^ox-ox^rroOT (Tam.) Toon- 
gha kodu (Tel.) Punkookrte (s'^^y&> ^. (Duk.) 
Punkoul (Hind.) Becassine (Fr.) tfj^iXA^) Kun- 

didie (Mai.) Beccaccino (It.) Sha-chuy (Chin.) 

ScoLOPAx Gallinago (Lath.) 

The snipe is a common bird all over India, and is 
considered as one of the greatest delicacies by the 
European inhabitants. The Mahometans consider 
the flesh of the snipe as possessing tonic and stimu- 
lating qualities. The Jack snipe (scolopax gallinula) 

* Lassaigne and Feneulle seem to be of opinion, that the ac- 
tivity of senna depends upon the presence of a peculiar vegetable 
principle, which they have termed cathartine. See Annales de 
Chemie et Physique, «ome xvi. p. 16. 


is not near so common as the other species, and is a 
much smaller bird. What is termed the painted 
snipe by the English in India is a most beautiful 
bird, with a lovely variegated plumage. It is, I be- 
lieve, the s. capensis of Latham ; it is a larger bird 
than either of the species just mentioned, and its 
flight more resembles that of the woodcock, than the 
snipe ; it has, however, the cry of the snipe on 
rising, but of a deeper tone. The Tamools name it 
segapoo mookooldriy in Tellinghoo it is kussoo kodie. 
The Hindoos recommend the flesh of the snipe in 
incontinence of urine ! 

In a manuscript volume* in the India house, com- 
posed chiefly, I believe, by Dr.F. Hamilton, I find no 
less than nine species of scolopax described as Indian 
birds. Dr. Horsfield has given us with his usual 
accuracy two species as Javanese birds ; the s. satu- 
rati (Horsf.) w^hich is the tekker (Jav.), and the 
s. gallinago, the burchet (Jav.) 


SOAP, INDIAN. Nat sowcarum q)^T[_^(S•^<!^ 
m^rrrTLD (Tam.) Saboon qj^v'^ (Arab, and Duk.) 
Savon (Fr.) Seife (Ger.) Sapone (It.) Syjah 
^^ (Mai.) Saboon ^^^U (Mai.) 

This inferior kind t of soap, and which is com- 

* I hope to be excused for now expressing a regret, that the 
valuable contents of this volume have not been given to the public. 

t In the days of Pliny, soap seems to have been made with 
goat's tallow, and the ashes of the beech tree : " Optimus fagino 
et caprino, SfC.f" Pliny, xviii, sect. 51. p. 475. Avicenna was well 
acquainted with its aperient qualities : " Crudum humorem dejicit 
peralvium." Canon, lib. ii. tract ii. p. 251. 


monly called by the English in India country soap, \ 
is employed by the Vytians as a medicine ; and is 
prescribed by them in camme vdivoo (tympanites), in 
which disease they suppose it to have particular 
virtues. The different articles employed in the pre- 
paration of it are, overmunnoo (Tam.) (an impure 
carbonate of sodsL^j poonkeer^ (Tam.), a light coloured 
earth containing a great proportion of carbonate of 
soda), pottle ooppoo (salt petre), and chunamhoo (quick 
lime). Proper proportions of each of these having 
been selected, they are all bruised together, and to 
the whole is added a certain quantity of fresh water ; 
then the mixture is well agitated for many hours, 
and allowed to stand for three days : the feculent 
matter having fallen to the bottom, the clear part is 
strained off, and boiled to form the sowcaruniy a 
sufficient quantity of gingilie oil ( sesamum Orien- 
tale) having been previously added when it began 
first to boil. It will easily be seen how coarse and 
imperfect this soap must be, when compared, with 
the sapo durus (Lond.), which is manufactured in 
Spain. The best soaps in Europe are made with 
olive oil and soda. Soft soap is a compound of 
potassa and some of the common oils, even fish oil is 
often used for this purpose. Pelletier made 100 
parts of new soap, to consist of GO-Q^ oil, 8*56 alkali, 
and 30-50 water. 

* Reserabling, in its nature, that species of impure fossil alkali, 
called trona, at Tripoli, which is found near the surface of the 
earth, in the province of Mendraby and which the Africans of 
Morocco use in the process of dyeing leather red. See Lucas's 
Travels in the Interior of Africa. 



SOLE FISH. Naak meen rE>rr^(^\jy^cur (Tarn.) 

Kowlie mutchie n-f-^ \y^ (Duk.) , Ecan Uda (Mai.) 

Sole (Fr.) Sogliola (It.) also Caddil naakmeen 

(Tarn.) also Inminddk meen (Tarn.) also Byns ke 

jeb 4-Nx:5^ ^ ^-M^Aj (Duk.) Mandel meen (Malealie). 

Pleuronectes Solea, 

The sole in India is reckoned amongst the best of 
all the fish kind, being at once light, extremely nu- 
tritive, delicate, and one of those that may with the 
greatest safety be given to people of weak digestions. 
Soles are common both on the Coromandel and 
Malabar coasts ; in the last mentioned country they 
are particularly large, and are called Mdndell meen 
by the Tamools. The genus pleuronectes is dis- 
tinguished by pectoral fins, and both eyes on the 
the same side of the head ; it contains no less than 
forty species, and derives its name from yrXsppou latus^ 
and vexTTis natator. The sole fish is highly esteemed 
by the Chinese, who call it ta-sha. 


E^n"a"LO (Tam.) also Poonheer kdrum (Tarn.) 
Kdrj\^s (Hind.) also Sedgie muttie (Hind.) also 
Sagilouj also Chmkdldon (Hind.) Sujd cdrd (Can.) 
Booniroo (Tel.) Chdrum (Mai.) Sarjical^f^^J 


also Sarjikashdra ^f^^T^TT C^^^^O Savittie- 
munnoo ooppoo (Tel.) Jumed chenee ^^j^j^ ^x*^ 
(Arab.) Carbonate de sonde (Fr.) Kohlensaures 
natrum (Ger.) Carbonato di soda (It.) 

Carbonas Sod^ Impura. 

Some of the more enlightened Vytians know well 
how to prepare carbonate of soda from the earths 
which contain it, (and which abound in many parts 
of Lower India,) such as over munnoo ^, ^wApoonheerA 
The soda prepared from the first mentioned eartht, 
is called in Dukhanie chowr ke muttialm nemitck ; 
that from the second chowr ke pool ka nemuck^ 
the most common name of which is valeiel ooppoo, 
so named from the circumstance of its being em- 
ployed in the manufacture of glass bracelets. In 
Tellingoo it is gaz ooppoOj and in Sanscrit kdchil 
Idvdnum ; as it is found in the bazar, it is in regular 
whitish cakes about the third part of an inch thick, 
and appears to contain much muriate of soda. 

The native practitioners of India suppose it to 
have virtues in dropsy, particularly in maghodrum 
(ascites) ; it is also used in glass and soap making 
(see article Karum in another part of this work). 
The subcarbonate of soda is not of so acrid a nature 
as the subcarbonate of potass, and is antacid and 

* Called in Hindoostanie rih mittie, in Canarese soula munnu, 
in Tellinghoo savittie munnooy and in Sanscrit ossara. 

f A very light, white coloured, earthy matter, containing a 
great proportion of carbonate of soda. 

J We learn from the Transactions of the Bombay Literary 
Society, vol. iii. p. 53., that carbonate of soda was found by 
Captain J. Stewart, on the ground, on the banks of the Chumbul 
river, near the village of Peeplouduy just where the Chaumlee and 
Chumbul join. 


deobstruent ; it is in consequence much employed in 
dyspepsia, acidities of the stomach, and scrophulous 
affections. With regard to its good effects in hoop- 
ing cough, which disease it has been thought to have 
the power of checking, I cannot speak with much 
confidence ; the mode of giving it in that complaint, 
recommended by Dr. Thomson, is first in combin- 
ation with ipecacuanha and opium, and afterwards 
with myrrh and cinchona. The dose of this salt is 
from gr. x. to 9ij. or more, twice or thrice daily. 

I have hitherto only mentioned the carbonate of 
soda that is obtained from certain earths in India, in 
the same way as we also know it to be in Egypt, 
where it is termed trona by the natives. Most of 
this salt, however, used in Europe, is of a vegetable 
origin, chiefly procured from the ashes of various 
algce, especially from those of the salsola soda, a 
plant cultivated on the shores of the Mediterranean 
Sea ; what of it is thus * got, is the barilla of 
commerce. What is made in England by burning 
the sea- wrack (mostly the fucus vesiculossus) is 
called kelp. 

Oomarie charum is the name given on the Ma- 
labar coast, to the ashes of a burnt sea plant, bearing 
a yellow flower, and which, on examining, I found 
to be the salsola Indica. These ashes are used by the 
inhabitants in the process of dyeing and bleaching 
cloth ; and no doubt act by means of the soda they 
contain. The plant does not differ materially from 
the salsola soda, already mentioned ; and which, by 

* In the days of Pliny, a mineral alkali appears to have been 
prepared in Egypt from the ashes of certain plants ; and Strabo, as 
cited by Beckman, mentions an alkaline water in Armenia, used 
for washing clothes. History of Inventions, vol. iii. p. 233. 


the way grows at the Cape of Good Hope *, and is 
there called by the Hottentots carina. 

There are other plants in India used for the pur- 
pose of burning, to procure ashes containing soda ; 
their names are narie oomarie (Tarn.) (salsola nudi- 
flora), oomarie mdrum (Tarn.) (salsola elata (Rottler), 
and pdghdrdj pooiidoo (Tarn.), salicornia Indica^ 
which differs but little from the two glassworts, sali- 
cornia perennanSj and sal. Jruticosa, which are burnt 
in Europe to procure soda for making soap and 

I shall conclude this article by observing, that the 
aqua supercarbonatis sodae, in doses of a pint or 
more, twice daily, is an excellent medicine in cases 
of acidity in the stomach, and calculous complaints ; 
half a pint of it poured over two table spoonsful of 
lemon juice, sweetened with a little sugar, forms a 
pleasant effervescing draught. 


SORREL, Sookan keeray ^^^rr(5^^^;^ry 
(Tam.) Chukka ^y^ (Duk.) Kdtoo tumpala (Cyng.) 
Chukrika r:| fc^i^^iT Satavedhi SjJrT^^CSans.) Chooka 
palung (Beng.) Chewka (Hindooie). Tursheh ^y? 
(Pers.; Soori (Cyng.) Acetosa (It.) Oseille (Fr.) 

RuMEx Vesicarius (Lin.) 

* Where, according to Burchell's account (Travels in Southern 
Africa), the ashes of the salsola aphylla are used by the 
Dutch colonists as an alkali in soap making (see his work, vol.i. 
p. 419.). 


CI. and Ord. Hexandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 

The rumex vesicarius has obtained the name of 
sorrel in India, owing to its resemblance to the 
rumex acetosa, in taste and other qualities ; it is an 
article of diet, and is considered by the natives as 
cooling and aperient, and to a certain extent diuretic. 
It is, I am inclined to think, the same species that is 
common in Arabia, where it is a favorite medicine, 
and called by the names of huhuck khorasdnee 
^UV^ kJu^ and humaz jj^L^^^.. It is also a native of 
Egypt, and termed by the Arabs there tix^-i^^ 

The use of sorrel was known to the ancients ; 
Pliny was of opinion that it rendered animal food 
lighter of digestion. Boerhaave extolled its virtues 
for hot putrid constitutions. On the continent of 
Europe, such as in Switzerland, an essential salt *, 
called salt of sorrel, is prepared from the r. acetosa. 
Savary in his " Desertatio Inauguralis de Sale Essent* 
acetosae, Argentor 1773/^ says, that fifty pounds of 
sorrel produce only two ounces and a half of pure 
salt. What is termed oxalic acid in England is found 
in great quantity in the juice of the oxalis acetosella 
or wood sorrel, also in some fruits and rhubarbs. 
Mr. Brande tells us, that it is most readily procured 
by the action of nitric acid upon sugar, and has hence 
been named acid qfsugari; procured in this way, it 
is in the form of four-sided prisms, transparent, and 
extremely acid, and composed, according toBrezelius, 
of real acid 52, and water 48 -parts. The difference 
betwixt the common sorrel (rumex acetosa) and our 

* See Phillip's History of Cultivated Vegetables, vol. ii. p. 221. 
f A name, I am sorry to say, which often leads to fatal con- 


article is, that the first has flowers hermaphrodite, 
gemenite, with leaves undivided ; the last, flowers 
dioecous, leaves oblong, sagittate. The Peruvians, 
according to the Flora Peruviana, give an infusion of 
sorrel in cases of depraved habit of body ; the 
natives call it acelgas. In Chili it is called gualtata. 


LD/^eFCcBTr(^ rg^/ (Tarn.) Downah (Duk.) Da- 
xvanum (Tel.) Kysoom ^y^ (Arab.) Birurijasif 
cJi-w^l^V (Pers.) Gundmar (Hind.) Ddwdndkdha 


Artemisia Austriaca (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Compositae Nucamentaceae. 

This species of wormwood has, improperly, got 
the name of Indian southernwood, by the European 
inhabitants on the Coromandel coast, from its resem- 
blance to the artemisia abrotanum.* The Tamools 
sometimes mix the fine powder of the leaves with 
gingilie oil, and anoint themselves with it after bath- 
ing ; the Mahometans prize it for its fragrance as a 
flower ; it is one of those sweet-smelling herbs that 
are strewed before the Hindoo gods at religious 

But two species of artemisia grow in Ceylon j the 
a. Indica (waUkolondu)^ and a. maderaspatana (wceU 

* Which is, however, I perceive, a native of Cochin-China (with 
five other species), and there called thanh-hao. Flor. Cochin-Chin, 
vol. ii. p. 490. It also grows in the island of Nipon, Flor. Japon. 
p. 309. 



SPONGE. Isfeiy ^jS.Ji (Arab.) Ahermoordeh 

xy^^l (Pers.) Mooabadul (Hind.) Uniwatta 
(Japan.) Epoiige (Fi\) Meerschwamm (Ger.) 

Spunga (It.) 


Sponge is sometimes, though rarely, exposed for 
sale in the bazars of Lower India ; brought from 
the Red Sea. It was Mr. ElUs who first established 
the fact, tliat it actually was an animal sui generis 
(Philosoph. Transac. iv. p. 234.) ; though Blumen- 
bauch, in his " Manuel d'HistoireNaturelle'* (tom.ii. 
p. 87.)> says, he doubts much whether sponge is 
really of the animal kingdom, as has been supposed. 
The spongia officinalis is found by the divers chiefly 
in the Mediterranean and Red Seas ; generally at- 
tached to the bottom of the rocks. When properly 
prepared, it is very porous, light, soft, and of a 
brownish yellow colour. 

The antacid properties of burnt sponge are suffi- 
ciently well ascertained, and its tonic and deobstruent 
qualities have been much vaunted ; it has been re- 
commended in scrophulous affections, bronchocele, 
and herpetic eruptions ; and Dr. Thomson tells us, 
that he himself has witnessed its efficacy in schirrous 
testicle, in combination with the cinchona bark ; the 
dose from gi. to giij., in the form of an electuary. 
The ancients used sponge much in surgery : ^^ Si 
vero tumores dolent, levat spongia imposita, quae 
subinde ex oleo, et aceto, vel aqua frigida exprimitur'* 
(Celsus, lib. iv. cap. xxiv.). Avicenna says of it : 

VOL. I. D D 


" Spongia cum pice usta accommodatum est, sputo 
sanguinis praesidium/* Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. 

p. 47- 


SQUILL, substitute for. Nurri vungyum r^rr-Q, 

crufE/s^n-uuLD (Tarn.) Junglie piaz j[ju ^JC;^ 

(Duk.) Unsool J^^xc (Arab.) also Iskeel ^JUl 

(Arab.) Kanda (Hind.) Peydz-ideshtee ^^a^^jIaj 

(Pers.) Nurriala (Cyng.) Addivitella giiddaloo 


Erythronium Indicum (Rottler). 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The bulbous root of the erythronium Indicum 
(Rottler), has got the name of squill in India, from 
its resemblance to the root of the scilla maritima in 
appearance and natural qualities ; it does not grow 
so large as the squill, and is rounder in shape ; but is 
formed in a similar manner, with fleshy scales, and 
is of a bitterish, nauseous, and acrid taste. This 
species of erythronium, would seem to have been 
first scientifically described by the excellent Dr. 
Rottler, of Madras ; and appears to differ from the 
erythronium dens canis, in having longer and nar- 
rower leaves, with larger flowers of a paler colour. 
The true squill, or S?c/XX7j of the Greeks, has been 
said to grow in Ceylon ; though Dr. White, of Bom- 
bay, was of opinion, that this was not the case; but 
that the amarylUs^ zeylanica had been mistaken for 
the scilla maritima. 

Our article is chiefly employed by the farriers for 

* Which is the goda-manel of the Cyngalese. 


horses, in cases of strangury and fever ; it grows in 
abundance on waste sandy lands, in Lower India, 
especially in situations near the sea. 

The Arabians and Persians place squills amongst 
their Discutientia, Mbhelildt v:^i\Xs:-«> and Attenuantia, 
Muluttifat c»likJU-* 

Of the true squill, to produce expectorant and 
diuretic effects, the substance is the best form ; gr. i. 
in a pill morning and evening, gradually increasing 
the dose to gr. v. or gr. vi., until nausea is brought 
on, or its expectorant or diuretic operation is ob- 
tained. The dose of the acetum scillce^ to excite 
vomiting, is from half a drachm to one drachm and 
a half; that of the oocymel from half a drachm to 51]. 
The bulbous root of the scilla maritima contains, 
according to Vogelt, a bitter principle, to which he 

1 has given the name of scillitiUi united with a gum, 
and much tannin. 
Both Alibert and Roques speak of the occasional 

j poisonous effects of squills, on animals ; occasioning 
nausea, vomitings, vertigo, and violent convulsions 

' if over-dosed. The latter observes, that, as a me- 

i dicine, squills had great fame amongst the Egyp- 
tians ; and was supposed, by Pythagoras, to have the 
power of prolonging life. Roquect thinks it more 

' indicated in dropsy than any other malady. 

* Rhazes says of it, *• Scylla callda et acuta, haec autem epiJep- 
siae, ac tumore splenis necnon, et ejus magnitudini atque viperarum 
morsibus, et dyspnese vetustae auxilium tribuit.'* Vide Oper. 
i Rhaz. de Re Med. lib. iii. p. 79. Avicenna extols the many 
virtues of squills ; externally, he says, it does good in epilepsy 
and melancholy, applied to the head : *' Vim nacta est discusso- 
riam et tarn sanguinem, quam excrementa foras protrahit." Canon. 
Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 33. 

t See Annales de Chimie, Ixxxlv, 

X Sec his admirable work, entitled Phytographie Medicale, 
vol. i. p. 102. 

D D 9. 



STARCH. Ahgoon qj^I (Arab.) Neshaste 
Ax^LiJ (Pers.) Geehoonkaheer (Hindooie). 


The Mahometans know well how to prepare starch 
from wheat as we do ; they also sometimes make it 
from the large edible roots, such as from that of 
the kood (Tam.), curcuma angustifolia, &c. The 
Arabians place starch amongst their Anodynes (Mo- 
suckendt oxvjd pLi^l oUSC^*^^), their Styptics, and their 
Astringents, Kdhizdt cX^ojVi. Starch is chiefly used 
by European practitioners in the form of enema, for 
sheathing the rectum, in cases of abrasion, and in- 
flammation of the gut ; and for allaying the irritating 
effects of acrid bile. The conversion of starch into 
sugar is a curious fact, first discovered by Mr. 
Kirchoff^ and subsequently confirmed by M. M. de 
la Rivcj Saussitrej and others. Perhaps the best 
analysis of starch is that by Berzelius : 

Carbon - - - - 43-481 
Oxygen - - - - 48*455 
Hydrogen - - -^ 7*064 


See Thomson's Annals, vol. v. 



STORAX, BALSAM. Usteruh J>^5 (Arab.) 
Storax (Fr.) Storax (Ger.) Storace (It.) 

Styrax Officinale (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Storax is seldom found in any of the Indian 
bazars, and appears to be only known to the Maho- 
metan practitioners. Isteruk is, properly speaking, 
the Arabic name of the pure or tear storax ; the red 
kind is in the same tongue called salajet Cv^iUw ; the 
liquid storax * they term silarus fj^j'^<^ ; another 
Arabic name for storax is meaht Xju^ : they place it 
amongst their Stimulantia, Mudorrat wt^Jco, and 
Mosebetdt v:^LAAA^^, Hypnotica.f 

The styrax officinale grows in the Levant, seldom 
rising higher than twenty feet ; with numerous 
branches, and covered with a grey bark, from which, 
by incisions, the storax issues. Storax is too well 
known to require being particularly described here ; 
it has an agreeable odour, and a pleasant, subacidu- 
lous, aromatic, yet slightly pungent taste ; it has 
been considered as stimulant and expectorant, but 

* The liquid storax, or what the French call liquidambar^ also 
copalme^ Virey informs us, exudes, by incision, from the liquidam- 
bar styraciflua, a North American tree ; but more likely, I think, 
from another, indeed, the only other species, 1. imberbe, an 
oriental plant. 

f Avicenna says of this substance, *^ Calidus est gradu tertio, 
siccus primo ; calefacit, concoquit, emollit valde ; tussi vaucae 
et interceptcB voci prode^t.'* Vide Canon. Med, lib. ii. tract ii. 
p. 41. 

D D 3 


is now but little used in practice; the dose from 
gr. viii. to 9ij. 

The physicians on the continent of Europe* con- 
sider storax as resembling the balsam of Peru in its 
nature, and think that it might be substituted for it. 
But this last mentioned substance possesses virtues, 
when applied externally, in arresting the progress of 
phagedenic ulcers and mortification, which are alto- 
gether peculiar to itself Many are the lives I have 
saved by its use, in India, by having fortunately 
discovered that it had the specific quality of putting 
an immediate check to sphacelous affections, in cases 
in which every thing else had failed. I used it in this 
way; lint, drenched in the balsam, was applied 
morning and evening to the face of the sore, for 
three days together : sometimes by the end of the 
second day the face of the sore was clean. 


SUET, MUTTON. Aatoo kdlupoo ^L.(5^e^G 
^rro^ L-'M (Tam.) Vaynta-kovoo (Tel.) Lerriak 
(Mai.) Buchrdhechirbie ^j^ J isjLi (Duk.) EU 
loo muss tail (Cyng.) Addja vuppa (Sans.) 

Sevum Ovillum, 

The native doctors employ this, as we do, in the 
preparation of ointments; they also administer it 
internally, in conjunction with the fruit of the sunga 
mdrum (monetia barlerioides), nutmeg, and cubebs, 
in cases of hemoptysis, and in certain stages of 
phthisis pulmonalis. 

^ See Murray's Appar. Med. vol. i. p. 114. 



SUGAR- Sakkarct ^u^^qujCt (Tarn.) Sarkara 
l^J^ (Sans.) Sucre (Fr.) Zucker (Ger.) Azu^ 
c^r (Span.) Shukkir ^ti* (Pers. and Duk.) Chenee 
(Hindooie). Goola *S^ (Mai.) Pdnchdddrd (Tel.) 
Bukhir j^^ (Arab.) Kussib sukhir jL^ <^i (Sugar 
cane, Arab.) Saker (Mah.) Assucar (Port.) Zuc- 

chero (It.) 

Saccharum Officinarum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Triandria Digynia. 

The author of the Remarks on the Husbandry 
and Internal Commerce of Bengal (p. 126.), seems 
to be of opinion, that the sugar-cane grew luxuriantly 
throughout Bengal, in the most remote ages (p.l26)j 
and that from India* it was introduced into Europe 
and Africa; and it is a fact, that from the Sanscrit 
word for manufactured sugar (sakkara), are derived 
the Persian, Greek, Latin, and modern European 
names of the sugar-cane, and its produce: the same 
excellent author expresses a doubt, if the sugar-cane 
was indigenous in Am erica t, as historical facts seem 
to contradict it. From Benares to Rengpur, from 
the borders of Assam to those of CataCj there is 
scarcely a district in Bengal, in which the sugar-cane 

* In Japan it was found by Thunberg, there called by the na- 
tives kansia, also sato dake. Flor. Jap. p. 42. Loureiro says of 
it, <* habitat, in omnibus provinciis Cochin-Chinensis." Vide Flor. 
Cochin-Chin, vol.i. p. 52. 

f The enlightened Humboldt tells us, that the Spaniards 
first imported the sugar-cane from the Canary Islands to St. 
Domingo ; and that Peter D'Atienza planted the first sugar-canes, 
in 1520, at Conception de la Vega. See his Account of New 
Spain, vol.iii. p. 3., English translation. 

D D 4 


does not flourish. The growth of sugar for home 
consumption in India is vast, and it only needs en- 
couragement to equal the demand of Europe ; but 
how far encouragement to this extent would be 
politic, having in view our West India Islands, is 
another question, and foreign to my pursuit. 
. The sugar-cane is also cultivated for the manu- 
facture of sugar, in many parts of the territories 
belonging to the Madras establishment, as \yell as at 
Bombay ; it is a product of various other Eastern 
countries ; for instance, according to Crawfurd, 
three varieties are indigenous in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. Much sugar is made in Siam. On Java it 
was manufactured to a great extent by the Dutch, 
so much so, that in the province of Jaccatra* alone, 
in 1768, no less than thirteen millions of pounds 
were produced. The sugar of Lahore is of an 
excellent quality ; it may be procured in any quan- 
tity in the Philippine Islands, but little of it is 
exported by the Spaniards. In Persia, in the pro- 
vince of Kuzistan, it is successfully cultivated, t 

The Hindoos value sugar very highly: in its 
unrefined state it is offered at the shrines of their 
gods ; it is presented by inferiors to superiors as a 
mark of respect ; and is considered by the Vytians 
as extremely nutritious, pectoral, and anthelmintic. 
The Arabians reckon it detergent and emollient $, in 
doses of twenty direms. Dr. Cullen classes it with 

* See Sketches Civil and Military of Java, p. 40. 

f In the days of Pliny, sugar appears to have been brought to 
Rome from Arabia and India (Nat. Hist. lib. xii. cap. viii.). The 
Arabians, in the days of Avicenna, had some singular notions 
regarding it ; " Utile est ventriculo, qui bihs non ferax, huic 
enem nocet, quod videlicet facile in bilem facessat.*' Vide Canon. 
Med. lib.ii. tract ii. 

X See Materia Medica, by Noureddeen Mahammed AbduUa 
Shirazy, article 1015. 


his Attenuantia. Bergius states it to be ** saporiacea, 
edulculcorans, relaxans, pectoralis, vulneraria, anti- 
septica, et nutriens ;'* of the two last there is no 
doubt, and that it is pectoral, we trust will as readily 
be allowed. It has, besides, been supposed to have 
virtues in calculous complaints. 

The species of saccharum from which the Chinese 
procure their sugar, is the s. sinense(Roxb.), and the 
yjkj of the Malays ; it yields sugar of a much richer 
quality than the Indian cane, and continues to pro- 
duce even to the third year, while the other must be 
renewed yearly (see Flora Indica, pp. 244, 245.). 
This species (s. sinense) seems to differ from the 
s. officinarum chiefly in having the flat leaves 
with hispid margins, and a corol of two valves on 
the same side ; the other has a one-valved corol. 
The Sanscrit name of the s. officinarum is ikshoo, 
it is ook (Beng.), and cheriikoo bodi (Tel.). Ten 
species of saccharum were growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta in 1814, all of which are oriental 
plants. Besides the sugar procured from the com- 
mon sugar-cane, this useful article is obtained in 
India from other sources ; such as from the toddy of 
the cocoa-nut. This kind of sugar is called tenne 
vellum (Tam.) ; naril ka goor J^riT Jo^U (Duk.) ; 
tenkdiabellum (Tel.). The sugar got from the toddy 
of the caryota urens is called in Tamool koondel 
panel vellum. Then again, that sugar prepared from 
the toddy of the palmyra tree (borassus flabellifor- 
mis) is termed in Tamool pannay vellum ; in Duk- 
hanie tar ka goor^yf IT JU ; and in Tellingoo tatie 
helium. All these sugars are common in the bazars 
of India ; they are altogether unrefined, and known 
by the English under the general name of jagg^fies^ 
which is also applied to common coarse sugar. 


Sugar, as analysed by Th^nard, consists of 

Carbon .... 42*47 
Oxygen .... 50-63 
Hydrogen .... 6-90 


According to Berzelius : 

Carbon 44-5 

Oxygen - - - - 49-4 

Hydrogen - - - - 6-1 


I shall conclude this article by observing, that in 
Bengal there are three varieties of the sugar-cane 
cultivated * : the poorly the kqjooUy and the kullooa. 
The second of these, or purple cane, produces the 
sweetest sugar ; the first, or yellow cane, yields the 
next best ; the last, or light-coloured cane, yields a 
sugar which is of inferior quality. In Mysore two 
kinds of sugar cane are chiefly cultivated, the restali 
and puttaputtiy both yield bella or jaggery. The 
restali will not survive for a second crop ; but the 
puttaputti may be followed by a second reaping. 
The jaggery of the sugar-cane is called in Tamool 
nulla velluTYiy from being the best ; that of Palmyra 
toddy is termed karapootie (Tam.) 

For an account of the different modes of culti- 
vating the sugar-cane, and manufacturing sugar in 

* In Ceylon five species of saccharum grow : the s. ofEcinarum 
is there called in Cyngalese uk-gas ; there are three varieties, the 
common, white, and purple. See Moon's Catalogue of Cyngalese 
Plants, p. 7. 


the East and West Indies, the reader may consult 
the Asiatic Journal for April, 1823, p. 336. 


SULPHUR. Gendagum G^CB^^ld (Tarn.) 
Ghendagum fTel.) Gunduclc JlxjJ* (Duk.) Kdbrit 
Cj^ (Arab.) Gowgird :^j^S'yS' (Pers.) Gundhuc 
(Hindooie). Blerong (Mai.) Gunddka (Cyng.) 
Gandhaka (Sang.) Soufre (Fr.) Schwefel (Ger.) 
Zolfo (It.) Gunduk (Mah.) Lexv (Chin.) 


This would appear to be a very uncommon pro- 
duction in India ; we are told that about thirty 
miles North of Oudipoor * in Upper Hindoostan it 
is met with, but of a quahty inferior to that which is 
brought from the gulph of Cutch and Persia. In 
Travancore it has, I understand, been discovered by 
Captain Arthur, in combination with iron (in the 
form of pyrites). In Colioti^ in Canara - too, I am 
informed that it is to be found. Dr. Heyne tells us, 
in his Tracts Historical and Statistical of India' ' 
(p. 186, 187), that he met with sulphur in small 
heaps, and in tolerable abundance, at the Northern 
extremity of a lake which is near a small village 
called Sura-sany-yanam^ about twelve miles East from 
Ammalapore, and not far from Maddepolam ; it was 
in a loose, soft form, or in semi-indurated nodules of 
a greyish yellow colour. The greater part of the 
sulphur, however, which is exposed for sale in the 

* See Asiatic Journal for Dec. 1824. 


Indian provinces, is brought from Muscat, from Su- 
matra*, or from the Banda Island, called Gonongapi^ 
wtiere it is a volcanic production. In China, Dr. 
Abel had some most beautiful and splendid native 
sulphur brought to him, from the crater of Gunong 
Karang. Sonnerat informs us, that it is common at 
Pegu t, and we know that it is a product of the 
Philippine Islands t, particularly in the island of 
Leyte, whence the gunpowder works of Manilla are 
supplied. Most of the sulphur we get in Hindoostan 
contains a considerable portion of orpiment, being 
much less pure than either that which is dug out of 
the solfatara, near Naples, or that imported from 
Sicily ; which last, Dr. Thomson says, contains 
seldom more of impurity than about three per cent, 
of a simple earth. A bright-shining yellow sulphur 
is sold in the bazars of Lower India, under the name 
of nellikai ghenddgum (Tam.). By Dr. F. Hamil- 
ton's excellent Account of Nepaul (p. 78.), it ap- 
pears that sulphur mines are there numerous; this use- 
ful article is also found in Persia, in mountains behind 
Tehran and in the same country, in mountains South 
of Keldt in the province of Mekran.^ It is met 
with in Cabul in the district of Bulkh ||, it is also a 
product of Armenia^y of Moultan^^j of China, and 
Thibet tt ; also, according toMoriertt, at Bahouba in 
Persia, in the district of Kaleat. With regard to 

* See Elmore's Guide to the Indian Trade, p. 57. 
f See Sonnerat's Voyage to the East Indies, vol. iii. p. 26. 
X See De Comyn's State of the Philippine Islands, p. 37. 
§ See Macdonald Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, 
pp. 40 and 224. 

II See Elphinston*s Account of Cabul, p. 146. 

^ See Geographical Memoir of Persia, p. 319. 

** See Pennant's View of Hindoostan, vol. i. p. 37. 

f f See Kirkpatrick's Account of Nepaul, p. 206. 

\X See Morier's First Journey through Persia, p. 284. 


I the Indian Islands, Mr.Crawfurd, in his History of the 
Indian Archipelago, says (vol. i. pp. 201, 202.) that 
sulphur is found in all the pseudo volcanoes of these 
islands in great purity, but that the manufacture of 
gun-powder amongst the Malays is very imperfect ; 
this they call uhaUhadel. Mr. Hughes, in his valuable 
Travels in Sicily, Greece, and Albania, informs us, 
that in the first-mentioned country, the stone sulphur 
is dug out of a mountain near Falma^ on the road to 
Alicatay about twenty- two miles South of Girgenti 

J (see work, vol. i. p. 14.). 

Sulphur is much used by the Hindoo doctors, as 
well as by the Mahometan practitioners, in cases of 
itch, and other cutaneous affections, mixed com- 
monly with the powdered seeds of the carin siragum 

\ (nigella sativa), and gingihe oil ; they also prescribe 
it internally for the koostum (lepra Arabum), for the 
Icirandi (venereal herpes), and for that contracted 
state of the limbs, they call shoolay kuttoo. By 
European medical men, this well known substance is 

\ employed as a laxative medicine and stimulating 
diaphoretic ; and would appear to be particularly in- 

. dicated as an aperient in haemorrhoidal affections 

, from the gentleness of its operation : dose from 9ij. 

I to jiij. made into an electuary with syrup, or it may 
be taken in milk. Physicians on the European con- 
tinent, such as Scemmering, consider sulphur as pos- 
sessing virtues in diseases of the absorbents. Barthez 
on the other hand supposed it to be peculiarly useful 

i in the gout. Dr. Thomson cautions us against the 

\ exhaustion it is so apt to induce ; and therefore, 
when employed in conjunction with squills in drop- 
sical cases, recommends that its use should be followed 
by a course of tonics. Of this medicine Celsus 



says, ** Conquit et movet pus ; aperit vulnera^ pur- 
gatj ea:edit corpus.^^ 

Sulphur is too well known to require a particular 
description. Its specific gravity is 1 -990 ; by friction 
it becomes negatively electrical ; it is principally a 
mineral product, and occurs crystallized. It is met 
with in masses ; in which state it is chiefly brought 
from Sicily. In rolls or sticks (as obtained in 
England from roasting pyrites), if grasped by a 
warm hand it crackles. In the form of powder it 
it is called ^ot^er^ of sulphur or sublimed sulphur ; 
what is termed milk of sulphur ^ is when it has been 
precipitated for pharmaceutical purposes, from alca- 
line solutions, by an acid, and subsequently washed 
and dried. Sulphur if pure, when heating gradually 
on a piece of platinum leaf will totally evaporate, 
and is perfectly soluble in boiling oil of turpentine 
(see Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. i. pp. 386, 
387). Sulphur is spoken of by Hippocrates under 
the name of ®siov * ; and was prescribed by him and 
his followers in asthma and cutaneous complaints. 


(Pers.) Tumtum (^♦j'(Arab.) 

Rhus Coriaria (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Trigynia. Nat. Ord. 

* See an account of Dierbach's Materia Medica of Hippo- 
crates, in that most valuable publication, the Edinburgh Medical 
and Surgical Journal, for July 1825, p. 158. 


The rhus coriaria does not grow in India ; but I 
perceive that the plant has a place in the Ulfaz Ud- 
wiyeh, and is therefore known in the higher tracts of 
Hindoostan. It is a native of Persia, Syria, Pales- 
tine, as well as of Spain, France and Portugal. The 
Syrians employ the leaf and seeds in medicine ; con- 
sidering them as useful styptics and astringents. The 
Tripoli merchants sell them at Aleppo, where they 
are taken internally by the inhabitants, with a view 
of provoking an appetite. In Spain, Portugal, and 
especially in France (about Montpelier, where the 
plant is called redoul) it is cultivated with great 
care, its shoots being employed for the purpose.of 
tanning leather. Sumach is no longer an article of 
our Materia Medica. We are informed by Virey in 
his " Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens'' (p. 288), 
that this plant, which the French curriers term roure^ 
is considered as antiseptic ; and that it is useful in 
dysentery and scorbutic complaints. The fruit is 
acid and astringent, and at one time was much em- 
ployed in dysentery, in France, in doses, of the sub- 
stance, of gr. xxiv., also in decoction. The bark 
of the stem is a yellow dye, that of the root a 

The rhus coriaria has a strong woody stem, with 
many irregular branches ; the leaves are composed 
of seven or eight pairs of leaflets, terminated by an 
odd one. The leaflets are about two inches long, 
and of a yellowish-green colour. The flowers grow 
on loose panicles, at the end of the branches ; and 
are of a whitish herbaceous colour. 

Of all astringents sumach* bears the greatest re- 
semblance to gdls. Alone it gives a fawn-colour to 

* See Deslongchamp's Manuel des Plantes Usuelles Indigenes, 
vol.i. p. 163. 


green ; but cotton stuffs which liave been impreg- 
nated with printers* mordant (that is acetate of alu- 
mine), take with it a pretty good and durable yellow. 
It is with the branches of this plant that Turkey 
leather is tanned. The leaves and seeds of the coriaria 
niyrtifolia may be employed like sumach in tanning 
and dyeing. The Arabians place the seeds and leaves 
of sumach amongst their Kahizat c^l-eijU Astringentia, 
and Tonics »4\x^ c:.L^S^. Of the styptic virtues of the 
leaves of the sumach amongst the ancients, the 
reader will find some account in Dioscorides (Mat. 
Med. lib. i. cap. 147.) The species toxicodendron or 
poison oaky is an article of the British Materia Medica.t 


tide Ycrcum vaijry and its use in leprous aftections 
in this part of the work. 


a\j=^LO-j (Tani.) Butch ^j (Duk.) Vudge (Pers.) 

* The shoots are cut down every year quite to the root, care- 
fully dried, and reduced to powder by a mUl, and thus prepared 
for the purpose of dyeing and tanning. The rhus vernix, which 
yields, on being wounded, the real Japan varnish, grows in Japan, 
in the province of Itsikoka and Figo (Flor. Japon, p. 121.)- ^^e " 
species Javanicum is the xiong tsat of the Chinese, who extract 
an oil from its berry, which they use as a varnish. Vide Flor. 
Cochin-Chin. vol. i* p. 183. 

f The powder of the leaves is given in p^lsy, in the quantity 
of from gr. iss. to gr.iv. In the Medical and Surgical Journal, for 
July 1825, p. 82, a case is detailed, of the good effects of the 
tincture in palsy ; a drop niglu and morning, increasing the dose 
to ten drops. 


Bach (Hindooie). Vachd ^^T (Sans.) also Haima^ 

t^«/f*^^?Trft(Sans.) Shwet buck (Beng.) Vudza 

(Tel.) also Gdlomi (Sans.) Wadda kaha (Cyng.) 

Bagy (Can.) Kawa sob (Japan.) Dringo (Port) 

Vaymboo (Malealie). also Vaesambuy also Wada- 

kaha (Cyng.) Acorus odor ant (Fr.) Kalmus Wiirt- 

zil (Ger.) Calamo aromatico (It.) Kusseb bewa 

l^j c^A^3 (Hind.) also Igir ^^» Thach-xuog-bo 

(Coch. Chin.) Kusset alderireh »^^Ov]l CkasS (Egypt. 


Acorus Calamus (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

This root, as it appears in the Indian bazars, differs 
in nothing from what is met with in the shops in 
Europe ; it has, in its dried state, a wrinkled cuticle 
of a pale brown colour, with numerous white ele- 
vated circles on the under side, whence the radical 
fibres issued; it breaks short, and its rind is of a 
buff colour, and softish texture ; the smell is pleasant 
and aromatic ; the taste bitterish, warm, and, to a 
certain degree, pungent and aromatic. It is a very 
favourite medicine of the Indian practitioners, and is 
reckoned so valuable in the indigestions, stomach- 
aches, and bowel affections of children, that there is 
a penalty incurred by any druggist who will not open 
his door in the middle of the night and sell it if 
demanded. It grows in abundance in many parts of 
India. Rheedet tells us, that on the Malabar coast 
it is called vaembUy and that a bath made of an in- 

* This properly speaking is the white variety* 
t Hort.Mal. part ii. p.99. 

VOL. 1. E E 


fusion of the root, is there considered as an efficar i 
cious remedy for epilepsy in children. The plant • 
rj igir is an export from Mocha, and is much prized 
by the modern Arabians and Persians, who place the I 
root amongst their Aphrodisiacs and Carminatives, 5, 
c^La^axi and oLxii-c. Shroder (p. 59.^.^ informs us, s 
that it possesses virtues in obstructions of the menses, si 
spleen, and liver. On Java it is known by the name « 
of deringo. The Egyptians, who call it cassabel 
hamira |^a.^U J.>^ir*, hold it in high estimation as an 
aromatic and stomachic. The Turks candy the roots, 
and regard them as a preventative against contagion. 
The variety of the acorus calamus, in America, ap- 
pears to differ but little from the Europe or Asiatic 
plant. Dr. Barton, in his Vegetable Materia Medica 
of the United States, says, that the root is there con- 
sidered as a valuable carminative and stomachic; 
the same excellent author tells us, that Beckstein 
observes, that the leaves are noxious to insects, and 
that no kind of cattle will eat any part of the plant. 
Bautroth has used the whole plant for tanning 
leather, and Bohmer is of opinion, that the French 
snuff* receives its peculiar flavour from the root of itf 
European practitioners have considered the root of 
the sweet flag as tonic and aromatic ; and occasion- . 
ally prescribe it in cases of intermittent fever t and 
dyspepsia, in doses of from 3i. to 51. of the sub- 
stance ; or, in infusion, to the extent of a cupfuU 

* I find this article noticed by Avicenna under the name of 
\j^Jijj4 4X1 S^aavLTj he says of it, *' menses urinasque provocat ; 
tussi suffitu medetur tam per se, tam etiam cum resina terebin- 
thinia, ore nimirum hausto per fistulam fumo." Vide Canon. Med. 
lib. ii. tract ii. p. 255. 

t See Barton's Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, 
vol.ii. p. 69. 71. 73. 

X Withering gives a faithful account of the plant. 


twice daily (5vi. of the bruised root to ^xii, of 
boiling water). 

The acorns calamus, which appears to grow in 

many different parts of the world, ** has leaves which 

spring from the root, they are sword-shaped, about 

three feet in length ; the flowers are small, and are 

produced on a close tessellated conical spike about 

i four inches long, they have no calyx, the petals are 

\ six in number, and of a pale-green colour/* Thun- 

l berg found the plant growing near Nagasaki^ in 

I Japan, also near the temple of Meosus (Flor. Japon. 

p. 144.). Loureiro says, it grows in mountainous 

tracts of Cochin-China ; of it, he observes, '^ vocem, 

auditum, et visum acuit, contra melancholiam, et ver- 

tiginem prodest.'' Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 208. 


TABASHEER. Moonghil ooppoo (u^£n>^^av) 
(Tam.) Tdbd-slieer j^ Ixt) (Arab, and 

\ Duk.) Tabasheer ^^ Ub (Pers.) Veduroo ooppoo 

\ (Tel.) Bansk (Beng.) TwaUcshirct ^q"^^fTTT 
(Sans.) Oonamakoo (Cyng.) also Una-lee. Chuh- 

fvwang (Chin.) 

Bambusa Arundinacea (Schreb.) 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
\ Gramina* 

Tabasheer is very scarce in many parts of Hin- 
doostan, and appears to be only found in the female 
bamboos growing in certain tracts ; it is a blueish 
white, concrete, light substance, which sticks to the 
tongue, and is of a very singular nature, considering 
its vegetable origin, as it resists acids, is undestruc- 
tible by fire, and forms, on being fused with alkalies, 

E E 2 


a sort of glass ; so far resembling silex. It is much i 
esteemed by the Hindoos as a medicine, particularly r 
amongst the Gentoos of the Northern Circars, who 
consider it as a powerful tonic, and to have great 
efficacy in internal bruises. The Persians prize it i, 
for its cardiac and strengthening qualities, and, ac- 
cording to Dr. RussePs account, have it brought i 
into their country from Sylhat, and other parts of f 
India; as a medicine it is also employed by the 
Turks and Syrians. The Arabians, who call the 
tree which yields it kussib v^a?^, and the tabasheer 
ussul al kussib c^o^iGi J.^^ *, or honey of the bamboo ; 
place the latter amongst their Kabizat c^LasjIS (Astrln- 
gentia), and Mokewydt dil 3^ ^L)>5u) (Cardiaca). 

Tabasheer would seem to have been first brought 
to the notice of Europeans by Dr. Patrick Russel; 
Dr. Brewster made it the subject of a paper for the 
Transactions of the Royal Society for 1819.t From 
the analysis of Mr. Macie (now Smithson), it would 
appear to be first liquid, and gradually to become 
thick and dry ; in which state, strange to say, it is 
identical with common silicious earth. Humboldt I 
found tabasheer in the bamboos of Pinchincha^ and a 
portion of what he brought home with him from 
America, in 1804, when examined by Vauquelin, 
consisted of seventy parts of silex, and thirty of t 
potash. Roxburgh, in his " Coromandel Plants,'* 
tells us, that much tabasheer, of a saline crystalliza- 
tion, is obtained from the bambusa baccifera (Roxb.) 
(a very curious plant), and is called by the natives 
chunay or lime. This species of bamboo is the beesha 

* See Avicenna, p. 225.,' also Historia rei Herbariae, vol.i. 
p. 256. 

f In which paper he describes the peculiar optical properties 
of silica obtained from it. 


of Rheede (Hort. Mai. vol. v. p. 119.)> ^^^ is called 
at Chittagong payulullu. Seven species of bambusa 
were growing in the botanical garden of Calcutta in 
1814, all Indian plants, except the nanUj introduced 
from China in 1794. 

Four species of bambusa grow in Ceylon : viz. 
our present article, and the b. spinosa^ b. stridulaj and 

I b. nana ; of the b. arundinacea there are three va- 
rieties, the common, the yellow, and the green. Six 

i species grow in Cochin-China, amongst which are the 
verus and rudentem. (Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p.209.) 


TALC. Appraciim ^i^USo'u^LD (Tam.) Ab- 

^ r«A:a ^H^ (Sans.) Appracum (Tel.) Tulk eJiJLL 

i (Pers. and Duk.) Ubruk (Hindooie). Kohubu- 

lurz ^joJSS i,^^>y^s Minirum (Cyng.) 


The Hindoos, and Mahometans of Lower India, 
like Cronstedt, and some others, confound talc and 
mica together. Dr. Kirwan, and subsequently Mr. 
Murray, have classed the first under the magnesian 
earths, and the latter under the silicious. The last 
mentioned celebrated chemist distinguishing the talc 
by its unctuous feel, and by its plates being flexible, 
but not elastic ; Jameson says, that it is also to be 
distinguished by its inferior hardness. 

A kind of apple-green coloured talc, called by the 
Tamools mungil appracum^ and in Dukhanie peela 
talk cJiXt. i\>u, may, by inaccurate observers, be mis- 
taken for the golden-coloured orpiment. Its beauti- 

E E 3 


ful translucent flakes are used by the native Indians 
for ornamenting many of the baubles employed in 
their ceremonies ; they also, like the Chinese, con- 
sider it as possessing medicinal qualities : the former 
suppose it to have virtues taken, internally, in pul^ 
monic affections ; the latter imagine it to have the 
power of prolonging life. 

Several varieties of talc and mica are found in 
India and Ceylon : of the first, Kirkpatrick tells us, 
there is abundance in Nepaul (see work, p. 109.)j 
particularly in the beds of streams which spring from 
the South face of the Koomrah mountains ; the most 
esteemed by the natives is a dark-coloured sort, 
koitshno abruk. The common grey mica (glimmer 
of Werner) is in Tamool called vullay appracurriy 
and in Hindoostanie suffiad tulk ; this, and another 
darker species of mica, termed by the Tamools 
kistnah appracum^ are prescribed by the Vytians^ in 
small doses, in flux cases ! they are also employed 
for ornamenting fans, pictures, &c. On Ceylon the 
Cyngalese call them mirinaniy and decorate their 
umbrellas (talpats) with them. The white and yel- 
low micas, in powder, are used for sanding waiting 
while wet ; by the names of gold and silver sand. 

In Europe, talc enters into the composition of the 
cosmetic, called rouge. The Romans prepared with 
it a beautiful blue, by combining it with the colour- 
ing fluid of particular kinds of testaceous animals. 
Talc is found in plenty in Behar^ and other parts of 
India, also in Persia^ and in China ; in which last 
mentioned country ornaments are made of it, tinged 
with different colours. Most of the mica of com- 
merce in Europe is brought from Siberia, where it is 
regularly mined : the chief mines are those on the 
banks of the rivers Witten and Oldan. By Brande's 


analysis of talc, it consists of nearly equal parts of 
silica and magnesia, with not more than six per cent, 
of lime. Mica, the same distinguished chemist says„ 
consists principally of alumina and silica, with a httle 
magnesia and oxide of iron. 


TALLOW. Maat kolupoo LD"rL-(p6j(2^rr^^ 

L-'L_i (Tam.) Hurruk tail (Cyng.) Beyl he chirbie 

jy^ ^3 j,xj (Duk.) Shahum ^^^ (Arab.) Peck 

^. (Pei's.) Chirbee (Hind.) Lemakchair (Mai.) 

( Pdssdrum kowoo (Tel.) Gavapd ?ft^m (Sans.) 

Sevo (It.) Suif(Fi\) 

Adeps Juvenci. 

Candles are seldom made of tallow in India ; in- 
deed, unless by Europeans, it seems to be little em- 
ployed for any purpose, the bullock being a sacred 
animal. We are told by Sir Stamford Raffles, in his ex- 
cellent History of Java, that the natives of that island 
procure a kind of vegetable tallow from the nut of the 
kawan (Malay), or nidtic tree (Jav.). Of this Mr. 
Crawfurd also speaks, and tells us that the tree is 
tall and straight, having a smooth ash-coloured bark, 
and leaves resembling those of the kdnari ; the nut 
also resembles that of the kdnariy but has not a hard 
shell ; under its soft covering is a firm medullary 
matter, of a harsh, bitter, and unpleasant taste. 
This nut, by boiling, yields the tallow. Mr. Craw- 
furd (Hist, of Ind. Archip., vol. i. p. 456.) thinks, 
that in a more advanced state of the arts in Eastern 

e e 4 


countries, this material, which is cheap and abundant, 
will become much prized ; particularly in a country 
where there is a natural deficiency of animal fats, and 
oils, Mr. Crawfurd supposes the kawan tree to be a „ 
bassia ; and we know, thanks to Dr. Roxburgh* and 1 
Mr.Gott, thatthe bassia butyracea(Roxb.) yield seeds, li 
from which by expression and subsequent exposure q 
to heat, a rich oily substance is procured ; which the e' 
natives of some mountainous parts of the Circars use 
as a ghee or butter. The tree is the fulwa of the 
Almora hills (see article Tyre), and I think it more 
than probable that it is no other than the kawan of r 
the Malays ; and in the *' Quarterly Journal of 
Science, Literature, and the Arts,'* for July, 1825, is 
an admirable paper by Dr. B. Babbington, jun., on 
a peculiar vegetable product, possessing the pro- 
perties of tallow. It is obtained by boiling the fruit i 
of the pei/nie marum (vateriat Indica, Lin.), when it ' 
comes to the top. It would appear by Dr. Bab- 
bington's analysis to be of a nature betwixt wax 
and oil : it is a concrete inflammable substance, and 
is used medicinally by the natives of the Malabar r 
coast, as an external application for bruises and pains. 
The Doctor prepared most excellent candles with it, 
which burnt like those made of tallow. On cooling, 
this singular oil forms a solid cake, generally white, 
but sometimes yellow ; it is greasy to the touch, 
with a degree of waxiness, and has rather an agree- 
able odour. 

Dr. Abel, in his Journey into the Interior of China 
(p. 18.), found, that the tallow4ree, properly so called, 
is there quite common. It is a large beautiful tree 

* See Asiatic Researches, vol. viii. p. 499. et seq. 
t The same tree which yields the fsunows peynie varnish, to be 
noticed in Part III. of this work. 


(croton sebiferum'*), named by the Chinese ^^-ncowf, 
from the circumstance of the crows being fond of 
the seed; it is from this seed that the vegetable 
tallow is made, by first boiling, and then pressing. 
Du Halde and Grosier have both mentioned this 
tree, the latter observes, that the oily matter, which 
has at first the consistence of common tallow, may, 
by boiling, be rendered as hard as bees' wax. See 
article Wax in this Chapter. 

From the experiments of Braconnot and Chevreult 
we learn, that the different kinds of animal oils or 
fats contain two substances, to which they have 
given the names of stearine and elaine^ the first of 
which is solid, the last liquid, at common tempe- 
ratures ; the proportions of these in our present 
article is about 24< of elaine, and 76 of stearine. 


TAMARIND. Poollie mov^ (Tam.) Umhlie 
JU-o? (Arab. Hind, and Duk.) Mahasi-ambala (Cyng.) 
Neghka ISCiU (Mai.) Tumiri liindee (scsl^j^ (Pers.) 
Assam Java (Mai.) Amlika 3rfT^c|^T (Sans.) 

Umblee (Hindooie). also Tintiti frff^rr^ (Sans.) 
Tintiri (Hind.) Chinta punddo (Tei.) Kdmdl (Jav.) 
Tdmdldki (Band.) Tamerins (Fr.) Tamarinden 
(Ger.) Tamarindo (It.) Cay-me (Cochin-Chin.) 

Tamarindus Indica (Lin.) 

* Or stillingia sebifera (Lin.). 

t See Dr. AbePs Journey into the Interior of China, p. 177. 

X See Annales de Chimie, torn, xciii. xciv. 


CI. and Ord. Monadelphia Triandria. Nat Ord, 

The tamarind tree, the balam puUi of Rheede, and 
the tetul of Upper Hindoostan, is common in almost 
every part of India, and is, without doubt, one of 
the most beautiful and useful in the world. The 
natives, like us, consider the pulp of the fruit, which 
is certainly the safest of all vegetable acids, as cool- 
ing and laxative ; and prepare with it a kind of 
sherbet, of which they drink freely in hot weather. 
The Vytians use the pulp as an ingredient in their 
laxative electuaries (laygiums) ; a decoction of the 
acid leaves of the tree they frequently employ exter- 
nally, in cases requiring repellent fomentations ; the 
leaves are, moreover, used for preparing coUyria: 
internally, they are supposed, in conjunction with 
some other medicines, to possess virtues in what the 
Tamool doctors call cdmalay (jaundice). 

The natives of India are impressed with a notion, 
that it is dangerous to sleep under the tamarind tree, 
especially during the night ; and it is a certain fact, 
that grass, or herbs of any kind, are seldom seen 
growing in such situations, and never with luxuri- 
ance ; the consequence, it is to be presumed, of the 
acid damp from the tree. We are told by Rumphius, 
that the inhabitants of Amboyna* consider tama- 
rinds as injurious in cases of weak digestion, or 
obstructions of the spleen, unless when in conjunc- 
tion with aromatics. 

The tamarind tree grows most luxuriantly in all 
the Eastern islands. . The soil of Javaf appears to 
bring the fruit to the greatest perfection ; and the 

* See Rumph. Amb. vol.ii. p. 93. 

f Hence its Javanese name assam-Javay also Malay, which sig- 
nifies Java acid. 


tamarinds of the depending island of Madura, are 
reputed the best ; they are of a dark colour, with a 
large proportion of pulp to the seed. Mr. Crawfurd 
tells us, that those exported from one part of the 
Archipelago to another, are merely dried in the sun ; 
but those sent to Europe are cured with salt. In the 
Sunda the tree is called chdmpdhu. 

Dr. Thornton informs us, that he found the pulp 
of the tamarind of the highest use in sore throat, as 
a powerful cleanser ; dose of the pulp from ^ss. to 
^i. Of the officinal preparation, the infus. tamarindi 
cum sennae, the dose is from gij. to Jiv. Tamarinds 
are an ingredient in the electuar. sennae comp. It 
would seem, by Dr. Thomson's analysis, that ^xvi. 
of the prepared pulp of the tamarind contained ^iss. 
of citric acid, but only 5ij. of the tartaric acid, ^ss. 
of supertartrate oi potash^ and 3ss. of malic acid. 

Of the tree, which will be mentioned in several 
other parts of this work, I shall simply state, that it 
is lofty and spreading, with leaves abruptly pinnate, 
and which are composed of sixteen or eighteen pairs 
of sessile kajlels, half an inch only in length, and 
very narrow, of a lively green, oblong, and obtuse ; 
the Jioxjoers are of a straw-colour, and are in loose 
bunches of five or six coming out from the sides of 
the branches j the pods are seven or eight inches 
long, and contain five seeds, or more, which are 
shining, angular, and flat, and covered with a dark 
acid pulp. These seeds or stones, in times of 
scarcity, are eaten by the poor in India : they are 
first toasted, and then soaked for a few hours in 
water, when the dark skin comes easily off, leaving 
the seed below white and soft ; they in taste some- 
what resemble a common field bean, and are boiled 
or fried before they are eaten. 


The tamarind tree is the cay-me of the Cochin- 
Chinese. It appears, by Loureiro's account, to be 
only cultivated in gardens in Cochin-China. Vide 
Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 403. The natives of 
many parts of Africa employ the fruit of the adon- 
sonia digitata for the same purposes that tamarinds 
are used in India. 



Jatropha Manihot (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. 

Having found that the jatropha manihot grew in 
great abundance and luxuriance in many parts of 
Lower India, I, some months before leaving that 
country, in 1814, attempted to make tapioca from the 
root, and perfectly succeeded ; the first, I believe, 
that ever was made in our Indian dominions. An 
account of the method of preparing it was published 
in the Madras Courier, under date 13th of March, 
1813. An amylum, or starch, is first to be obtained 
from the fresh root, which starch, to form it into 
tapioca, must be sprinkled with a little water, and 
then boiled in ^team ; it is in this way converted into 
viscid irregular masses, which are to be dried in the 
sun till they have become quite hard, and then may 
be broken into small grains for use. Tapioca is an 
admirable diet for the sick, being at once light, ex- 
tremely pleasant to the taste, and nourishing ; it may 
be either simply boiled in water, like sago, and sweet- 
ened with sugar, or it may be boiled in milk. 

The tapioca plant is called in Tamool lyiardvtilUej 
and, from the circumstance of its having no Sanscrit, 


Arabic, or Persian name, I am led to think, that it 
is not a native of Hindoostan, but was probably 
brought hither, many years ago, by the Portuguese ; 
it would seem to be the variety called in the West 
Indies sweet cassada. Browne says of it, in his 
History of Jamaica (p. 350.) : " Foliis palmatis, 
lobis incertis, radice oblonga funiculo valido per 
centrum ducto carne nivea.*' The root of this sort 
is considered as the most safe to eat, indeed, it may 
be taken raw, or roasted like a potatoe, without the 
least danger ; it is called by the Tamools mdravullie- 
kalungy and is much prized by them. The jatropha 
manihot, I find, grows also in Ceylon ; and the late 
Dr. White, of the Bombay establishment, informed 
me, that dried, it is exported as an article of trade 
from the Mosambique to the ports of Goa, and 
Damaun : to Ceylon, it was first brought from the 
Isle of France, in 1786 or 1787, by Governor Van 
de Graaf.* Southey, in his " History of Brazil,'* 
tells us, that with the root of the mandioc, as he calls 
it, is prepared by fermentation an intoxicating liquor 
(pp. 232, 233, 234.). The excellent Baron de Hum- 
boldt says, that in New Spain a sauce and soy are 
made from the bitter cassava, juca amarga, the juice 
rendered innocent by boiling. The jatropha mani- 
hot is the juca of the Mexicans, in whose country 
it has been cultivated from the most remote antiquity; 
they distinguish the two kinds carefully, and separate 
them in their fields, calling the hitter Juca amarga^ 
and the other juca dolce : the first kind they render 
innocent by means of fire. Browne observes, in his 
History of Jamaica, that the variety of the plant 
which yields the bitter root, has " foliis palmatis 

* See Asiatic Annual Register, for 1805, vol, vii. p. 87. 


pendadcictylibus, radice conico oblonga, came sub- 
lactese'^ (p. 349. )• It is said to contain the deadly 
poison termed manipneraj which is the fresh juice of 
it, and is, therefore, always carefully squeezed out, 
after which the root is as safe to eat as that of the 
other variety. Before concluding all I have to say 
regarding this viduable article, I must observe, that 
the flour or meal of the sweet cassava root makes 
good biscuit and bread ; to prepare which the root 
is to be first well soaked in fresh water, and subse- 
quently dried in the sun, and then pounded into 
flour for use. Bread so made. Baron de Humboldt 
observes, is considered by the inhabitants of New 
Spain as particularly nutritious.* 

Four species of jatropha were growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814 : manihot^ iimU 
tifiday curcaSy and graiid'rfhra. Three species grow 
on CeyloUj where our article is called inariayo^ka 

TAR. See article Turpentine. 


TEA. Thcahy also Theh (Cliin.) Tsja (Japan.) 
Cha ^^ (Arab. Pers. and Duk.) 

The A ViRiDis (Lin.) 

On no subject has there been more written than 
on that of tea ; and yet strange, however, as it may 

* See Baron de Humboldt's Political Essay on New Spain, 
vol.ii. p. 4-35. English trans. 


be to say, there are still many doubts respecting the 
tree or trees which yield the black and green teas. 
One of the latest scientific travellers into that country, 
Dr. Abel, expresses in one part of his work an uncer- 
tainty, whether there is more than one variety of the 
tea plant, from which both teas are prepared ; but 
soon after adds, that he is more inclined to believe, 
that there are two ; and that from all he could learn, 
either of these would yield both the black and green 
teas, according to the mode of preparation adopted. 
In some provinces*, such as that of Keangnan\y most 
attention is paid to the cultivation of green tea; 
while in others, such as Fokien t, the natives attend 
more to the black. "/ think there is little doubt 
but that the principal difference betwixt the black 
and green tea is the age of the leaf; the latter being 
prepared from it when in its less mature state, and 
while it contains a quantity of viscid, and to a cer- 
tain degree narcotic § juice, which gives the peculiar 
character to the hyson teas. ||*' Something is also to 
be ascribed to the manner of drying^; as Dr. Abel 
justly remarks, leaves slowly dried will naturally re- 
tain more of the green colour, than those that are 
dried rapidly. The same gentleman informs us, that 
the strongest tea he saw in China barely coloured 

* The green tea district in the province of Keangnafi is em- 
braced betwixt the 29th and 31st degrees of Northern latitude ; 
the black tea district in the province of Fokien is contained within 
the 27th and 28th degrees of Northern latitude. 

f Particularly to the West of the city of Wechtifu. 

j Especially in the vallies of Bu-ye, 

§ See Sir George Staunton's valuable account of an Embassy 
to China, vol. ii. quarto edition. 

II See Dalrymple*s Indian Repertory, vol. ii. p. 285., in which he 
gives this as the opinion of Choxjo-quay who had been eight times 
into the Bohea country. 

f The green tea is carefully dried by exposure to the open air 
in the shade ; the black by means of artificial heat, in shallow 
pans over a charcoal fire. 


the water ; and on examining the leaves after infu- 
sion, he perceived that they were those of the scarcely 
expanded buds.* Mr. Phihps, in his Treatise on Cul- 
tivated Vegetables, has brought forward much curious 
and interesting information on tea ; and to that 
work (vol. ii. p. 285.) I refer my reader. The green 
teas commonly met with in India are the gwi-poXi'der, 
which is very strong, and is the leaf rolled quite 
round ; the hyson t, an admirable tea ; it is a small 
leaf, closely curled, and of a blueish green. Of the 
bloom \ tea, and Singh teas, (also green teas), I can 
say little from my own experience ; the first is of a 
liorht screen colour, and has a loose leaf: the other 
is named after the place where it is cultivated. 

Of the black or bohea teas, five or six different 
sorts have been mentioned by different writers ; I 
shall only notice three. First, the pauchongy as it is 
called in India and in Europe, and which is, I be- 
lieve, what is also sometimes named padre stitchong ; 
it is peculiarly delicate in flavour, and is frequently 
brought from China carefully packed up in papers, 
each containing about a pound. I have rarely met 
with it in Europe ; but hesitate not to say, that it is 
the best and most delicious of all teas. Second, 
the common siitchong, too well known to require any 
description ; it is that black-tea which is most drank 
in England, selling commonly at from eight to ten 
shillings or more per pound. Lastly the common 
black or bohea tea, which the Chinese call xcooe-cha ; 
and the best of which they term tao-liyonn: this they 
prize much for their own domestic use. 

* See Abel's Journey into the Interior of Africa, pp. 222 and 223. 

f Hyson tea, generally speaking, the Chinese call he-chun-cha^ 
they export it. 

\ The bloom tint is given by means of the fumes of indigo 
while burning. 


Tea is a produce of Japan*, Tonquin, of the is- 
land of Formosa, whence it is exported as a medicine, 
and of Cochin-China, as well as of Cliina; but that of 
the last-mentioned country alone is fit for exportation. 
As an article of diet, the Japanese cultivate it in a 
very careless manner. The teas of Tonquin and 
Cochin-China are still coarser. Green tea, it would 
seem, is chiefly prepared for sending out of the coun- 
try; the Chinese themselves, and the inhabitants of 
the Indian islands, consume only the black, t Tea 
was first used in England during the Commonwealth, 
and now not less than 22,000,000 pounds are con- 
sumed annually in this country. In the rest of Eu- 
rope besides, it is supposed, that more than 5,000,000 
pounds are annually sold, and about as much in 

Volumes have been written for and against tea ; 
while some authors, namely, Mr. Hanway, Mr. 
Adair, in his Essay on Diet and Regimen, &c., have 
ascribed to it many pernicious qualities, such as 
having the effect of inducing nervous tremours, weak 
digestion, low spirits, typhus fever, and dropsy: 
others, again, such as Dr. Aiken, Huet, Bishop of 
AvranchesJ, Raynal, Bontequoe, and others, have 
been as lavish in its praises. But none more than 
Dr. Clarke in his Travels (vol. ii. p. 533.), who says, 
"the exhausted traveller, reduced by continual fever, 

* Kcempher, in his Amoenit. Exotic (fasc. iii. p. 625.), says of 
tea, " optimus est qui unius anni aetatem habet ;'' as a drink for 
the healthy, he praises it highly, but adds, *' omnis these potus 
supprimit medicanientorum efficaceam ; in colica nocet, et maxime 
vitanda est." 

t See Crawfurd's History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. iii. 
p. 522. See same work, vol. i. p. 325. 

J He wrot^ a Latin poem on it, in which he says, it deserves the 
name of brusher to the understanding, for the good effects it has 
on the brain. 

VOL. I. F F 


and worn by incessant toil, experiences in this infu- t 
sion the nlost cooling and balsamic virtues ; the heat 
of his blood abates, his spirits revive, his parched 
skin relaxes, and his strength is renovated/' In this 
eulogium I most cordially join from my own per- 
sonal experience ; that the use of tea may be abused 
like any thing else, no one will dispute ; and that i 
green tea drank in any considerable quantity, brings ; 
on watchfulness, and nervous agitation, I am ready 
to allow ; but I must at the same time maintain, that i 
the better kinds of black teas, so far from being pre- 
judicial, have positive virtues in cheering the spirits, 
strengthening and comforting the stomach ; and 
giving after great fatigue, a new life and tone to the 
whole frame. To the sedentary and literary, tea is 
certainly a great blessing ; as it enlivens without 
heating, nay, I should almost be inclined to go a little 
further, and partly ascribe to its prudent use, some- 
what of that brilliancy of imagination and fineness 
of fancy, which so peculiarly distinguish the poets* 
and novel writers of our happy country ! where so 
much is drank. 

Of late years there has been much counterfeit tea 
exposed for sale ; a crime which can scarcely be too 
severely punished. Mr, Phillips observes, " that the 
counterfeit black tea produces a deeper colour by 
infiision than the real tea, and that a little copperas 
put into it, will turn it to a light blue, which other- 1 
wise ought to be of a deep blue inchning to black. I 

* This notion may, by some, be reckoned a little fanciful ; I 
shall, therefore, bring in support of it the opinion of an enlightened 
and valuable writer, belonging to France, a country where tea has 
not been supposed to be much prized. Chevalier Roques says, in 
speaking of I3ohea tea, " pris avec moderation, il reveille Tesprit, 
lui donne im agitation douce, et plus d'un ecrivain lui a du un 
trait piquant, une pensee heureuse/' See Roques Phytographie i 
Medicalc, vol, ii. p. 203. 


If green tea be adulterated, put a bit of gall into the 
liquor, which will turn it to a deep-blueish colour ; 
this it will not do, unless there be either vitriol or cop- 
peras in it, as galls do not tincture the proper tea/* 

Willdenow, following the notion that had been 
adopted by Linnaeus, makes the black and green tea 
two distinct species ; describing the first as having 
six-petalled flowers, and the last nine. But Dr. 
Lettsom, in his excellent History of the Tea Tree, 
assures us, after an examination of many hundred 
flowers, both from the Bohea and green tea coun- 
tries, that their botanical characters always ap- 
peared to him uniform. The tree, or rather shrub, 
seldom rising higher than six or seven feet ; having 
leaves alternate, elliptical, bluntly serrate, except 
near the base ; with a white corolla, varying in 
the number and size of the petals. Loureiro gives 
a somewhat different account, making the leaves to 
be lanceolate and acutely serrate. This author 
concludes by observing, that, upon the whole, he 
believes that of the common and proper tea there 
is but one species, the apparent diflferences pro- 
ceeding from soil, culture, and preparation : he, 
however, gives us two other species of thea, viz. thea 
Cochin-Chinensis* J having a five-petalled corolla, and 
which is used in that country as a sudorific ; and 
the thea Oleosafy a native of China, from the seed of 
which an oil is obtained fit both for the table and 
burning, and the fruit of which is rather a berry than 
a capsule ; this last is now ranked under the genus 
camellia, and is denominated the camellia oleifera. 
The leaves of another species of this genus, the c. 

* The chean-nam (Cochin-Chinese), 

t The che-deau (Chinese). Vide Flora Cochin-Chin. vol. i. 
p. 338. 

F F 2 


sasanqua^ and which the Chinese call by the name of 
cha xcha *, bear so close a resemblance to those of 
the real tea plant, both in appearance and natural 
qualities, that the Chinese mix them together with 
a lavish hand : they have a sweet smell. It is said 
to be with the small, white, pleasant-scented flowers s 
of the olea fragrans (quai-fa), that the Chinese give 
a peculiar flavour to their best teas ; the plant is a 
native of Japan, China, and Cochin-China. Numer- 
ous are the leaves which have at different times been 
used as substitutes for tea. In New Holland those 
of the corrcea alba are employed, in the Kurele islands 
those of the pediciilaris lanatay in New Jersey those 
of the ceanothns Americamis are resorted to. Mr. 
Gray says, that the leaves of the rosa eglanteria are 
sometimes prepared for the same purpose. Southey, 
in liis History of Brazil, mentions the matte or herb 
of Paraguay ^ as being as universally used for tea in 
that part of South America as the real tea is in 
England, and taken with milk and sugar. The herb 
Paraguay y is obtained from a tree which the Guara^ 
nies call caa ; the foliage of which resembles that of '< 
the orange tree, and has w^hite flowers disposed in 
small cymes, in the axiles of the leaves. The tree 
would appear to have a very extensive range, being 
found both in Paraguay and Brazil. The reader may 
find some account of it in the " Histoire des Plantes 
les plus Remarkables du Brasil et du Paraguay," 
(tom. i. p. 41. of the Introduction,) par M. Auguste 
de St. Hilaire ; w^e ai^e there informed, that the tree 
is called by the Spanish Americans Varvore de mate 
oil da congonha ; and that there is a great difference 
betwixt that which grows in Paraguay and Brazil. 

* See Sir George Staunton's Embassy to China, vol.ii. p. 4-67. 



The gentleman just mentioned, seems inclined to 
name it ilea: mate ; but Doctors Spix and Martins, 
in their Travels, notice it under that of ilex congonha. 
It is described and figured under the scientific ap- 
pellation of ilex ParagiiensiSy in an Appendix to the 
second volume of Mr. Lambert's work on the Genus 
Pinus ; and I have been informed, that that distin- 
guished botanist has actually the plant growing in 

. his garden, at Boyton House in Wilts. Other 
leaves *, which have been used as tea, are those of 
the psoralea glandulosa in Mexico and Guatimala ; 
those of the symplocos alstonia of Humboldt and 
Bonpland, in New Grenada, which is said to yield 
a tea little inferior in virtues to the China article ; 
and still farther North, very wholesome teas are said 
to be prepared with the leaves of the gaultJieria pro- 
cumbens and ledum latifolium; which last plant, how- 
ever, we are told by Krocker, according to Miller, has 
an inebriating quality, and is used by the Dutch in 

I tanning leather. I perceive by the ^^Voi/age en Tour-- 
comanie et d Khiva'' of M. Mouravier (p. 375.), that 
tea is a favorite drink of the Khiviens ; and by notes 
at the end of the work by Klaproth, it appears that 
that which they prize, is called by the French th6 

\ en briqiies ; the Russians term it kirpitchnoi, and 

f the Chinese tchowan. It is common amongst the 
Mongols and Bouriales, and is prepared, he says,. 
" dans la Chine septentrionale, des feuilles d'un 
arbuste sauvage, qui r^semblent a celles du meri- 
sier.'' He adds, that poor people who cannot get 

* In the Flora Peruviana and Chilensis, torn, ii., I find a plant 
mentioned under the name of xuarezia biflora, Icon, cxxiii., and 
called in Spanish the del Peru ; which was, some forty or fifty years 
ago, so much in repute, that the China tea was at that time little 
sought after in Peru. 

FF 3 


it, supply its place, with the leaves of the follow- 

ing plants. 


Saxifraga crassifolia - - Badarij 

Tamarix Germanica - - Balgou, 

Potentilla rupestris - - Khaltalsa^ 

Glicyrrhiza hirsuta - - Nakhaha^ 

Polypodium fragrans - - Serlikj 

and also occasionally with the leaves of a species of • 
sanguisorba, called in Mongols chiidou* 

It appears that the French are likely to succeed ! 
in cultivating a new sort of tea (zenopoma thea i 
sinensis) in the South of France, which is scarcely 
known to us ; it was brought into France about four \ 
years ago, by a Russian, and having been examined I 
by the academicians of Paris, was reported to have e 
qualities sudorific and stomachic. (See Phillip on 
Cultivated Vegetables, vol. i. p. 296.) 

By Dr. Lettsom's experiments on tea, it appears, 
that the infusion is antiseptic and astringent ; and it 
is no doubt, by that happy combination, added to its 
known efficacy in enlivening the spirits, that it is at 
once gently tonic, soothing, and refreshing ! From 
experiments made on teas, black and green, and 
which may be seen in the Journal of Science (for 
January, Number xxiv. p. 201.), it appears that from 
one hundred parts of good black tea, there was lost 
on infusing, by weight, thirty-five per cent. ; the in- 
fusion thus obtained, on being evaporated, yielded a 
dark brown transparent extract. The leaves on being 
again dried and infused in alcohol, lost twelve per 
cent.; the extract thus obtained was of a more resinous 
nature and agreeable smell. So that in all, of soluble 
matter, forty- seven parts were procured from one hun- 


*dred. By similar experiments made with green tea, 
fifty-one parts of soluble matter were procured from 
one hundred. In the last experiment, the extract 
obtained from evaporating the alcohol infusion, was a 
highly fragrant, olive-coloured, resinous substance, 
scarcely acted on by cold water. 

With regard to situations not in China or Japan, 
where tea might be cultivated with a chance of 
success, the reader is referred to an excellent paper, 
by Mr. W. Huttman, in the Asiatic Journal for De- 
cember, 1822. It may be further remarked, that 
some of the most likely are, the Cape ofGoodHopey 
as suggested by Charpentier Cossigny (see Barrow's 
i South. Africa, p. 18.), and confirmed by Dr. Abel, 
in his Journey into the Interior of China (p. 224.) ;. 
St. HelenUy where the plant grows in great vigour 
in the governor's garden ; amongst the Srinagar 
mountains ; in Ceylon * ;, in some parts of the Tra- 
rancore country ; and we know that Senhor Gomez. 
has contrived, with the assistance of a few Chinese 
gardeners, to cultivate the tea plant at Rio Janeiro 
in Brazil. The excellent Dr. Wallich has expressed 
a belief, that both the tea shrub and the Nepaul ca- 
meUia (kissi), will, before long, be introduced into 
such parts of Northern Hindoostan as may appear 
best calculated for their cultivation. The camellia 
was discovered by Mr. Gardener on the mountains 
of Sheopore and Chandraghereey having leaves of 
peculiar fragrance. 

Such Europeans in India, as find that the common 
tea does not agree with them, have a most pleasant 
and delightful substitute in the leaves of the andro- 

* Where, we are (old by Mr. Moon, in his Catalogue of Ceyloa 
Plants, the thea Bohea is called by the Cyngalese rata-tekolcL^ 

F F 4 


pogon schoenanthus, or lemon grass ; also in the 
dried leaves of the ocimum album (Lin.), which is 
cunjam koray (Tam.), suffaid ioolsie (Duk.), kooka 
tolasie (Teh), bddrooj aheez yj\ ^^j^^ (Arab.), but t| 
is commonly known on the Coromandel coast by the 
name of toolsie tea. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson, the correctness of whose 
judgment and admirable discrimination on every 
subject connected with medical science, the British i 
public have justly appreciated, seems disposed to make 3 
the thea viridis and thea Bohea distinct species ; 
and has been so kind as to transmit to me the follow- 
ing descriptions : 

Thea Bohea^ " leaves alternate, on very short i 
petioles, elhptico-oblong ; in length about two inches, 
in breadth three-fourths of an inch ; apex slightly 
acuminate ; disk equal on both sides of the mid-rib : 
upper surface olivaceous green, shining, obscurely 
granulated; under, pale: margin obsoletely serrated.'* 

Thea viridis y " leaves alternate, on very short pe- 
tioles, oblong, in length about three inches, in breadth 
scarcely one inch, pointed at the apex, and tapering 
towards the base ; the disk unequal, the right half I 
(looking at the under surface of the leaf,) being 
narrower than the left, and more tapering towards 
the base j upper surface smooth, shining, of an 
emerald-green colour ; the under, veined, tlie mid- 
rib very prominent, pale j margin denticulated.'' 



TEAL, GREY. Killoovey (Tam.) Moorgabie 
^li^ (Pers. and Duk.) Sheravie goova (Tel.) 
Sarcelle (Fr.) ouaaL BilibiJc (Mai.) Farchetola 
(It.) Fulsi (Beng.) Farchetola (It.) 

Anas Crecca (Van) 

The grey teal is very common in India, and is 
there perhaps the most delicate of all the Anas 
family, being less apt to have a strong and fishy taste. 
The natives have many ingenious modes of catching 
teal, and can imitate their call in a very surprizing 
mannen Of the Anas crecca, there are several varieties 
to be met with. What is usually called the red or 
"Whislling tealy is not near so much prized ; while on 
the wing it makes a peculiar kind of piping noise. It 
is the sheng'kiloovay of the Tamools. Widgeons, of 
various plumage, are also common in Lower India ; 
that most frequently seen, appears to be a variety of 
the anas Penelope (Lin.), and is called by the Ta- 
mools singhetikan. 

General Hardwicke, who has done much for 
the Natural History of India*, noticed and painted 
no less than nineteen different species of anas j and 
has now the drawings in his possession. I perceive 
the ruddy goose amongst his anas ; it is the anas 
casarea of Latham, and the cJmciia of the Bengalese. 
The anas Indica is the hans of the Musselmans, 
and the anas hina is the toolsee of the Bengalese. 

* In a manuscript volume at the India House there is fully de- 
scribed no fewer than twenty species of anas. 



« - 

THORN APPLE, PURPLE. Karoo oomatay 
^C52Lr3vrLDg"a2)S^ (Tam.) KaM dahtoora 5Jls> 
)jyi^^ (Duk.) Dhetoora (Yimd.') Jowzmdssel^ jy^ 
JiU (Arab.) Goozgiah sIajSj^-Ez) (Pers.) also 
Bunjdeshtee ^:^ ^Ij (Pers.) Rotecubung, also 
Kechubimg (Mai.) Hummatoo (Hort. Mai.) Nul- 
la oomatie (Tel.) Kdla dhatoora (Hindooie and 
Beng.) Kaloo attana^ also antenna (Cyng.) Du- 
tro (Port.) Krishna dliattura ^^Uf ^^T (Sans.) 
Umdna (Malealie). Kechu-booh ^yj yj^ (^gyP** 


Datura Fastuosa (Willd.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

This species of datura (both the double and single}, 
as well as the datura metel, grows wild in many parts 
of India, generally on waste lands. The d. stramo- 
nium, I am inclined to believe, with Dr. Fleming, is 
not to be found in Hindoostan ; it is the species 
which has a place in the London Dispensatory, and 
is the stramonium maniacum (Col. Phytob. 47- )• 
The datura fastuosa is the datura rubra of Rhum- 
phius, and the solanum foetidum of Bauchin j and 
is distinguished from the d. metel by having dark- 
coloured flowers, while those of the metel are white : 

This is more properly, according to Avicenna (156.), the 
Arabic name of the dat. metel. 


a more substantial difference is, that the d.fastuosa has 
" pericarps tubercled, nodding, globular, leaves ovate, 
angular;** while the metel has " pericarps thorny, 
nodding, globular, and leaves cordate, almost entire, 
pubescent" The datura metel, we are informed by 
Forskahl, in his " Flora Arabiae Felicis,** has no less 
than three names in Arabia, gr>j> J^^ and ,^Cjl<j. 
Rhumphius calls it datura alba^ and Rheede hum- 
matu ; it is the vullay oomatie of the Tamools, and 
the ca-duoc of the Cochin-Chinese.* The karoo 
oomatie (d. fast.), which is the most common species 
in India, grows to the height of about four or five 
feet ; " the flowers long and narrowish, bell-shaped, 
and straw-coloured; the leaves long, dark, and of 
an irregular angular shape.'* The d. metel seldom 
reaches beyond a foot and a half in height ; *^ flower 
bell-shaped, and long ; leaf about six inches in 
length, and pointed.** The smell of both plants is 
peculiarly fetid, and both have a somewhat bitterish 
and nauseous taste. The datura stramonium is nott 
a native of India, but it grows in the botanical garden 
of Calcutta, introduced there from America by W. 
Hamilton, Esq. Thunberg found it in Japan t, and 
we learn from the same author, that it is a native of 
Java. § It is the Xr^o^i^og yavixog of Dioscorides, 
and was, therefore, received into our Materia Me- 

* Vide Flor. Cochin-Chin, vol.i. p. 110. 

f Since writing the above I perceive, that a variety of the 
datura stramonium, var. canescens (Wallich), is quite common in 
Nepaul and the Northern tracts of Hindoostan, known by the 
name of parbuiteeya ; the whole plant pubescent, glaucous, 
pale ; flower always single, and of a yellowish white colour. See 
Flora Indica, vol. ii. p. 240., observation by Dr. N. Wallich. 

:|: Flor. Japon. p. 91. 

§ See his Travels (vol. iv. p. 147.). See also a paper on the 
poison tree of Java, by Dr. Horsfield, in the seventh volume of 
the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 


dica. The intoxicating and narcotic qualities of the 
daturas seem to be well known in Eastern countries, 
and are particularly mentioned by Colonel Hardwicke 
in his Journey to Sirinagur. Captain Turner saw 
the thorn apple at Bootan, where he was told that it 
was considered as a medicine. 

I was at much pains to inquire amongst the 
Vytians of Southern India, whether the root, dried 
capsule and seeds of either of the daturas, I have 
mentioned as Indian products, were ever recom- 
mended by them to be smoked in cases of spas- 
modic asthma, in the manner administered with 
success on Ceylon, and in the more Northern* tracts 
of Hindoostan ; but they appeared to be totally un- 
acquainted with their virtues in this disease, indeed, 
they would seem to prescribe the oomaties very cau- 
tiously on any occasion. In those violent and deep- 
seated head-aches which often precede epilepsy and 
mania, the Mahometan doctors sometimes order the 
root of the datura fastuosa, in powder, in very small 
doses, not exceeding from a quarter of a grain to 
three grains. Dr. Barton, of America, I find also pre- 
scribed the thorn apple with great success in similar 
cases ; he gave the leaves in powder, beginning with 
a quarter of a grain, and gradually increasing the 
dose to fifteen or twenty. In large doses the datura 
produces vertigo, and has the effect of dilating, in a 
singular manner, the pupil of the eye. Bergius and 
Stoerck ordered the^inspissated juice of the leaves of 

* I am informed by my friend Dr. Sherwood, who was long 
stationed at Chittore, that the native doctors there, and in the 
neighbourhood, are in. the habit of employing the ham oomatie 
(datura fastuosa) in asthma ; all parts of the plant, except the 
leaves, being cut into small pieces and dried, and smoked night , 
and morning for three days together ; the vulley oomatie is not 
used for this purpose. 


the datura stramonium in epilepsy. And with regard 
to the opinion entertained by the Vytians of the use 
of the datura fastuosa in mania, it is, in all proba- 
bility, on the same principle as that which causes it 
to be prescribed, according to Rhumphius (Amb. 
tom. V. p. 244.), for producing sleep : his words are, 
<* Radicis drachma in vino adsumpta profundum 
adfert somnum.*' And Rheede has these words 
in speaking of the same medicine : ** Semina lar- 
gius sumpta, saporem inducant ac periculosa est 
eorum sumptio necem adferens.^' (Hort. Mai. part ii. 
p. 50.) 

The Mahometan practitioners in India (borrowing, 
in all probability, from Moomina, in his Mitfurdatie 
Mumna Uu^ vi;!:yuj, where the d. fast, is fully treated 
of under the name of i*;,^ ^aj), order it in epileptic 

cases. The Hindoo doctors employ the succulent 
leaves and fruit of the plant in preparing (in con- 
junction with warm cow-dung) a poultice, used for 
repelling* certain tumours, called hundamallie (scro- 
phulous) and moolie poottoo (cancer), and also for 
relieving the pain which accompanies the piles ; they 
likewise suppose, that the seeds made into pills or 
lozenges, and laid upon a decayed tooth, deaden the 
pain of the tooth-ache ; a fact I was pleased to per- 
ceive noticed in the second volume, p. 361., of Lock- 
man's Travels of the Jesuits. Dr. Horsfield, in his 
Account of Java Medicinal Plants, places datura 
ferox, kootshoobwig (Jav.), and datura fastuosa, kkas- 
sia7i (Jav.), amongst the Narcotic Stimulants of the 
Javanese; the last, he tells us, they consider as an- 

*^ On the continent of Europe the fresh leaves have been ap- 
plied to the mammae, for the purpose of checking the secretion 
of milk. See Frank, Anm.erkunge7iy i. p. 42^% 


thelmintic, and use externally in herpetic diseases* 
The first, kootslioobung (dat. ferox), Mr. Crawfurd* 
informs us, is given by the Malays to produce the 
most complete stupor j and is a powerful engine in 
the hands of the Chinese for effecting various artifices 
and tricks in trade. Orphilat places the daturas, 
stramonium |, metel, and ferox, amongst his Poisons; 
the seeds of the last of which, according to Gmelen, 
produce delirium. The Arabians rank the thorn 
apple amongst their Mokederrat c.Kj^-* § (Narcotics). 
The d. stram., according to Wedenberg, contains gum 
and resin, a volatile matter (which Dr. Thomson 
found to be carbonate of ammonia), and a narcotic 
principle, ascertained by Mr. Brandes to be an alka- 
line salt. 

Roques notices the datura fastuosa in Phytographie 
Medicale, vol. i. p. 228. ; it is classed, he observes, 
amongst the Poisons, and has got, by some writers, 
the familiar name of trompette du jugement. Four 
species of datura grow in Ceylon. 

* See his History of the Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 466. 

f See Traite des Poisons, vol. ii. part i. p. 244. 

\ Roques gives several frightful accounts of the effects of the 
seeds of stramonium, when taken internally, in producing mania, 
&c. Hufeland recommends a tincture prepared with the seeds, 
twenty drops of which produced a better effect in spasmodic affec- 
tions than opium. In France the datura stramonium is vulgarly 
termed ** herbe aux sorciers.'* " On a obtenu, des semences un 
alcali vegetal compose nomme daturin." See Phytographie Me- 

§ See Materia Medica, by Noureddeen Mohammed Abdullah 



TOBACCO. Poghei elley M23)^LJi^^/TO (Tarn.) 
Tumbdku ^^dUaj (Hind, and Duk.) Bujjerbhang 
^^^jyfi (Arab.) Tabaco (Japan.) Doonkola 
(Cyng.) Poghako (Tel.) Dhumrapatra ^raxf^ 
(Sans.) Tambrdcoo (Mai.) Tambroco (Jav. also 
Bali.) Tabac (Fr.) Taback (Ger.) Tabacco (It.) 
Tamer (Tart.) Qiiauryetl (Mexican). Youly 
(Caraub.) Sang-yen (Chin.) 

NicoTiANA Tabaccum (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

The tobacco plant is now cultivated in almost every 
part of India, Lower as well as Upper. By a pro- 
clamation of Jahangir, and mentioned in his own 
Memoirs, it would appear, that it was introduced into 
India either in his, or the preceding reign ; and the 
truth of this, the author of the " Remarks on the 
Husbandry* of BengaP' justly observes, is not im- 
peached by the circumstance of the Hindoos having 
names for the plant evidently corrupted from Euro- 
pean denominations of it. We are informed by 
B. Humboldt, in his Personal Narrative, " that this 
plant was first discovered in the Mexican provinces 
of Yucatan, in 1520, and that it was there called 
petum ; it was afterwards transported to the West 
Indies and North America, and brought to Europe 

* See work, p. 121. 


by Hernandes de Toledo, who came from Florida to 
Portugal, in the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
The seeds were sent from Portugal to Catherine de 
Medicis by Jean Nicot, an agent of Francis II., after 
whom it received its generic name Nicotiana ; the 
specific appellation being taken from tabac*, the 
name of an instrument used by the natives of 
America in the preparation of the herb :" by the 
way, it is a singular enough fact, that the Corean 
word for tobacco, Captain Hallt found the same as 
ours, or nearly so. As far as I have been able to 
learn, tobacco was first brought to India from Brazil, 
about the year 1617; some time later than it was 
cultivated in England, which was, according to 
Label, in 1570. 

There are various species of the plant, and great 
differences in the qualities, according to the soil and 
climate. The finest kinds in India, and perhaps in 
the world, grow near the village of Wooddnuniy in 
the Northern Circars, and in some of those low 
sandy islands formed at the mouth of the river 
Krishna (from which is made the famous Masulipa- 
tarn snuff) ; also in the Delta of the Godavery, 
where the soil is peculiarly rich and fertile. 

Tobacco is universally cultivated in the Eastern 
islands ; but in Mindano, Luconidj and Java alone, 
in such quantities as to admit of its being exported. 
In the last mentioned island, in the rich valleys of 
Kadu and Ladok^ it is of a superior quality ! It is a 
common produce of Siam. 

* Another account is, that the specific name is taken from the 
word Tohascoy a province of Yucatan, where it was first discovered 
by the Spaniards, and brought to England by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
about the year 1585. 

f See Captain Basil Hall's very interesting Voyage to Corea 
and the Island of Loo-choo, last edition, p. 76. 


The leaves of this plant taken internally prove 
emetic, cathartic, and narcotic ; their properties as 
an errhine and sternutatory are well known ; distilled 
in a retort, without addition, they yield an acrid em- 
pyreuinatic* oil, found, from repeated trials, to be 
poisonous to sundry animals : see Barrow's Travels 
in Africa (p, 268.), where may be found an account 
of a snake killed instantaneously by a little of it 
having been put into its mouth. Newman analysed 
three different sorts of tobacco, the American canister, 
the Dutch leaf, and dried leaves of our own growth ; 
an ounce of the first gave four drachms, thirty-five 
grains of extract ; the same quantity of the Dutch, 
four drachms ; of our own, four drachms and fifty 
grains. Dr. Fowler tells us, that an infusion made 
with the leaves in water, in the proportion of an 
ounce of the former to a pint of the latter, is useful 
in cases of dropsy and dysuria, in doses of sixty, 
seventy, or eighty drops to adults, twice daily ; as a 
hydragogue, tobacco is, however, not equal to either 
squills or digitalis, but it is allowed by Dr. Pearson 
to be a valuable medicine in dysuria, in which disease 
its antispasmodic virtues are of advantage. 

The native practitioners use tobacco to excite 
vomiting; and in cases of obstinate constipation, 
they apply the leaves warmed to the orifice of 
the anus with never-failing success, but sometimes 
at the expence of vomiting. They are also ordered 
by them for the purpose of fumigating such persons 

* Roques informs us, that a single drop of this oil put on the 
tongue of a dog, or injected with a little water into its rectum, 
kills it in a few minutes ; nay, sometimes, it has been found, 
that a single full pinch of strong snuff has produced apoplexy, 
adding, " c'est avec raison qu'on a range le tabac dans la classe 
des Poisons narcotiques acres." For Vauquelin's analysis of the 
leaves, see Phytographie Medicale, vol. i, 

VOL. I. G G 


as have suffered much from venereal complaints of 
long standing, and protracted courses of mercury. 
European practitioners in India occasionally prepare 
with tobacco certain unguents for destroying cuta- 
neous insects, and for cleansing foul ulcers. Injec- 
tions of the smoke by the anus I have known resorted 
to with success, in cases of obstinate constipation. 
In an interesting work lately published, entitled 
Colombia (pp. G08, fi09.)> the author, in treating of 
tobacco, observes, that the Otomacs produce a peculiar 
kind of intoxication by means of a powder made 
from the long pods of the acacia niopOj which they 
call the niopo^ or curupa tobacco ; this abominable 
powder, he adds, intoxicates by the nostrils. 

In speaking of the tobacco of Eastern countries, 
I ought sooner to have mentioned, perhaps, that of 
Darabjcrd"^^ in the province of Fars, in Persia, which 
is sent all over the East, so much is it esteemed ; but 
Niebhur seems to be of opinion, that that of Manillaf 
is the finest in the world. 

Seven species of Nicotiana were growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, all originally 
introduced from America. 

Dr. Paris informs us, that the great superiority of 
the Macuba snuff* is owing to the fermentation it 
undergoes, by being mixed with the best cane juice 
(Pharmacologia, p. 537.). 

* See M. Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, p. 76. 
f See Niebhur's Travels. 



TODDY. Khulloo e^rav-roy^ (Tarn,) Khulloo 
(Tel) Surd ^T} Tart or Tdcli rTlfl (Sans.) 
<fiXxA^ Saindee (Duk.) 

Toddy is the general name given by the English 
to those sweet, delicious, and refreshing liquors, 
which are procured in India by wounding the spatha 
of certain palms, when* it exudes, dropping into 
earthen pots which are attached to the superior part 
of the stem of the tree for receiving them. The 
best of all these is that obtained from the cocoa-nut 
tree (cocos nucifera*), and which is called in Ta- 
mool tennang khulloo, in Dukhanie narillie ^.j^L3> 
in Arabic nargilie ^^U, and in Telhnghoo te'nkdia 

Taken fresh from the tree, early in the morning 
before the sun is up, it is certainly a luscious and 
most pleasant drink, cooling, refreshing, and nourish- 
ing; it is, besides, employed for making the best 
kind of Indian arrack, and yields a great deal of 
sugar, called in Tamool tmne vellunij, in Dukhanie 
naril ka ghore j^\S J^jjU, and in Tellinghoo tdnkdia 
helium* Europeans, especially delicate females, in 
India, who are apt to suffer much from constipation, 
find a cupfuU of this toddy, drank every morning at 
five o'clock, one of the simplest and best remedies 
they can employ. The Vytians prescribe it in con- 
sumptive cases. When the heat of the day has 

* Cay-dua (Cochin-Chin.), vide Flor. Cochin-Chin., vol. ii. pp. 
566, 567., where the many properties of this plant are fully stated. 

G G ^ 


commenced, however, it is not so safe, as it then 
undergoes a degree of fermentation, and is apt to 
intoxicate and occasionally bring on cholera and 
bowel complaints. The different toddies to be met 
with in India are: 1st. The cocoa-nut toddy just 
mentioned. 2d. The Palmyra toddy (or toddy of the 
borassus flabelliformis*) ; it is also sweet and plea- 
sant tasted, but inferior to that of the cocoa-nut; it 
ispa?i?iang khulloo (Tam.), tarie cfjl5 (Duk. j, and tatie 
khulloo (Tel.) ; from it too sugar and arrack are 
made. 3d. The koondel paneif toddy (or toddy of 
the caryota urens) ; it is not equal to either of the 
other two, and is chiefly used on the Malabar coast, 
where this palm is termed erimpana ; sugar is also 
prepared from this palm. In the Eastern islands 
the tree is called nibwigy and is the true mountain 
cabbage tree ; the top of it (the germ of the future 
foliage) is, like that of all or most of the palms, 
edible, but much more delicate than the others ; 
some of the coarser parts of this top taste like a 
tender cabbage-stock, while otliers are so delicate as 
more to resemble a filbert, t Nibung is, properly, 
the Malay name ; it is andicdu in Bali, palun at 
Amboyna, and ramisa at Macassar. 4th. Toddy of 
the mid date tree (or elate silvestris), called in 
Tamool eetchum khulloo^ in Dukhanie sayndie (s^j^^ 
in Tellinghoo einta khulloo^ and in Sanscrit kharjiira 

C'i^<?| (Sans.) ; this is a pleasant tasted toddy, 

* " Ex hac palma praecissis junioribus spadicibus foemineis, 
manet liquor, ex quo ab Indianis fit vinum, sura dictum, etiam 
saccharum/' Flor. Cochin, vol. ii. p. 618. 

f The pith of this tree is a kind of sago, and is eaten by the 
natives ; the tree is common on Ceylon, and is noticed by Rum- 
phius(Amb. i. tab. xiv.). 

X See Crawfurd's History of the Eastern Archipelago, vol, i. 
pp. 4»47; 448. 


much used in Mysore, and from which also a jag- 
garie, or sugar, is made. 

I have been informed, that from healthy young 
margosa trees (melia azadirachta) a sort of toddy 
may be obtained, which the Hindoo doctors pre- 
scribe as a stomachic ; and that from another species 
of the same genus, viz. mel. sempervivens, toddy 
also may be obtained. This last (bead tree) is the 
bacain of the Hindoos of Upper India j its Sanscrit 

name is maha-nimba H6I Hl^^sj 

In the islands of the Eastern Archipelago a kind 
of wine or toddy is drawn from the nipa palm (cocos 
nypa) ; this tree is employed for many useful pur- 
poses in those countries ; its leaves being used for 
making mats, the pulpy kernels for making sweet- 
meats, &c. In Ternate this palm is termed hoJio^ 
and in Amboynaj9^re;2^, also buldin. 

Besides the purposes of drinking, making sugar and 
arrack, to which the toddies in India are applied, 
they are also used for making vinegar, by the bakers 
as a leaven for bread, &c. That of the Palmyra 
tree (already mentioned) is in high repute in the 
Eastern islands, and is there principally employed for 
making sugar, and it w^as upon the leaves of this 
palm that the Indians chiefly wrote, before the use 
of paper became common. In Java the borassus 
flabelliformis is called sivtvalen ; in Timur Jtoli ; in 
Celebes tala^ which is also the Hindoo name; the 
Malays call both the tree and leaf lontar. Avieenna 
(206.) speaks of this palm under the name of p^ 
doom, as does Forskahl, in his " Flora Egyptiaco, 
Arabica*' (126.). See " Historia rei Herbariae** 
(vol. i. p. 271.). 

G G 3 


v^i^ A. A. A. 11 1 • 

TURMERIC. MunjilLO^^o\^ (Tsivn.) Timmer 

j^ (Egypt. Arab.) Huldie <f*xU (Duk.) Zirsood 

^y^jsT (Arab.) Zirdchoobeh ^^i^^j/ (Pers.) Huldie 

(Hindooie). Kurkum (Hebrew). Arsina (Can.) 

Passapoo also Pampi (Tel.) Mdngellacua (Hort. 

Mai.) Haradul (Guz.) Haridra ^f^T (Sans.) 

Hulud (Mali.) TurtumagUo (It.) Keang *whang 


Curcuma Longa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Scitamineae (Lin.) 

This root the native Indians consider as cordial 
and stomachic ; it is a constant ingredient in their 
curries, and is prescribed by the Tamool doctors in 
those watery diarrhoeas, which are often so trouble- 
some and difficult to subdue in weak habits. Bontius 
tells us, that in Java the same medicine is celebrated 
for its supposed virtues in facilitating child-birth, in 
mysenteric obstructions, and certain complaints of 
the urinary passages ! The greater part of the tur- 
meric used in India as a dye, medicine, or seasoner, 
is either the produce of Bengal, or is brought from 
Java. There is a wild sort which grows in Mysore, 
and there called cad arsina (Can.). Turmeric has 
now no longer a place in the London Dispensatory ; 
it has, however, been celebrated in its day, in cases 
of hepatitis, jaundice, and dropsy, in doses of from 
a scruple to half a drachm. The native practitioners 
consider turmeric as an excellent application, in 
powder, for cleaning foul ulcers. 



Turmeric is a common produce of the Eastern is- 
lands, where it is indigenous. Rumphius enumerates 
three varieties ; a wild, and two better sorts. In Ja- 
vanese, Bali, and Malay, it is termed kunyit ; in Am- 
boynese unin ; and in Ternatese gordchi^ which, Mr. 
Crawfurd tells us, means golden. Turmeric has 
been analysed by Vogel and Pelletier. Mr. Brande 
notices the great quantity of colouring matter it 
yields on being digested in water or alcohol, re- 
gretting that it cannot be rendered permanent as a 
dye. No less than seventeen species of curcuma, 
as determined by Roxburgh, were growing in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta in 1814, all oriental 
plants, and most of them Indian. Our present 
article, curcuma longa, like the others of its genus, 
has no stem ; it may be distinguished from the 
c. rotunda by its leaves being simply lanceolate, and 
lateral nerves very numerous. Koenig's description 
of the plant by Retzius is, in Roxburgh's opinion, 
quite exact. Flor. Ind. vol. i. p. 22. The root is too 
well known to require a particular description here ; 
in its fresh state it has a rather unpleasant smell, 
somewhat resembling cerate, which goes off' a good 
deal on drying ; the colour is that of saffron, and 
the taste bitterish. 

Seven species of curcuma grow in Ceylon, where 
the curcuma longa is called in Cyngalese haran-kaha. 
The curcuma longa grows wild in Cochin-China, and 
is there called kuong huynh. Loureiro gives us a 
long list of its medicinal virtues in lepra, jaundice, 
and other disorders. Vide Flor, Cochin-Chin. vol. i. 
p. 9. 

G G 4 



TURNIP. Suljumi ^^^^ (Arab.) Shulgum 
(»jUU (Pers.) Navet (Fr.) Kabu (Japan.) 

Brassica Rapa (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Turnips in India, as in Jamaica, are reared by 
means of seed from Europe, though what is brought 
from the Cape of Good Hope is often found to 
answer as well, at least on the Coromandel coast. 
Of all the European vegetables they are the seldomest 
found good in our Asiatic dominions, being, for the 
most part, what is called stringy, unless they are cul- 
tivated with much skill and care. The native Indians 
know them but by name, nor should they have been 
mentioned here, but that they are placed amongst 
the medicines of the Arabians and Persians, who 
consider them as diaphoretic. The seeds, which are 
commonly known in the Arabian bazars under the 
name of buzirulluft C^illjjj, are considered as hot and 
moist, and are administered in doses of two direms. 
The ancients, as we see by Celsus(lib.v. cap.xxviii.), 
used a fomentation prepared with turnips in those 
cases when the feet had become ulcerous from ex- 
treme cold : ** In primis multa calida aqua fovendum 
est, in qua rapa decocta." When of a good quality, 
they are, in my opinion, one of our best vegetables, 
being delicious in taste, cooling, and gently aperient, 
though they have, perhaps unjustly, been deemed by 
some as difficult of digestion. One thousand parts 
of common turnips give about thirty-four of sugar. 


and seven of mucilage, according to Brande. The 
varieties of turnip, as stated by Miller, are five, with- 
out including the Swedish turnip, now so much 
cultivated by our farmers in England and Scotland. 
The long-rooted turnip (the rapa sativa oblonga of 
Bauhin), he is inclined to believe, is a distinct 


Ratinge roomie ^^, ^^^\) C-^^'^b.) Zungbarie 
i^Uxjj (Pers.) Terebinthe (Fr.) Gemeiner tera- 
bcnthin (Ger.) Trementina (It.) 


CI. and Ord. Monoecia Monadelphia. Nat. Ord. 

As a produce of an Eastern country, I have never 
met with common turpentine in India. Sonnerat 
informs us, that pitch is common at Pegu ; nay, 
Symes* tells us, that the name of the pine tree there, 
is toenyo ; and that the natives obtain turpentine 
from it. Kirkpatrick, in his Account of Nepaul 
(p. 109.) says, that the turpentine of the sulla pine, 
is sold in the bazars of that country, at the rate of 
ten seers for one rupee, and that its name is kota. 
The pinus silvestris grows commonly amongst the 
mountains of Japan, and is called by the Japanese 
sjo. It is also a native of Cochin-China, and is 
there termed cay4houng (Flor. Cochin-China, vol. ii. 

p. 579.)- 

* See his Embassy to Ava, vol. ii. p. 373. 


Turpentines are little used by the medical practi- 
tioners of India; but they, with their essential oil, 
are well known in Europe to be anthelmintic, sti- 
mulant, cathartic*, and diuretic. For expelling the 
taenia, the oil has lately been given in doses of 
from ^ss. to ^ij. with success, repeated every eight or 
ten hours, till the worm is expelled. Itt has also ob- 
tained celebrity in chronic rheumatism, haemorrhages, 
and epilepsy ; topically it is employed with advan- 
tage, in cases of obstinate costiveness, and ascarides ; 
and as a useful primary application to burns. 

Turpentines t are administered in doses of from 
grs. viii. to ^i. best diffused in water by means of 
mucilage, or the yolk of an egg. The oil of 
turpentine, in doses of from grs. xii. to 51. is diu- 

* Dr. Latham has long considered it as a valuable medicine 
in epilepsy ; in this case, it must operate chiefly by unloading the 
bowels. A certain affection of the head, approaching to intoxi- 
cation, is apt to succeed to a large dose. See Paris's Pharmaco- 
logia, p. 541. 

f See a most valuable paper by Dr. Copland on terebinthinous 
medicines, in the Medical and Physical Journal, vol. xlvi. p. 186 — 

J Turpentine, commonly so called, is a resinous juice which 
exudes from the wild pine (pinus silvestris), or Scotch fir; in- 
cisions having been previously made in the inner smooth bark, 
near the foot of the tree. Oil of turpentine is made by distilling 
this substance in a common still, when the oil will be found in the 
receiver. Common resin^ or yelloxjo resin, is the residue of the 
distillation of turpentine ; when the distillation is performed with- 
out addition it is called common resin, or colophony^ but when 
agitated with about one-eighth of fresh water, while yet fluid, it 
is named yelloto resin. Tar is got by the application of heat, 
in a certain way, to billets of the branches of the tree (pinus sil- 
vestris). Venice turpentine is obtained from the larch tree (pinus 
larix). The Canada balsam, or Jine turpentine^ is collected from 
the pinus balsamea. The Chio turpentine is got from the pistacia 
terebinthus. Burgundy pitch, and the thus or resin of the London 
Pharmacopoeia, are both obtained from the pinus abies, or Norway 
spruce fir, a native both of China and Japan. See Flor. Japon. 
p. 275., also Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 579. The last exudes 
spontaneously ; the first by means of incisions through the bark, 
deep enough to lay the wood bare. See Thomson's Lond. Disp. 


retic : in larger doses its effects are more general 
on the system j and it is then best administered, 
combined with aromatics and spices, and rubbed up 
with mucilage or honey.* 

Of the use of resins^ I have said a little under the 
head of Resin. Tar I have found in India to be a 
useful application to foul ulcers, but very inferior to 
the balsam of PerUy which, applied externally on 
lint, has most positive and peculiar virtues in arrest- 
ing mortification, and the dangerous progress of 
phagedenic ulcer ; an effect, which 1 fully explained, 
as already noticed, in a paper addressed to the Honor- 
able the Court of Directors, from India, in 1810, 
and which afterwards appeared in the Asiatic Jour- 
nal for January, 1816. Of the use of tar in con- 
sumptive complaints (I mean inhaling the vapour of 
boiling tar), I have no experience. It has found a 
much abler advocate in Dr. Paris ( Pharmacol ogia, 
p. 478.). Sir Alexander Crichton's Practical Ob- 
servations on the subject, are extremely interesting ; 
and merit from the public, that attention which is ever 
due to such distinguished authority. This much I ' 
can say, and which may bear a little on his plan, that 
previous to leaving India, I had been in the habit of 
recommending in phthisical cases, and often with 
evident advantage, that the patient should inhale the 
vapour arising from burning balsam of Peru, which 
had been previously mixed with a sufficient quantity 
of balsam copaiba, to render it less stimulating. 

Eight species of pinus were growing in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta in 1814, three of which were 
oriental plants. 

* Dr. Magee of Dublin is of opinion, that this medicine has 
not received due attention ; he found it a safe and efficacious pur- 
gative. In obstinate constipation without a rival, and in interitiSi 
peritonitis^ and colic almost a specific. See London Medical Re- 
pository, Feb. 1826. p. 178. 



Under the head of Milk, at p. 220, 1 mentioned this 
article, and merely again notice it here, as by later 
accounts from India, I learn that it has been found 
most useful as a diet in the low stages of typhus 
fever. At page 225, I have spoken of the milk tree 
of South America ; the milk of which was tasted by 
Baron Humboldt, and found to have a balmy smell, 
and to be free from all acrimony. I have since 
learnt, by turning to the fourth volume of his *^ Sy- 
nopsis Plantarum Equinoctialium,*' p. 198, that he 
has bestowed on the tree, the generic name of ga- 
lectodendron ; he, however, still has some doubts re- 
garding its proper place, as he asks the question, 
" an brosimi species ?'' adding habitus Jicus. The 
specimen Mr. R. Brown saw, was too imperfect 
to enable that justly distinguished botanist to 
speak with certainty respecting it. At pp. 221 and 
226 of this work, in notes, I have mentioned, that 
the seeds of two bassias, longifolia (Lin.), and bit- 
tyracea (Roxb.), yield oily substances which are 
used as ghee or butter. The latter is the Jictwah 
of the Almorah mountains ; it has " a large trunk, 
alternate leaves, which are obovate-cuneate, obtuse- 
pointed ; the flowers are long, numerous, large, 
pale yellow, drooping; berry long, generally point- 
ed, fleshy, containing one, two, or three large seeds, 
the rest not ripened.'* Dr. Roxburgh, who describes 
the tree in vol. viii. p. 489, of the Asiatic Researches, 
says, that it much resembles the bassia latifolia, so 
much so as to be scarcely distinguished from it, except 


by the corol. and stamina. Mr. Gott, in speaking of 
the b. butyracea, has observed (same vol. and page), 
that the people of the Almorah mountains eat even 
the dregs, after the finer parts have been extracted ; 
consequently there can be little doubt of the whole- 
someness of the purer butter, prepared from the 
kernels of the seeds (which look like blanched al- 
monds), first by expression, and subsequently by ex- 
posure to moderate heat. It is of the consistence of 
hog's lard, is white in colour, so far not resembling 
the oily produce of the b. longifolia, which is of a 
greenish-yellow colour ; the produce of the b. bu- 
tyracea is, besides, a medicine of some note as an 
external application in rheumatism. The description 
of the b. longifolia, and its further uses, will be no- 
ticed in another part of this work. Roxburgh 
seemed to be of opinion, that the sheaj or butter tree 
of Africa, mentioned by Park, in his Travels (p. 20.), 
can be no other than a bassia. 


VINEGAR. Kadi ^rr^^ (Tam.) Cirka ^f^^ 
(Pers. and Duk.) Kadidia (Cyng.) Khull 3^ 
(Arab.) Chooka ^^>y^ (Malay.) Poolla neelloo 
(Tel.) Ca?ichica (Sans.) Vinaigre (Fr.) Essig 
(Ger.) Aceto (It.) Tsoo (Chin.) 

AcETUM (Lond. Disp.) 

The native Indians use vinegar as we do, exter- 
nally as a repellant, and in composing certain dis- 
cutient fometitations ; they are also in the habit of 
mixing it with gingilie oil, to make a cooling em- 


brocation for the head, in cases of cephalgia. It is 
usually prepared from the toddy of the palmyra tree 
(see article toddy) ; and is coloured with a little 
burnt paddy (rice in the husk). Some of the more 
enlightened VytianSj know how to render vinegar 
stronger by distillation. The Edin. Pharmacopoeia 
directs us to distil eight pounds of acetous 
acid in glass vessels, with a gentle heat ; the 
two pounds which come first over are watery, and 
to be rejected; the four following, will be the 
distilled acetous acid ; the residue is a stronger 
acid, but too much burnt. The native Indians 
are not acquainted with the mode of preparing the 
strong acetic acid ; which is done by rubbing to- 
gether a pound of dried sulphate of iron and ten 
ounces of the superacetate of lead ; after which 
they are to be put into a retort, and distilled in a 
sand bath with a moderate heat, as long as any acid 
comes over. The acetic acid is well known to be 
stimulant and rubifacient ; but is chiefly employed 
as a scent, and applied to the nostrils in syncope, as- 
phyxia, and nervous head-achs. According to Ber- 
zelius, its ultimate components are : 

Carbon ... . 46-83 
Oxygen .... 46*82 
Hydrogen ... 6*35 


Common vinegar, used internally, is not only a re- 
frigerant, but (especially when taken in some warm 
gruel) a powerful diaphoretic. The Arabians, as 
a medicine, place it amongst their Attenuantia 
wUkJU, and consider a mixture of it, with sal ammo- 


niac and common salt, as one of their best ^^^l^ji^ 
'i Yabisat'kerough (Epulotics). This mixture 

they term Ji^ ^ j^^y ^ ^j^*^ seerkeh wu nowshadir^ 
wu nemuk. 

What is called in Mysore senndgdlu vinegar is 
much prized both by the Mahometans and Hindoos 
as a cooling drink, and is also employed as a com- 
mon menstruum for medical purposes. It is ob- 
tained in the following manner : — The dews of night 
falling on cloths, spread over what is called in India 
Bengal horse gram (cicer arietinum) whilst growing, 
are thereby rendered slightly acid; and it is the 
liquor wrung out of these cloths in the morning, 
that is termed sendgdlu vinegar. In Tamool it is, 
cdddlay poolipooiieer ; boot kd cirka ^Sj^\S i:^^j(Duk.); 
Sdnighe pooloosu neeloo (Tel.) 

Several of the writers of antiquity, say much on 
the subject of vinegar. Avicenna was fully aware 
of its virtues as an external application. ^^Lanse 
aceto imbutag ac vulneribus adplicatse repellunt in- 
flammationes'* (Canon, lib. ii. tract, ii.). 


WALNUT. Akiroot ^^! (Arab. Hindooie and 
Duk. ) Jotfoz jy=^ (Arab.) Charmugkz yi^J^ (Pers.) 
also Geerdigdn (^l^:>j..E=) (Pers.) also Jouziroomie 
i^^fjy^ (Pers.) also Khusif U^^m:^ (Arab.) Noix 


JuGLANS Regia (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Monoecia Polyandria. Nat. Ord. 


Walnuts, we are informed by Captain Turner, in 
his Embassy to the Court of the Tishoo Lama, grow 
in great abundance in Bootan. Those of the pro- 
vince of KusistaUj in Persia*, are much esteemed, 
and are sent in great quantities to India. They are 
common in Armenia.! Kirkpatrick found them 
growing in NepauU and Thibet. Those of the last 
mentioned country are the best ; in Nepaul they are 
termed okher. In Georgia they abound, and of a 
fine quality. The tree grows, Loureiro says, in the 
Northern tracts of China, and is there called ho4ao 
(Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. i. p. 573.). 

The French writers § consider the leaves of the 
tree as anthelmintic. From the nuts may be ob- 
tained, without fire, an oil which can be used at 
table : that which is procured by means of heat is 
supposed, by Virey, in his " Histoire Naturelle des 
Medicamens,'' to possess vermifuge properties ; it 
is, besides, employed for varnishing, and burning in 
lamps. The French apothecaries prepare from nuts, 
" dislilles dans trots etats differenSj*^ what they call 
^* eau de trois noiXy^ which they consider as hydra- 
gogue, in doses of from four to six ounces. The 
ancients supposed walnuts to be elexipharmic : the 
famous antidote of Mithridates was composed of 
two walnuts, two figs, and twenty leaves of rue, 
rubbed together with a grain of salt. By Virey's|| 
work, quoted above, it appears, that the bark of the 

* See Macdonald Kinneir^s Geographical Memoir of Persia, 
p. 115. 

f See the same, p. 319. 

X See his Account of Nepaul, p. 81. 

§ See Manuel de Plantes Usuelles Indigenes, par Loiseleur 
Deslongchamps, p. 65^. 

y See p. 295 of his Histoire Naturelle des Medicamens. 


juglaiis cineria, which is a native of Canada, is 
anthelmintic, and an extract made with it, purga- 

Two species of juglans grow in the botanical 
garden of Calcutta; our article and the juglans 
pterococca (Roxb.), which abounds in the Garrow 
hills, and has got the Bengalie name of bolus. 

The Arabians, in the days of Avicenna, that is 
about the beginning of the eleventh century, had 
some singular notions regarding w^alnuts ; not the 
least remarkable was, that, in conjunction with figs 
and rue, they had the power of resisting poisons. 
Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 90. 


WATER. Tanneer ^6(st5^6m^& (Tarn.) Fanie 

^L (Duk. and Hind.) iV^ee/oo (Tel.) Mdh tU 

(Arab.) also Owzir jj^\ (Arab.) Watoora (Cyng.) 

Ayer (Malay). Ab JT (Pers.) Apa ^T^", Ila 

3T^, Ambha 3[»:r, also Fdniya "^T^^ &c. (Sans.) 

Tanee and jul (Mah.) Acqua (It.) 


The Hindoos are extremely particular about water, 
and ascribe many diseases to it when impure. By 
the Paddrtha'SindhiC'maniy a Medical Sastrum by Ag- 
hastievj on the qualities of ingesta, it would appear, 
that that celebrated Tamool writer considered the 
water of wells, or natural springs in the sandy beds 
of rivers, as the most wholesome j the next best, he 

VOL. I. H H 



informs us, is river water, and then comes that of a 
fountain at the foot of a high land. The water of I 
brooks or streamlets from a mountain-side, he tells 
us, is heating to the body, and that of tanks and 
reservoirs become stagnant, the worst of all, and apt 
to produce indigestions, obstructions, and lethargy, 
and to predispose to fever. 

Generally speaking, the water of Hindoostan may 
be considered as good j that of rivers, of course, 
cannot be said to be so soon after heavy rains. The 
water of wells is sometimes brackish from an admix- 
ture of common salt, or muriate of lime.* That of 
tanks or reservoirs, being rain water, is usually soft. 

Water, from its great solvent powers, is rarely 
found in a state entirely pure, but usually contains 
certain portions of earthy, saline, or metallic particles, 
according to the substances over which it passes. 
Dr. Heyne, in his ^^ Tracts Historical and Statistical 
of India'* (p. 4.), informs us, that springSy issuing 
from the surface, are almost as uncommon as mineral 
waters in Lower India, indeed, that they only occur 
on the tops of high mountains ; the water of these 
is, for the most part, excellent. The same gentleman 
adds, that mineral waters, as far as he knows, do not 
occur on the Coromandelf coast j and that he had 

* Dr. Heyne says, that these are the only mineral substances 
that he has found, by analysis, in different waters in India. 

t Dr. Heyne, at the time he wrote the work above mentioned, 
could not have known of the chalybeate spring discovered at 
Bangalore, by Major W. Garrard, of the Engineer Corps, and so 
laudably brought to the notice of Government and the public by 
that gentleman. The virtues of this mineral water have been i 
reported on by different medical officers, particularly by the late 
much lamented Dr. Greig, of his Majesty's service, who con- 
sidered it as a valuable tonic and bracer in such cases as required 
medicines of this nature ; as he did not examine the water on the 
spot, he could not ascertain the quantity of carbonic acid gas it 
contains ; but Major Garrard writes rae, that it is considerable, fl 



heard but of one hot spring in the lower part of the 
peninsula, situated in the middle of the Godavery, 
near Bradachellum, about one hundred miles West 
of Rajahmundry. 

The drinking water of Fort St. George is from a 
spring; it is, perhaps, the purest in the world, not 
even excepting that of Malvern, and it has this pe- 
culiar advantage, that it keeps at sea even better 
than that of the Thames ; it has neither colour nor 
smell, and is altogether without taste ; it is extremely 
light and fluid, wets easily, mixes with great facility 
with soap and alcohol, and makes admirable tea ; nor 
is it rendered turbid by adding to it a solution of gold 
in aqua regia, or a solution of silver, or of lead, or 
of mercury in nitric acid ; it exhibits the presence 
of fixed air, with the smallest proportion of ^earthy 

" The distinction of water into hard and soft (says 
Mr. Brande) has reference to its less or greater 
purity.'* Hard waters are unfit for washing in 
consequence of containing sulphate of lime, and 
curdling in place of dissolving soap, and this can 
at once be detected by adding to it a little of the 
alcohol solution of soap, when the water will imme- 

and that he has often drawn the water in a state of effervescence. 
The other parts, according to Dr. P. Scott's analysis, are the 
following : 

Carbonate of iron - - - — 50 

Alumina ----- — 10 

Muriate of soda - - - - — 75 

lime - - - - — 30 

I magnesia - - - — 10 

Silicea . . - , - — 15 

"« , .- 

1 90 

H H 2 


diately become turbid. I need scarcely add, that 
hard water does not make good tea,* 

The composition of water was a great step, as 
Mr. Brande has termed it, in the march of chemical 
science ; what is due to Mr. Cavendisli for this dis- 
covery, every man, with any pretensions to science, 
well knows ; he it was who first found that a stream 
of pure hydrogen, burnt either in air or oxygen, 
produced a vapour condensible mto pure water t ; an 
experiment subsequently verified by the analytical 
researches of Lavoisier. The composition of water 
has been beautifully evinced by the experiments of 
Dr. Pearson, by means of the electric spark. Water 
has also been decomposed by the influence of the 
galvanic pile. With regard to the proportions of 
hydrogen and oxygen" which go to compose water, 
]\Ir. Brande observes, that ^^ 100 parts of water con- 
sist of S8'24 oxygen, and 11 -7(3 hydrogen. 

Snowwater was long supposed to occasion bron- 
chocele, but that is not the case, as in mountainous 
parts of Sumatra the disease is found. Snow water 
differs from rain water in being destitute of air, 
which makes water brisk. A pint of sea water, 
according to Dr. Murray, contains muriate of soda 
159*3; muriate of magnesia 35*5; muriate of lime 
5*7 ; sulphate of soda 25*6; total 226*1 grains (see 
Paris's Pharmacologia, p. 272.). The tepid sea bath 
I found, in India, to be the best tonic in cases of 
pure debihty and scrophulous affections ; the gentle 

* By referring to Avicenna, Canon, lib. ii. tract ii. p. 192., the 
reader will find some curious opinions regarding various kinds of 
water in his day, in Arabia; such as *• epileptici juvantur ab aqua 
tepida, laeduntur a calida ; vapor marinae aquse curat cephalagiam 

f In the summer of 1T81. 


stimulus from the saline particles quickens the cir- 
culation and enlivens the spirits. 

The excellent Mr. H. T. Colebrooke informs us, 
on the authority of Captain Gerard, that eight or ten 
hot springs were discovered in the valley of the 
Sutluj, in the Himalaya mountains, at a place called 
Jaurij betwixt Fungal and Suniya ; one of these 
raised the thermometer to 130^ Fahr., while the tem- 
perature of the river was 61° in April: and Captain 
Hodgson, in his journey to the source of the Jumna^ 
found a hot spring at Jiimnotriy in which rice was 
boiled; the water was tasteless, and had no particular 
smell (Asiat. Res. xiv.). Hot springs appear to be fre- 
quently met with amongst the Himalaya mountains. 

Major Tod, late political agent with the Rajah- 
poot, states, an officer justly distinguished by his 
ingenious and laborious researches regarding the 
antiquities of Hindoostan, says, that '* hot springs 
abound in India : those of Chittagong and Monghir 
are well known, each has its Seeta koond^ or fountain 
of Seeta*; the w^ater of these is nearly boiling 
hot, and such its purity, that it is often bottled 
for voyages to Europe. At Grwalioar there is a sul- 
phurous well, which, blacksmiths think, has virtues 
in tempering steel. At Macherry^ west of Jeipourj 
are many mineral springs, much used by the natives, 
who ascribe to them peculiar virtues in cases of 
debility. There is a strongly impregnated sulphurous 
well near the Fountain of the Sun^ at the celebrated 
Somndthy in Guzzerat; it changes silver to a yellow 
coppery hue in a short time. There are hot and 
cold springs close to each other at Seetabarryy in 
Haroutee ; the water pure, with little or no mineral 
impregnation. There is another hot fountain in 

* The wife of the Indian hero Ram. 
H H 3 


Guzzerat, of very great celebrity, in the centre of 
the range which bisects the Kattywar peninsula; 
temperature of the water about 110°; it has no 
mineral impregnation/* We are told by Morier, in 
his Travels in Armenia^ that at Avzroum there are 
delightful warm springs. See work, p. 325. 


WAX. Mellugoo (2lo(^"© (Tam.) Moam ^^ 

(Pers.) Shiima V^ (Arab.) or ^^ Miettie (Cyng.) 

Lelin ^^U (Mai.) Minum (Tel.) Siktha f^^^ 

(Sans.) ' Cere (Fr.) Wachs (Ger.) Cera (It.) 

Mehdoomul (Hindooie). La (Chin.) 


The natives of India use wax, as we do, in the 
preparation of plaisters, and for burning, &c. In 
Lower India it is obtained of the finest quality, 
though, in Bengal, it is more considered as an article 
of commerce, and is, in consequence, purified in 
greater quantity. White wax is called in Tamool 
vullay mellaghoo ; in Dukhanie suffiad moom ; and 
in Tellinghoo tella minum. The yellow wax is in 
Tamool mwyil mellughoo ; in T>\il^\i2inie peelah moom; 
and in Tellinghoo passapoo minum. Wax is imported 
into India from Nepaulj from Pedir, in Sumatra, and 
from Palembang. For some account of the different 
sorts of bees to be found in India, the reader is 
referred to article Honey. 

It would appear, that wax, as a principle, exists in 
many plants, and that all the varieties of it possess 
the same essential properties as that formed by the 
bee J such as that from the hgustrum lucidum, or 



wax tree of China ; and we know, that from the 
berry of the candleberry tree of America (myrica 
cerifera) candles are made, which, though dearer 
than tallow, are cheaper than wax ; with this ve- 
getable wax, or tallow, soap is also made, and, in 
Carolina, sealing-wax. The leaves and stem of the 
ceroxylon andelocula^ by the process of bruising and 
boiling, also yield a sort of wax * ; so does a plant 
called, in Brazil, cavna uha ; and we are informed by 
Mr. Brande, that the glossy varnish upon the surface 
of the leaves of many trees is of a similar nature. 
I see, by a late Number of the Asiatic Journal, that 
Dr. Tytler, of Bengal, had submitted to the Agri- 
cultural Society of Calcutta a curious artificial wax, 
made from various vegetable oils, chiefly castor-oil, 
and which was considered by the Society as a dis- 
covery capable of application to several of the most 
useful domestic purposes. What the particular pro- 
cess is, is not stated; whether by boiling the castor- 
oil in nitric acid, by which means it is converted into 
a solid matter, which resembles soft wax, but which, 
Mr. Brande has informed us, in his Lectures, has not 
consistence enough to be conveniently made into 
candles. Dr. John digested bees' wax and myrtle t 
wax in boiling alcohol, and thereby obtained two 
parts ; one soluble, which he called cerin^ the other 
insoluble, which he named myricin : the first, though 
not soluble in water, nor in cold alcohol and ether, 
yet dissolves, in these when heated ; myricin is in- 
soluble under all circumstances in alcohol and ether. 

* Sir Stamford Raffles informs us, that the wax tree grows 
abundantly in Java. 

t The candleberry myrtle tree (myrica cerifera) is common in 
Southern Africa, where, Barrow says, they contrive to make 
candles from the berries, which are firm and good (see his Travels 
in Southern Africa, pp. 18, 19.). 

H H 4 


Gay Lussac analysed wax, and found, that 100 parts 
consisted of 81*79 carbon; 6-30 of the elements of 
water ; and 11-91 of excess of hydrogen.* See ar- 
ticle Tallow t in this part and chapter of this work. 
With regard to the adulteration of wax it may be 
said, according to the Pharmacologia of Dr. Paris, 
that " to detect "white lead it is necessary first to melt 
the wax in water, when the oxyde will fall to the 
bottom.** Tallow may be suspected when the cake 
wants its usual translucency. Wax may be deprived 
of its natural colour, and be perfectly whitened by 
being exposed to the united action of air and water. 
Wax cannot be kindled unless previously heated and 
reduced into vapours. Much wax is exported from 
towns situated on the Hellespont, also from Romania, 
Bulgaria, Wallachia, and Moldavia. See OUivier's 
Travels in the Ottoman Empire, vol. i. p. S51. 


WINE. Sherab unghoorie iSjy)ij\ i^Syi* (Duk.) 
Khumar j^^ (Arab.) Drahhka mud (Hind.) Mey 
^-^ (Pers.) Vin (Fr.) Wein (Ger.) Vino (It.) 
"Mada Jf^ Madira '^^T. (Sans.) 


ViTis ViNiFERA (Lin.) 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 

Grapes can be very successfully cultivated in 

"* See Brande's Manuel of Chemistry, vol. iii. p. 54. 

+ Where it will be seen, that the tallow procured from the fruit 
of the vateria Indica has equally the properties of wax and 


India, and of a peculiarly delicate flavour ; but, 
owing to the great heat, by which means the vinous 
fermentation is rendered too quick, wine cannot be 
made, at all events, none has hitherto been prepared 
of a tolerable quality. In countries lying a little 
farther North, however, wine is made, and also spirit 
from it ; for instance, in Cashmere, according to 
the testimony of Foster (Travels in I780.). Wine 
is brought to India from Persia, where, by Taver- 
nier's * account, three sorts are made : that of Yesd 
is very delicate j the Isphahan produce is not so 
good ; the Shiraz is the best, being rich, sweet, and 
generous t; it is obtained from the small grapes 
called kishmisheSy which are sent for sale to Hindoo- 
stan when dried into raisins. NiebhurJ, in his ac- 
count of Persia, informs us, that there are two sorts 
of Shiraz wine, a red and a white, both of which are 
excellent, and find a ready market in India. Not 
less than 4000 tuns of Shiraz wine is said to be 
annually sent from Persia to different parts of the 
world. The greatest quantity is produced, by Mr. 
Morier's account, in his admirable ^* Journey through 
Persia'* (p. 74.), in the district of Corbaly near the 
village of Be7id Emir. Analysed, the red Shiraz 
wine is found to contain about 15 '52 per cent, of 
alcohol; the white about 19*80 per cent. 

Wine is well known to be forbidden by the Koran §j 

■* See his Persian Travels, book iv. chap. ii. 
'f Shiraz wine, analysed by Mr. Brande, was found to contain 
15*52 per cent, of spirit, which makes it about as strong as Lunel 

ij: See his Travels in Persia. 

§ This fact did not prevent Avicenna of old from highly prais- 
ing its medicinal virtues : " Promts descendit, ac concoquitur ; 
alimentum praebet copiosum, laudabilem que procr^at succum ; 
moderate sumptum ciborum appetantiam excitat, immoderatus 
vero ingurgitatum , obstructiones parit jecoris et renum,'* Canon, 
lib.ii. tract ii. 


it is, notwithstanding, pretty liberally used under the 
rose* in all Mahometan countries, and is a never- 
ending theme with Hafiz, who, in one of his finest 
odes, has this most poetic and voluptuous exclam- 
ation : 

Which may be thus paraphrased : 

With blushing roses in my breast, 
While sparkling wine my goblet fills, 

With, happier still, my Laelia blest, 
What can I fear of earthly ills ? 

The Hindoos never touch wine, except when it 
is prescribed to them medicinally. The Persians 
consider it as a most valuable stomachic and cor- 
dial, and place what they call U>^x-< vl;-^ sherab 
meyxvaha^ which signifies all kinds of fruit wines, 
amongst their Adviyahheezeh. 

Wines are much drank by such European inhabit- 
ants in India as can afford them, and are certainly 
more conducive to health than arrack, which, in 
former years, was but too liberally indulged in. 
Those chiefly brought to table are sherry t, Ma- 
deirat, port§, claret ||, and Cape Madeira.^ The 

* See Sir John Malcolm's History of Persia, vol.ii. p. 285. 

f Good sherry contains about 19*17 per cent, of alcohol. 

:j: Madeira contains about 2227 per cent, of alcohol. 

§ Port about 22*96 per cent, of alcohol. 

II Good claret about 15*10 per cent, of alcohol. 

^ To these we may add Constantia, containing 18*92 per cent, 
of alcohol ; Champaigne, about 13*30 per cent.; fine raisin wine, 
made with dried kishmlshes from Persia, about 21*4?0 per cent. 
Bucellas is a favourite wine in India; it contains about 18*49 per 
cent, of alcohol. Delightful orange wine is made in that country; 
it contains about 10*97 per cent, of alcohol, and is, perhaps, the 
best of all wines not made from grapes. 


first has a degree of bitterness in it, and agrees 
better with deUcate stomachs than Madeira, which is 
of all wanes, in my opinion, the most liable to pro- 
duce acidity in the first passages, a fact so well 
established, that of late years it is little drank by the 
dyspeptic* in India. Port, in that country, is apt 
to bind, and should be taken with caution. Where 
there is either general inflammation, as in simple 
fever, ardent fever, or organic inflammation, as in 
hepatitis, &c., wine is a poison. In cases of pure 
languor and debility, in India, the safest and most 
certain cordial is claret, w^hich is at once antiseptic, 
gently stimulating, and aperient. It has appeared 
to me, to be particularly indicated for such as are 
convalescent from typhus fever, in a great de- 

* I am well aware, that this opinion is in direct opposition to 
very high authority, that of Dr. A. Henderson (see his admirable 
History of Ancient and Modern Wine), who says (p. 355.), that of 
all the strong wines Madeira is the best adapted to invalids ; such 
may be the case in England, where my experience has been but 
of short duration, but in India it is far otherwise; there, that wine, 
from its acidulous nature, is apt to bring on heart-burn, and would 
seem to be particularly injurious in gouty habits. Dr. Henderson, 
in speaking of the Persian wines, says, " For the more common 
wines (not including the Shiraz) five difierent kinds of grapes are 
used, four white, and one black. This last is called Samarcandi^ 
from the town of that name ; it has a black skin, and produces a 
kind of claret.'' He moreover informs us (p. 266.), that *^ the 
Armenian merchants sometimes add saffron as well to improve the 
colour of the Persian wines, as to make them more pleasant in 

For much curious information regarding the notions of the 
ancients on the subject of wine, which they sometimes called 
cardiacum cardiacorum, the reader may consult Pliny (Nat. Hist, 
book xiv.) ; in chapter xiii. of that book, he tells us, that in 
ancient times the women of Rome were not permitted to drink 
wine ; in the twelfth chapter, he observes, that wine did not begin 
to be in much reputation in the great city till about six hundred 
years after the foundation of it. Romulus sacrificed not with 
wine, but with milk. In chapter xvi. is a full account of the 
made wines used in those days, such as that prepared from 
various garden herbs, flowers of trees and shrubs, &c. 


gree owing, perhaps, to its powerful antiputrescent* 
quality; and to prove how much nature herself seems 
to be in unison with this opinion, I may state, that 
I knew an instance of a delicate lady, who, for 
several days together, after recovering from a nervous 
fever, took, while at dinner and after it, a whole 
bottle of claret without feeling, in the slightest de- 
gree, inebriated.- 

Cape Madeira (I mean that produced from the 
groene druyf^ when of the best quality, and 
such as may now be had from several respect- 
able wine merchants in London, is an excellent 
wine ; it contains much less acidity than the com- 
mon Madeira, and agrees admirably with weak 
stomachs. It seems to me, that this wine has un- 
deservedly got a bad name, perhaps from the cir- 
cumstance of much of a low price and an inferior 
quality having been exposed for sale; it is said to 
have an earthy taste, but this is not the case when 
it is well made, on the contrary, it is delicious and 
full bodied, with just enough of the Constantia fla- 
vour in it to be pleasant, and to mark where it was 
produced. I write this from long experience of its 
good qualities t, and shall further state, that, in a 
medical point of view, I know many delicate people. 

* For many years before leaving India, I trusted much, and I 
may say with almost never-failing success, to the free use of ripe 
oranges in cases of typhus fever, with occasional blisters to the 
feet to keep up the energy of the circulation. The diet, panada 
alone ; drink, lemon-grass tea. 

-I" Quite aware of the strong prejudice that exists in England 
against Cape wine, I am the more anxious to do what I conceive 
to be justice to it, and shall, therefore, quote the words of a late 
distinguished writer in favour of it : *' Les vins du Cap de Bonne 
Esperancey impregnes d'un arome-exquis, son tres-restaurans, et 
peutetre les meilleurs de tous les vins." See Chevalier Roques 
rhytographie Medicale, vol.ii. p. 215. 


sufferers from dyspepsia and flatulence, who can take 
no wine except Cape Madeira, with impunity ! It 
is rather strong, so that two glasses, one at, and 
another after dinner, are as much as invalids should 
indulge in. Analysed, it is found to contain about 
20 '51 per cent, of alcohol. 

This is no place to speak of what are called made 
wines*, that is, of wines prepared from other fruits 
than grapes : that obtained from parsnips has been 
supposed, by some, to approach nearest to the malm- 
sey of Madeira and the Canaries ; and Mr. Phillips 
has assured us, that wine made from malt, when kept 
to a proper age, has as good a body, and a flavour 
nearly as agreeable as Madeira !! See articles Grape 
and Toddy in this work. 

The Persians, by Sir John Malcolm's account, 
claim to themselves the discovery of wine, which, 
they say, was first made by the famous Jemsheedy one 
of the ancient kings of Persia ; it has hence been 
called in that country zeher-ekhoosh, or delightful 
poison (see History of Persia, vol. i. p. 16.). From 
Persia it was, and also from the banks of the Rhine, 
that grape plants were originally sent to the Cape of 
Good Hope. Some of these from the first men- 
tioned country now produce the red and white 
Constantia. Others, on other soils, the Cape Ma- 
deira ; while those from the banks of the Rhine, and 
which j;he Dutch call steen druyfy yield a kind of 
Rhenish wine. See Dr. Henderson's " History of 
Ancient and Modern Wines.'' t Should the reader 

^ On this subject, ^the reader may consult Dr. MaccuUoch's 
rery interesting Essay, ^^ Remarks on the Art of Making Wine." 

f In Caucasus and the Levant the vine is often found growing 
wild, which points out this as its original home ; and in Madagas- 
car, they make wine from honey, which they call took; another 


wish to know the different methods that have been 
adopted by Cadet, Proust, &c. for detecting impu- 
rities in wine, he may consult the work just cited, 
p. 342. See article Grape in this chapter. 

Many remedies have at different times been re- 
commended to allay the effects of intoxication from 
wine. Roques in his Phytographie Medicale, vol. ii. 
pp. 223, 224, says, that in slighter cases, a copious 

dilution* is extremely useful ; and that in more alarm- 
ing occasions, a few drops of aqua ammonias in water, 

had produced almost immediate calmness and col- 



WHITING. Kellungd-meen ^L-pnve>rru5^6OTr 
(Tam.) Calandoo (Cyng,) Merlan (Fn) Kullen- 
gdn mutchie ^^f-* /. ^L^jJLS) (Duk.) also Diryaha 
Shankra (Duk.) Merluzzo (It.) 

Gadus Merlangus. 

Whitings are common on the Coromandel coast, 
and are as much prized as they are in Europe, as a 
diet for those who are delicate ; being very easily 
digested. This is the only fish which the Vytians 
allow their leprous patients to eat. The whitings in 
India are, generally speaking, smaller than the same 

kind from the sugar-cane, which they term toupare ; and a third 
kind is made from the ontzi (Bananas). See Copeland's History 
of Madagascar. Gooseberry wine well made, and with the fruit 
before it is fully ripe, is little inferior to Champaigne. 

* A cup of strong green tea has also some effect in calming in 
cases of intoxication. 


fish in Europe. The species mei'langus differs from 
several others of the same genus (gadus.), in having 
the chin beardless. 



aloes (Port.) Chin-hiam (Coch.-Chin.) Aghir (Duk.) 
^x^i Cdlumbuk (Arab.) Bois d^ aloes (Fr.) Aguru 
3[5T^ (Sans.) Aggur^ Agor (Beng. and Hind.) also 
Agha loochie (Arab.) Oudhindi (s^X^ ^^s. (Pers.) 
Sukkiang (Chin.) Sinko (Kagmph.) 

Aquilaria Ovata (Lin.) 
Aquilaria Aghallocha (Roxb.) 

CI. and Ord. Decandria Monogynia. 

What is commonly understood by cdlumbac^ or 
aloes woodj in commerce, in Eastern countries, is 
the interior part of the trunk of the aquilaria ovata 
(Lin.), and which is, in fact, the dark part possess- 
ing a peculiar aroma, caused by the oleaginous par- 
ticles there stagnating and concentrating ; its pores 
are filled with a soft resinous substance, which is 
considered as a cordial by some Asiatic nations, and 
has occasionally been prescribed, in Europe, in gout 
and rheumatism. If 1 mistake not, it is what Celsus 
speaks of under the name of aghalocki, ranking it 
amongst his Acopa (lib. v. cap. xxiv.), or medicines 
which invigorate the nerves. The tree is the garo^ 
de-Malaca of Lamarck, the agallochum secundarium 
(Rumph. Amb.2. t.lO.), and may be found described 
by Loureiro, in his Flora Cochin-Chinensis (vol. i. 
p. 267.), under the appellation of aloexylum agallo- 


chum ; he informs us, that it is a large tree with triinh 
and branches erect, covered with a brown or grey 
hark; the leaves are alternate, about eight inches 
long ; the Jloxioers are terminating on many flowered 
peduncles ; the wood white and inodorous. The 
same writer further observes, that ** from the bark of 
the tree the common paper of the Cochin-Chinese is 
made ; the calumbac, or inner part, is a delightful 
perfume, is serviceable in vertigo and palsy, and that 
the powder of it, by its corroborating power, re- 
strains fluxes, vomiting, and lienteries.'* The aloes 
wood is noticed by Forskahl* (Mat. Med. Kahirina, 
p. 148.) under the name of tflSlS^^^. Avicenna, 
with his usual intelligence (p. 231.), tells us, that the 
tree which yields the calumbac is to be met with at 
Mondeliarif Kakelian, and Semandurina^riy and that 
its fruit, which he calls ^yj^^y resembles pepper, and 
has a delightful odour. Dr. Roxburgh states, MSS., 
that the tree is a native of the mountains district 
East and South-East of Silhet, also of Asam, and 
grows to a great size, one hundred and twdhty feet 
in height, with a trunk twelve feet round : trunk 
straight ; branches nearly erect j wood white, very 
light, soft and porous ; leaves alternate, lanceolar, 
smooth, and of a deep green ; Jloxvers numerous, 
small, pale greenish yellow, and inodorous ; the fruit 
is about the size of a myrobalan, with a thick cortex 
opening into two, and containing two seeds. On the 
tree, as noticed by Roxburgh, Mr. H. T. Colebrooke 
has made some valuable remarks, which he very 
kindly allowed me to peruse ; he observes, that it is 

* The same writer speaks of a wood that is brought from India 
to Arabia, called ^^JlSlS^^o the powder of which is mixed with 
tobacco to make it more fragrant. Quere? (p. 149.) 


not till the tree has been long cut down, and allowed 
to decay and rot, that the wood acquires its proper 
fragrance, to hasten which, it is for a time buried 
under ground; on being dug up again so much of it 
is selected as is of a dark colour and glossy appear- 
ance, and found, on trial, to sink in water ; this is 
the best, and is called ghark ; such as sinks but 
partially is termed nim-gharky and what floats se- 
meleh ; this last is most common, but least esteemed. 
He further states, that in the Tophet ul Muminin we 
are instructed, that the tree grows in islands of 
China and India. The author of the Akhliyarat- 
baduy on the other hand, believes it to come from 
BandaV'Chinehy situated at ten days' distance from 
Java. Some recommend that the crude wood should 
be taken, but Mr. Colebrooke supposes, that this can 
only be intended as a caution against using that from 
which the essential oil had been extracted. 


WORMWOOD, MADRAS. MdsJnpattiri lox 

f^L— '5"e^rf^ (Tam.) Afsanteen ^xaamaJ! CArab.) 
Mustaroo (Hindooie). Dovana (Can.) Baranjdsif 
kowhie ^^ cjLmL^-Lj (Pers.) Wcel-kolondu (Cyng.) 

Artemisia Madera-patana (Lin.) 

CI. and. Ord. Syngenesia Superflua. Nat. Ord. 
Compositae Nucumentaceae. 

This plant is the nelampdla of the Hort. Mai., and 
differs from the artemisia Indica (Willd.) and others 
by growing close to the ground, by its soft leaves 

VOL. I. I I 


widening outwards, and by its having alternate 
branches, round, flexuose, streaked, and pubescent. 

I perceive by the Hort. Bengalensis, that there 
are no less than nine different species of artemisia 
thriving in Bengal ; the present article, and the 
a. Indica, are, however, the only indigenous plants. 
The a. vulgaris finds a place in Fleming's Catalogue 
of Indian Plants, but when introduced into Hindoo- 
stan is uncertain, probably previous to 1794 ; its 
Sanscrit, Hindoostanie, and Bengalie names are the 
same, U^^^J^Ij nagadona. 

The leaves of the artemisia maderas-patana the 
Tamool doctors consider as a valuable stomachic 
medicine ; they also suppose them to have deobstru- 
ent and antispasmodic properties, and prescribe them 
in infusion and electuary, in cases of obstructed 
menses and hysteria ; they sometimes, too, use them 
in preparing antiseptic and anodyne fomentations, 
in the same way that its congener, artemisia abro- 
tanum, is in Europe. 

It is from the artemisia Chinensis that the Chinese 
prepare their moxa^ which is used as a cautery by 
burning it upon any part affected with rheumatism 
or gout, a fact I find noticed by Loureiro, in his 
excellent work, entitled Flora Cochin»Chinensis*, 
also by Dr. Abel, in his Journey into the Interior of 
China (p. SI 6.). It would appear, however, that 
this substance can be prepared of a still more effica- 
cious nature from the common mugwort (artemisia 
vulgaris). See Thunberg's Travels (vol. iv. p. 74.). 
In Lapland, for similar purposes, a fungous excres- 

* " Ex plantse hujus, foliis exsiccatis, et contusis fit moxa seu 
cauterum actuale non spernandae efficaciae ad discutiendes tu- 
mores, et dolores rheumaticos, ac arthriticos, levesque convul- 
siones." Vide Flor. Cochin-Chin. vol. ii. p. 492. 


cence is used, found on old birch trees. I cannot 
conclude what I have to say under this head without 
observing, that moxa is also obtained from the arte- 
misia Indica (Willd.). 

Our article, and eight other species, grow in the 
botanical garden of Calcutta, all Indian plants, ex- > 
cept the a. paniculata, a native of Persia. I perceive 
by Dr. Rottler's Herbarium'^ ^ that he has lately de- 
scribed a new and beautiful species, which he calls 
A. mauritiana. 


YAM. See article Potatoe, in this part of the 



Xanthorrhgea Hastile (Smith.)? 

CI. and Ord. Hexandria Monogynia. Nat. Ord. 
Asphodeleae (Brown). 

I hesitated about giving the yellow gum-resin a 
place in this work, and have only been now in- 
duced to do so, on finding that it has been noticed 
by Gray, in his valuable Supplement to the Pharma- 
copoeias (p. 146); and that it has also lately attracted 
the notice of several distinguished medical practi- 
tioners. I ought first to premise, that two yellow 

* A manuscript; which has been kindly lent to me by Sir Alex- 
ander Johnston, one of our most zealous and efficient promoters 
of Asiatic research. 

1 I 2 


gum-resins, from Botany Bay, are to be found in the 
apothecaries' shops of London, differing a good deal 
in appearance, but both emitting, on burning, a 
smoke of a similar odour, somewhat like that arising 
from a burnt mixture of storax and benzoin, or, per- 
haps, still more hke that of balsam of Peru. Both 
are said to be yielded, by what has been called the 
acarois resinifera ; but now are known to be from a 
species of xanthorrhoea. One of tlie substances is 
in appearance not unUke yellow arsenic, but rnore 
irregular looking, as if from agglutinative leaves ; its 
smell, on burning, is already stated. Two-thirds or 
more of it, are soluble in spirit of wine ; what re- 
mains is an extract soluble in water, and very astrin- 
gent. The gum-resin entire is not soluble in water, 
but gives to it the smell of storax ; to the taste it is 
peculiarly pleasant, fragrant, and balsamic, and its 
solution in alcohol has a thick, oily, or rather glutin- 
ous consistence. The other sort of yellow gum- 
resin resembles gamboge, is much darker coloured, 
and often found in conjunction with the bases of 
leaves, from w^hich it would appear to have originally 
exuded, its inner surface adhering round the stem 
of the tree ; it is far less soluble in alcohol than the 
first mentioned, leaving seven per cent, of an insipid 
grumous substance, neither soluble nor diffusible in 
water. Now the question is, are these from the 
same species of xanthorrhoea ? Probably not, for all 
the seven species described by the excellent Mr. R. 
Brown* as New Holland plants, yield a yellow gum- 
resin ; or may it be that the one is only purer, and 

* See his ** Prodromus Nov. Holland.*' Six of the seven spe- 
cies are, the hasiile, arborea, australis, media, minor, and bracteata. 
Five of these belong to the colony of Port Jackson, and it is 
certainly from one of them that the yellow gum resin is obtained. 


obtained with more care than the other ? It is said, 
that the yellow gum-resin of New Holland is oc- 
casionally found lying in detached pieces under the 
tree ; at other times it is found adhering round 
the stem, evidently poured from the bases of the 
leaves ; both the yellow gum-resins burn with aflame 
like rosin when thrown into the fire. From the xan- 
thorroea hastile the natives of New Holland procure 
their long, slender, but straight and strong shafts, for 
their war-lances, the handles to which are fixed on, 
as I myself have seen in one instance, with the first- 
mentioned yellow gum-resin, which it would appear 
is a powerful vegetable glue. The xanthorrhoea 
hastile grows pretty straight, to the height of sixteen 
or eighteen feet, branching out into long, spiral 
leaves, which hang down on all sides ; a peculiarity 
which has procured for this species the name of 
^^ the grass tree'^ from the English inhabitants of Port 
Jackson ; and it is most likely this plant which yields, 
at all events, the inferior, if not both sorts of the 
yellow gum-resin. 

The reader will find some account of what is called 
the acarois resinifera in Phillip's Voyage, also in 
White's Journal of a Voyage to New Holland ; and 
an accurate analysis of the gum-resin itself, in Gre- 
gory's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. With re- 
gard to the sort used medicinally in this country, I 
think there is no doubt but that is, or ought to be, 
what I have noticed as the purest, from whatever 
tree it is obtained. Gray says, simply, that it is 
antidysenteric, and employed for closing the mouths 
of wounds, however large or dangerous. Mr. Charles 
Kite, in his " Essays and Observations Physiological 
and Medical" (p. 1 il.J, treats fully of the virtues of 
this resin, and mentions the great benefit derived fronri 

I I S 


it in a case of weakness after an attack of apoplexy ; 
also of its good effects in debility after epilepsy, 
and in a case of irregular liver, in immoderate 
bleeding at the nose, and in hysteria, diarrhoea, fla- 
tulence, dyspepsia, &c» ; and I have just learnt 
from Mr. John Frost, that he had been informed 
by Sir Gilbert Blane, that he had found benefit from 
the use of the yellow gum-resin in lientericjiaoces : 
the dose, a drachm of the tincture three or four times 
in the day, Dr, White is said to have ascertained it 
to be a good pectoral medicine. Mr. Kite adminis- 
tered it in powder, from 3i. to 3SS. twice daily. 


(Tam.) Akreke dood :^^^ ^^ (Sj^\ Jelledee pdloo (Tel.) 
Arka ^^\ (Sans.) also Pratdpasa ^^^^^ (Sans.) 
Mudar (Hind.) also Ark (Hind.) Waduri (Jav.) 

Ushar jAs. (Arab.) 

Milk of the Asclepias Gigantea. 
AscLEPiAS Gigantea (Lamarck). 

CI. and Ord. Pentandria Digynia. Nat. Ord. 

I did not intend to have noticed this article here, 
it properly belonging to the second part of this pub- 
lication ; but that I find the asclepias gigantea has 
lately attracted much attention in Europe, as a re- 
medy in leprous and other cutaneous aflfections. In 
justice to myself then I must state, that I gave it and 
another variety of the same plant, places in my work, 
entitled Materia Medica of Hindoostan, (published at 


Madras so far back as in 1813,) on finding that they 
were articles of the Materia Medica of the Hindoos ; 
which the reader may see, by referring to that work, 
pp. 127, 128. The other variety is the vullerkoo ; 
it is ca]led suffdid akree in Dukhanie, and tellajella- 
doo in Telhnghoo ; it has several Sanscrit names, 
the most in use is alarka in Lower India. It is, pro- 
perly speaking, a variety of the yercurriy the milk of 
which is our present article ; both plants in their 
leaves and stalks contain much milky juice, which, 
when carefully dried, is considered as powerfully 
alterative and purgative, and has been long used 
as an efficacious remedy in the koostum of the 
Tamools (lepra Arabum) : the dose about the 
quarter of a pagoda weight in the day, and con- 
tinued for some weeks. The root of the yercum 
has a bitter and somewhat acrid, or rather warm taste; 
it is occasionally given in infusion as a stimulant in 
low fever. Of the other variety, the vullerkoo, the 
bark is warmish, and when powdered and mixed 
with a certain portion of margosa oil, is used as an 
external application in rheumatic affections. In the 
higher provinces of Bengal, the arka (asclep. gigan- 
tea) is supposed to have antispasmodic qualities. 
Mr. Robinson has written a paper on elephantiasis, 
and which may be seen in vol. x. of the Me- 
dico Chirurgical Society, extolling the mudar root 
(yercum vayr) as most efficacious in that disease ; as 
also in venereal affections. In the elephantiasis he 
gave it in conjuction with calomel and ant. pow- 
der, in a pill, consisting of half a grain of calomel, 
three of antimonial powder, and from six to ten of 
the bark of the root mudar, every eight hours. Mr. 
Playfair has also written a paper on the same root, 

I I 4 


which may be seen in vol. i. of the Edin. Med. 
Chirurg. Trans., p. 414, wherein he speaks in praise 
of the alterative, stimulant, and deobstruent virtues 
of the bark, or rather rind below the outer crust of 
root, reduced to fine powder, in cases of syphilis, 
lepra, hectic fever, &c. ; dose from grs. iii. to x. or 
xii. three times in the day, gradually increasing it ; 
he also observes that it appears to cure the hursau- 
tee^ in the horse. Messrs. Robertson, Playfair, and 
others, seem chiefly to dwell on the virtues of the 
rind or bark of the rdbt ; but I must observe, that 
in Lower India, where I was for many years, I found 
the simple dried milky juice considered as infinitely 
more efficacious; and later communications from 
the East confirm me in this opinion. On referring 
to notes taken from a Medical Sastrum, written in 
high Tamool, and entitled Aghastier Pernooly I find 
\he yercum pawU which is the milky juice of the 
asclep. gigantea, strongly recommended as a valuable 
medicine in neer covay (anasarca) ; and considering 
the extraordinary eflfect it seems to have in purifying 
the habit, in cases of the most loathsome of all dis- 
eases, lepra^ may I suggest that a trial be made 
with it in that yet more dreadful malady, cancer, 
which has hitherto baffled all our best endeavours. 
I shall say more of the yercum shrub (mudar) in the 
second part of this work ; in the mean time I must 
observe, that a plant called akand or ahund is apt to 
be confounded with the genuine one (asclepias gi- 
gantea) and they no doubt much resemble each other; 
but the petals of the akund point upwards, and form 

* A disease which shows itself in open sores, and as it usually 
appears in the rainy season takes its name from the Dukhanie 
\vord bursaut (rain). 


cup-like ; but those of the true plant are reflected 
downwards towards the calix. 

In Arabia Felix the asclepias gigantea is called 
oschar, which I am much inclined to believe must be 
the same name corrupted which we find it noticed un- 
der in Avicenna, viz. ^>i^ Aiishur (Avicen.2cJ3.); we 
also find it noticed by Sprengel, in his " Rei Herba- 
rice^^^ vol. i. pp. 252, 9.5Q. For interesting particulars 
regarding it, the reader may also consult Ahu Hanifa 
apud Serap. (cap. 50.) and Alpinus Egypt, p. 86. 

My excellent and much lamented friend. Dr. 
Klein of Tranquebar, informed me that he met with 
a plant in Southern India, called by the Tamools 
voelldrekoOy a good deal resembling the asclepias gi- 
gantea, and which he was told possessed virtues as 
a febrifuge ; he found on examination that it was an 
exacurriy to which he gave the specific name of hysso- 
pifolium. From the similiarity of name it becomes a 
question, therefore, whether it may not be actually 
the vullerhoOy which I have considered as a variety 
of the asclep. gigantea, or perhaps the akund above 
noticed ; further and more minute investigation on 
the spot must clear up all those doubts. 


kua (Hort. Mai.) Bhuchampa (Beng.) Kaha 
(Cyng.) Nagai mio (Coch. Chin.) Bhu-champakd 
>T^s:q-^T (Sans.) 

Kaempheria Rotunda (Lin.) 




II. ZEDOARY, ZERUMBET. Puldng-kilunggu 

U)av)n-rR;e^y>rR;(^ (Tam.) Kutchoor ^^^J (Duk.) 

Keechlie gudda (Tel.) Hinhooroo pecallieidla 

(Cyng.) Kakhur (Hind.) Capoor kichlie (Tam.) 

Zerumbad -^Ia^j (Arab, and Pers.) Karchurd ^^"^f 

(Sans.) Shoothee (Beng.) Bengley (Jav.) Katou 

inschukua (Rheede). 

Curcuma Zerumbet (Roxb.) 



Castoorie Munjel sr^A^^s/rrPLD^^ovT (Tam.) 
Ambie huldie (ss)<^ ^>J5 (Duk.) Junglie huldie 
(Beng.) also Bun huldie (Beng.) Judwar J^^^y^ 
also Bar ^L (Arab.) Castoorie passapoo (Tel.) 
Kua (Hort. Mai.) Zedoaire (Fr.) Nirbisi (Hind.) 
Nirvishd f^f^ETf (Sans.) Zodoaria (It.) also 
Vana haridra ^•T^T'C^ (Sans.) Walkaha (Cyng.) 

Curcuma Zedoaria (Roxb.) 
Amomum Zedoria (Lin.) 

It will be seen by this last, and the two preceding 
articles, what are the oriental names of the roots of 
three distinct plants of the class and order Monan- 
dria Monogynia, and nat. order Scitamineae, and 
which, at different times, have been termed zedoaries^ 
I need scarcely mention here the great confusion 


which has so long existed regarding the substances, 
zedoary, zerumbet, zarnab, &c. ; a confusion, per- 
haps, first introduced by the vacillating nomenclature 
of the Arabians ; certainly not remedied by their 
commentators*, and, unaccountably, neglected by 
the medical and scientific men of a later age. 

The able and discriminating Dr. Roxburgh has 
done more than any of his cotemporaries towards 
elucidating the subject in question, and his excellent 
account of Monandrous plants, in the 11th volume 
of the Asiatic Researches, will remain a lasting 
monument of his industry ; yet even he confesses, 
that there are still difficulties to be surmounted, and 
contradictions to be reconciled ; the natural con- 
sequences, we must conclude, of the many former in- 
distinct observations and unscientific details. Under 
these painful impressions it is, with the greatest diffi- 
dence, that I offer the following remarks : 

I. The Zedoary, Khaempherian, which I have 
taken the liberty of calling this root, is, I am in- 
clined to believe, the root of the kaempheria rotunda 
(Lin.), which grows in Ceylon, and is called by the 
Cyngalese sau-kenda. It is a native of various parts 
of Hindoostan, and also of Java, where it is called 
koontskee.f It is the zedoaria rotunda of Bauhin, 
and has been well described by Sir William Jones, 
in the fourth volume of the Asiatic Researches. 
On the Malabar coast it is termed malan-kua; and 
Rheede informs us (Hort. Mai. partii. p. 18.), that 

* " Si igitur ipsi Arabum principes, his de rebus, se dissentiant ; 
frustra eas ex eorum scriptis distinguere tentabimus." GeofF. 
vol. ii. 

f This is a beautiful plant, flowering in Bengal in March and 
April ; leaves oblong, radical ; Jloxioers fragrant, purple and white ; 
root biennial ; there is no stem. See Flor. Indica, vol. i. p. 15. 


the whole plant, when reduced into powder, and used 
in the form of an ointment, has wonderful efficacy 
in healing fresh wounds, and that, taken internally, 
it removes any coagulated blood or purulent matter 
that may be within the body ; he adds, that the root 
is a useful medicine in anasarcous swellingSi It is 
bulbous, about the thickness of a finger, ash-coloured 
outside and white within ; smells like ginger, and 
tastes hot to the tongue. 

II. Zedoary, Zerumbet. This is, I believe, the 
curcuma zerumbet (^Roxb.), and the amomum ze- 
rumbet (Willd.) ; it is the lampooyang of the Java- 
nese, and the lampuium (Rumph. Amb. 5. p. 148.). 
Miller, in his Dictionary, speaks of it under the 
name of the broad-leaved ginger. The plant is a 
native of the East Indies, Cochin-China, and also 
Otaheite ; and has been ascertained. Dr. Roxburgh 
tells us, to be that which yields the zedoary of the 
London druggists. The root is generally exposed 
for sale in Lower India, cut into small round pieces 
about the third part of an inch thick, and an inch 
and a half or two inches in circumference. The 
best comes from Ceylon, where it is supposed to be 
tonic and carminative. It is evidently the zerumbet 
of Serapio, and zerumbad of Avicenna*; and the 
following description of it, given by GeolFroy (vol. ii. 
pp. 150 and 154.), very closely corresponds with the 
appearance of the root under discussion : ^* Foris 
cineria, intus Candida ; sapore acri, amaricante aro- 
matico ; odore tenui fragrante, ac valde aromaticum, 
suavitatem, cum tunditur aut manducatur, spirante et 

* Avicenna extols it highly : *' Discutit flatus, cor recreat, 
vomitionem compescit ; ad venenatarum bestiolarum morsus effi- 
cax est." Vide Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 118, 


ad camphoram* aliquatenus accedente ;*' an account 
not materially differing from that given by Rheede 
(Hort. Mai. partii. p. 13. tab. 8.), where the plantf 
is spoken of under the general name of several 
species of this genus, viz. hua. Its TelUngoo name 
is keechlie gudda^ a name, however, which must not 
be confounded with katsjula^ which is the appellation 
given to the kaempheria galanga on the Malabar 
coast, and which is the kontshur of the Javanese, 
and sonchorus of Rhumphius. The smell of this last 
mentioned plant is aromatic, pleasant, and permanent; 
the colour of the root purplish outside, and white 
within ; it is considered as stomachic and alexiterial. 
The Tamools consider piildng-kilunggu (zedoary 
zerumbet) as stomachic and tonic ; but are, as far as 
I have understood, unacquainted with its supposed 
virtues in nephritic complaints, as noticed in the 
Hortus Malab. From its fragrant smell it is much 
used, in conjunction with castoorie munjil, which is 
the root of the curcuma zedoaria (Roxb.), in the 
bathings and purifications of the Hindoos. The 
modern Arabs consider zerumhad amongst their Mo- 
kewyat Meoadeh (Tonica), Mufettehat (Deobstru- 
entia), and Mobehyat (Aphrodisiaca). 

III. Zedoary, Turmeric Coloured. (Curcuma 
zedoariat, Roxb.) (Amomum zedoaria, Lin.) 

* It is a curious enough fact, that one of the names given to 
this root by the Hindoos of Upper Hindoostan is capur huldie, 
which impHes, that it smells of camphor; the same name is also 
sometimes bestowed on the ambi huldi (curcuma zedoaria, Roxb.). 

\ It has leaves green, petioled, broad-lanceolar ; Jlovoers shorter 
than their bractes, funnel shaped, and pale yellow. 

J The plant is very beautiful, flowering in the hot season ; leaves 
broad-lanceolar, entire ; the Jloxjoers rise from the naked earth in 
large rosy tufted spikes, having a delicate odour ; root biennial 
and tuberous. 


This appeared to me, at first sight, to resemble a 
good deal the root called long zedoary in the excel- 
lent Edinburgh Dispensatory of Dr. Duncan, junior, 
with this exception, that its colour, externally, is more 
of a dirty yellow than an ash-grey. There are, how- 
ever, more essential differences in the plants : the 
amomum zedoaria, according to Willdenow, being 
distinguished '^ foliis majoribus ovatis acuminatis ;'* 
the curcuma longa *' foliis lanciolatis,'* &c. The 
root now under consideration is otherwise wrinkled, 
and, internally, of a brownish red, possessing an 
agreeable fragrant smell, and a warm, bitterish, and 
aromatic taste ; its Sanscrit name, nirvbisha fj^fq"^ 

implies, that the drug is used as an antidote to 
poison, and its Bengalese, Tamool, and Tellingoo 
names have evidently been given to it owing to its 
resemblance to common turmeric. The Mahometans 
suppose it to be a valuable medicine in certain cases 
of snake bites, administered in small doses, and in 
conjunction with golden-coloured orpiment, kust 
(costus Arabicus), and qjooan (sison ammi). The 
native women prize it much from the circumstance 
that they can give with it, used externally, a par- 
ticular lively tinge to their naturally dark complex- 
ions, and a delicious fragrance to their whole frame. 
There appears to be no doubt but that this article 
is the judwar of the ancient Arabians, who distin- 
guished it from the zerumbad (curcuma zerumbet, 
Roxb.). The plant is a native of many parts of 
Hindoostan, and would seem to be the zerumbed 
tommon of Rumphius (Amb. 5. p. 168.). 






halloo s^^F^cTareBe^ax-^qN^/ (Tam.) Surmah ^^jL 
(Pers. Duk. and Hind.) Ismud ds^iS (Arab.) Ldn- 
jdnum (TeL) Ungen (Hindooie), Sauvira ^'\^'^ 
(Sans.) r Antimoine sulfure (Fr.) Spiessglance 
(Ger.) Sulfuro d* antimonio (It.) Soorma (Mali.) 


I cannot learn that this metal has hitherto been 
found in our Indian dominions. Dr. Fleming in- 
forms us, that the proper grey ore of antimony is 
imported from Nepaul^ ; and we know that a 
galena, or sulphuret of leadt, is often sold for it in 
the bazars, under the name of surmeh ; this is, in all 
probability, the same substance which the Arabians t 
call kohl J^^. The greater part of the native anti- 

* Other authority, however (Col. Kirkpatrick), says, that there 
is no antimony in Nepaul, see his Account of that country, p. 117. 

\ A circumstance which should be particularly attended to, or 
much mischief may be done. The galena of lead found in India 
is generally in a cubic form, of a steel-grey colour and metallic 
lustre. The sulphuret of antimony, on the other hand, is com- 
monly of a lead-grey colour ; its fracture radiated and shining. 

X See Niebhur's Travels, vol. ii. p. 236. 


mony which is met with in Lower Hindoostan is 
brought from Siam*, or from the interior part of the 
Burmah dominions. t In Persia, D'Herbelot tells 
us, that much of it may be found at a town called 
Hamadanie, and hence the not unfrequent Persian 
name for the article ^jbLoL:^. *x^^ surmeh Hamaddnie. 
Captain Macdonald Kinneir says (Geog. Memoir, 
p. 224.) *' it is also found in mountains South of He- 
lat^ in Mekrany"^ and it would seem, by Kirkpatrick's 
account, to be a product of Thibet, t Mr. El- 
phinston found it in Cabul, in the country of the 
Afreeds. § 

Sulphuret of antimony the native practitioners of 
India are occasionally in the habit of prescribing as 
an emetic in intermittent fever : they also prepare a 
colly rium with it, mixed with the juice of the ripe 
pomegranate. The Mahometan women apply it to 
the tarsus of the eye to increase the brilliancy of the 
organ, a custom I find also common in Persia. || 
The modern Arabs place sulphuret of antimony 
amongst their Anthelmintics q^^Ijo^j iiiUl^lS. See 
an Arabic work, entitled cf Jsj^^j ^^^^j ; it is a 
general Treatise on Medicine, by Mohammed Ishak. 

Antimony was well known to the ancients : Pliny, 
the elder, who wTote his Natural History in the reign 
of Tiberius, A.D. 79., particularly mentions it, and 
says, that by some it was called stimmi, by others 
stibium, alabastrum, and larbason ; as a medicine it 
was considered as astringent and refrigerent, and 

* See Elmore's Guide to the Indian Trade, p. 307. 
t See Syme's Embassy to Ava, vol. ii. p. 375. See also Frank- 
lin's Tracts regarding the Dominions of Ava, p. 129. 
\ See his Account of Nepaul, p. 206. 
§ See his Account of Cabul, pp. 146, 147. 
II See Mr. Scott Waring's Tour to Shiraz; 


much used in complaints of the eyes. He also in- 
forms us, that it was put into those ointments which 
the Roman ladies used to beautify their eyes, and 
thence called calliblepharay having the effect of 
making them appear open, large, and fair withal!! 
See his Nat. Hist, book xxxiii. chap. vi. 

Tartarized antimony is given by the European 
practitioners in India, with success, in very small 
doses of from a sixth to a sixteenth part of a grain, 
to produce ease and expectoration in pleurisy and 
peripneumonia ; though I must here acknowledge, 
that in all such affections I have found ipecacuanha 
a safer and much more valuable medicine, in nauseat- 
ing doses ; the same medicine has no equal in simple 
dysentery, that is, dysentery not accompanied with 
hepatic derangement ; in such cases, given so as 
even to produce daily a little vomiting, it has the 
happiest effects. I have found tartarized antimony 
to be a dangerous medicine in cases of typhus fever, 
in India, by lowering too much the vis vitae; as an 
emetic, in the beginning of ardent bilious fever, it 
is given with most safety in small divided* doses. 
Three drachms of antimonial wine will vomit an 
adult, but this preparation is chiefly used for chil- 
dren, and, most successfully, in feverish attacks ; a 
tea spoonful may be given in such cases every 
quarter of an hour till it excites full vomiting. For 
the croup of infants it is an invaluable medicine ; to 
a child of three months old, the bowels having been 

* Three grains may be added to a pint of the common saline 
mixture, or barley water, and two thirds of a wine-glassful taken 
every half hour till it vomits once. If it is required to make the 
ointment, often so successfully used in different diseases, applied 
to the skin, to produce local pustular eruption, 5ij. of the tar- 
tarized antimony is to be triturated with 5i« of hog*s lard. 
VOL. I. K K 


previously briskly evacuated with calomel^ and castor- 
oil, I have given, with the happiest effects, the 
following mixture : thirty-five or forty drops of anti- 
monial wine is to be put into a table spoonful and a . 
half of barley water, of this, fifteen or twenty drops 
may be given every ten minutes or quarter of an i 
hour till it vomits freely ; this emetic to be repeated I 
twice daily. Timely and frequently repeated emetics 
are not to be dispensed with in such cases ; in India^ 
indeed, one ought even to be given before the first 
cathartic, the bowels being opened by an enema so 
as to lose no time. 

The modern Arabs t place native antimony (^Iths- 
mid)y iXtj', amongst their Styptics, Manyat roaf wu 
is shaluddicm -.jJl^l^i^ c i'^. c^lxJU. 

Medicines are prepared from sulphuret of anti- 
mony in four different ways : 1. By trituration in the 
metallic state, united with sulphur ; hence prepared 
sulphur of antimony. 2. By the action of heat with 
phosphate of lime ; hence the antimonial powder. 
S. By the action of alkalies ; hence the brown anti> 
moniated sulphur. 4. By the action of acids ; hence 
tartar emetic. See London Dispensatory, by Thorn- 


Pdshdnum Gc5Vjav~r2y3vrL_'n-2_a^6rrori.r) (Tarn.) 
Stiff did soombul Ja;^ ^SjJ^^ (Duk.) Tiirab ul halic 
dJCll^l! ^\y (Arab.) Slim ulfdrJikW ^^ (Pers.) Sim- 

* The calomel to be continued every night at bed time as long 
as it may be necessary. 

f Avicenna, in speaking of this sub^^tance, says, " Sanguinem 
e membrana cerebri profluentem sistit." Vide Canon. Med. librii* 
tract ii. p. 42. 


boolkhar (Hind.) Wrongon . ^^i^ (Mai.) Tela 
pashdnum (Tel.) Wrongon (Mai.) Arsenic oxyde 
natif (Fr.) Arsenico ua:neo (It.) Natur licker 
arsenico halk (Ger.) 

Arsenici Oxydum fLond.) 
Arsenicum (Oxydum Album) Dub. 



YELLOW ORPIMENT. Ariddriim rxu^^rr/xLo 

(Tarn.) Haritdlaka ^f^^T^^ (Sans.) Hurtal 

JU^ib (Hind, and Diik.) Ursanikoon (Arab.) 

Zirneik zird :^jj. ^^jj (Pers.) Also Yelliekood 

pashanum (Tarn.) 

Arsenicum Flavum* 



Koodiraypal pdshdniim 07Ef^o"Q:o'"i— 'L-,'avLjn" ^ c> rr 
6TOrLo(Tam.) Manahsila^^*A^'^ (Sans.) Man- 
sil JmaI-o (Hind*) j.a;>m- J.x5 Lai sumbool (Duk.) 

Arsenicum Rubrum. 


MENT. Ponarriddram Gi— '^c^^^^S'^^LD 

(Tarn.) Vurki hurtal }^j,^ ^^j^ (Duk.) Swarna 
haritdlam, ^^^I ^f^rTT^ (Sans.) Tauki hurtal 


Arsenicum AuRiExaMENTUM. 
K K 2 ^ 


If arsenic i^ to be met with at all as a native pro- 
duct in our Indian dominions, it must be in very 
small quantity. Mr. Elphinston, in his account of 
Cabu], informs us, that orpiment is there found at a 
place called Bulkh (^ee work, p. Ii6, 147.)5 com- 
bined witli iron, arsenical pyrites, and sulphur (sul- 
phuret) ; it is brought to India from China and Su- 
matra.* ** The greater part of what is called the 
white oxyde of commerce, is obtained in Bohemia 
and Saxony, in roasting the cobalt ores, in making 
zaffy^e^ and also by sublimation from arsenical 
pyrites ;*^ from w^iich last it is that what is termed 
the artificial orpiment is prepared. 

The plain yellow sulpliuret, or orpiment, is an 
article of trade from China f, and the Burmah do- 
minions, where the realgar or red orpiment is like- 
wise procured, as well as in Japan. X The first of 
these is of a lemon-yellow colour, running often into 
red and brown ; it is usually got in large angulo- 
granular distinct concretions, also in concentrate 
lamellar concretions ; it is soft and flexible, but not 
elastic. When extremely beautiful, bright, golden- 
coloured, and flaky, it has got the name of viirki 
hurtal (Duk.), or leafy orpiment by the Mahome- 
tans of Lower India ; and this is the variety, I am 
apt to think, which has been by some authors § termed 
arsenicum auripigmentum, || It is brought to India 
from the sea-ports of the Turkish dominions, tliough 
I have been told, that it is occasionally found in cen- 

* See Marsden's Sumatra, p. 137. 

f See Oriental Repertory, vol.i. p. 228. 

\ See Thunberg's Travels, vol. iii. p. 228. 

§ Wall, t.ii. p. 163. 

II It is what the Turks call reusinay also c/irisma, and may often 
be seen in the markets of Venice and Marceilles; it is vended in 
the Levant as a pigment. 


tral India, and from its appearance might, by careless 
observers, be confounded with yellow talk ; but it is 
altogether different, being much heavier, and when 
thrown into the fire, it emits a blue flame. 

The yellow sulphuret of arsenic, according to 
Klaproth, consists of 62 parta of arsenic and 38 of 
sulphur ; it would appear to occur rarely in primi- 
tive mountains, and is principally met with in floetz 
rocks, in veins along with copper pyrites, iron pyrites, 
quartz and calcareous spar (Jameson's Mineralogy, 
vol. iii. p. 538.)* 

The arsenic realger or red orpiment (the sanda- 
raca of Pliny, and (rav^oLoa^rj of the Greeks), is 
very common in the Indian bazars ; it is of an 
aurora-red colour, which passes through scarlet red, 
and hyacinth-red ; it is somewhat lighter in weight 
than the yellow orpiment, contains a great deal less 
sulphur, and is ideo-electric by friction, acquiring 
the resinous or negative electricity ; internally it is 
shining, and is otherwise soft, brittle, and frangible. 
I have already said that this species of sulphuret of 
arsenic, is a product of the Burmah dominions and 
Japan*; it is common in many parts of Bohemia and 
Saxony. In Armenia it can be obtained of a very 
superior quality ; and it appears, that it is also to be 
found along wdth other volcanic substances at Ve- 
suvius and Solfatara. There is a coarse-red orpi- 
ment frequently exposed for sale in Lower India, 
called in Tamool manocilleiy in Arabic ustirka Vijl^^s,^ 
in Sanscrit manahsila, and in Persian zinieiksoorkh ; 
it is used only as a paint. 

The Hakeems (Mahometan doctors) do not give 
arsenic internally; but the Fj//ia;z5 (Hindoo doctors) 

* The Chinese cut it into vessels and figures ; it is, moreover, a 

K K 3 


have for many centuries been in the habit of pre- 
scribing it (the white oxide) in very minute doses, 
not exceeding the fourteenth part of a grain; and in 
conjunction with aromatics, to check obstinate inter- 
mittent fevers ; also in glandular complaints, and in 
cases where the patient is subject to apoplectic at- 
tacks, and in certain leprous affections.* See a 
Tamool Medical Sastrum, on the subject of nine 
metals, called Kylasa Chintamanny VadanooL 

In Europe, since Dr. Fowler called the attention 
of medical men to this medicine, it has been ad- 
ministered in dropsy, hydrophobia, chronic rheuma- 
tism, glandular tumours t, and various other diseases, 
(as particularly and ably noticed by Mr, Hill of 
Chester, in a paper which may be found in the Edin- 
burgh Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. xix. p. 312). 
It does not appear, however, that in such cases its 
efficacy is at all established ; as a tonic I can speak 
from experience of the virtues of what is called 
Fowler's arsenical solution, having frequently by 
the use of it, put a stop to intermittent fevers in 
India, when every thing else had failed. I usually 
began with five drops, increasing the dose to twenty, 
or twenty-five, twice in the twenty-four hours. Dr. 
Thomson seems to think, that the use of white 
oxide of arsenic is contraindicatedin all cases attend- 
ed with strong arterial action, or where there is the 
least tendency to pulmonary complaints ; united 
with nickel or the compound of an arseniate, it has 

* See a Tamool Medical Sastrum, entitled Aghastier Vytia 
Any our 00. 

\ For a very full and interesting account of the use of arsenic 
in cancerous affections, the reader is referred to Dr. Good's most 
valuable work, the Study of Medicine, vol. ii. pp. 817, 818, 819; 
he concludes by saying, '* it generally proves beneficial, and, in 
some cases, may produce a radical cure." 


been given with success in epilepsy (Dr. Good^s 
Study of Medicine, vol. iii. p. 546.). Of the external 
use of this mineral in cancer I can say little, as the 
disease is rarely seen in India ; it has by some able 
-surgeons of England been supposed to do more to 
improve the ulceration in such cases, than any other 
application that has been hitherto resorted to.* 

To counteract the poison of arsenic, various me- 
thods have been recommended ; in order to render it 
inert, solutions of the alkaline sulphurets, or of soap^ 
or vinegar have been advised ; Dr. Yelloly suggests 
the propriety of bleeding. Hahneman orders a 
pound of soap to be dissolved in four pounds of 
water, and a cup full of this solution taken every 
three or four minutes. For the best mode of ascer- 
taining whether or not arsenic had been used as a 
poison the reader may consult a well written and 
scientific investigation, to be met with in the London 
Dispensatory, p. 55. The modern Arabian writers 
place arsenic amongst their Miickurhdt v::^L^.iLo 
(Versicatoria) see Ulfaz Udwieyeh. Dr. Paris, as 
appears by his Pharmacologia, places little reliance on 
sulphuret of potass, as an antidote in cases of poison- 
ing with arsenic ; and recommends exciting vomiting 
quickly, and copious dilution with fluids most likely 
to act as a solvent for the acrid matter, such as lime- 
water. For the use of arsenic and the orpiments 
in the arts in India, see another Part (IlL) of this 

* For some account of the effects of arsenic, as a poison, on 
vegetable substances, the reader is referred to a curious and in- 
teresting memoir of Marcet on this subject, noticed in the 
Journal of Sciences, Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix. pp.191, 
192., by which it appears, that bean plants, watered with a solu- 
tion of oxide of arsenic, died in little more than thirty-six 

K K 4 


Since writing the preceding part of this article 
(arsenic), I perceive, that Dr. Robinson found arsenic 
in small doses a useful medicine in elephantiasis, in 
India. See his paper on the elephantiasis of Hin- 
doostan in the Medico Chirurgical Transactions, 
vol. X. See also Dr. James Johnson's excellent work 
on the Influence of Tropical Climates, p. 27I. 


COPPER. Shdmboo (Sfflo^ (Tarn.) Tambd 
UJLj (Hind, and Duk.) Tamhran (Tel.) Tdmra 
rTT^r or Tdmraka rfT^I^ (Sans.) Tambaga (Mai.) 
Mi5 y.^ (Pers.) Cuivre (Yy.) Kuper (Ger.) Rame 
(It.) Nohass ^\^ (Arab.) Tung (Chin.) 


This metal is found in several parts of Upper 
India, particularly in the jeypoor dominions and 
vicinity of Nejeebabab"^ ; and General Hardwicke 
mentions, that at Nagpoor and Dhumpore^ places 
lying betwixt forty and fifty coss North and East of 
SirinagUTy two copper mines are worked during eight 
months of the year. In Lower Hindoostan a cop- 
per mine was discovered some years ago by Mr. 
J. B. Travers, then collector of the Ongole district, 
betwixt Poodala and Ardingie, which,x for a short 
time, attracted notice, but seems to have fallen into 
disrepute ; and Captain Arthur, of the corps of 
engineers, informed me, that he found it oxydized 
and combined with carbonic acid, forming h beauti- 

* Sir John Malcolm speaks of- copper mines lying a little North 
of Odeypoor, in Malwa. See Central India, vol.ii. p. 344'. 


ful emerald-green coloured copper, in Travancore ; 
he also discovered it sulphuretted amongst the Dit- 
padie hills, in the Cumbem district. The late Cap- 
tain G. Rodney Blane * mentions a copper mine near 
Kalsiy in the Nahan, or Sirmor country. It is well 
known that there are copper mines in the Callastry, 
Venkatagherry^ and Nellore districts ; for an account 
of which, the reader is referred to Dr. Heyne^s 
Tracts Historical and Statistical on India (p. 108.) ; 
and at the end of the volume will also be found the 
particulars of an analysis of a copper ore, discovered 
by the author just mentioned, and which Dr. Thomas 
Thomson considers as a new species, and has called 
it anhydrous carbonate of copper^ owing to the ab- 
sence of water in its composition. Dr. Heyne found 
it near the Eastern border of Mysore, and subse- 
quent research has ascertained that it may be pro- 
cured in abundance at Ganypettah^ a village in 
the Venkatagherry district, about forty miles from 
Ongole. By the analysis t, given below, it will be 
seen, that this anhydrous carbonate of copper con- 
tains half its weight of metallic copper, and it 
would seem to possess another advantage over cop- 
per pyrites (the usual copper ore of Great Britain, 
indeed, of Europe), that it is much more easily 
smelted and reduced to a metallic state. By far 

•* See his interesting Account of the Sirmoor country, in a 
paper read at tke Royal Asiatic Society, in Dec. 1823, and since 
published in vol. i. part i. of the Proceedings of the Society, 
-j- Carbonic acid - - - - 16*70 

Black oxide of copper - - - 60*75 
Red oxide of iron - _ . 1950 

Silica 2- JO 

Loss i - - - - - -95 



the greater part of the copper exposed for sale in 
our Indian dominions comes, however, from other 

Copper is procured either in its metallic state, when 
it is crystallized in the form of native copper, or 
sulphuretted, in combination with iron, or with iron 
and arsenic, or it is got united with oxygen, and then 
sometimes combined with carbonic acid, or with 
arsenic acid, or with phosphoric acid, or with mu- 
riatic acid. The sulphurets are the most abundant 
ores, and these, in Britain, are procured chiefly in 
Cornwall. The native copper ore of Japan t is the 
purest in the world, and, by Kgempher's account, as 
cheap as iron; but the Swedish is more ductile.t 
Copper is found in Cochin-China, in Siam, in the 
Burmah dominions §, amongst the Philaran\\ hills in 
Timor, in Thibet %, in the island of Bali, and, Dr. F. 
Hamilton tells us, in Nepaul; also in great abundance 
in Sumatra*'*, where it is combined with a considerable 
portion of gold, likewise in the district of Mandore, 
in Borneo. It would appear by Le Gentirs Descrip- 
tion of the Philippine Islands tt, that this metal is 

* in the Russian dominions copper is found in great abundance, 
especially in the Altai and Oural mountains. 

t Du Halde says, vol. ii. p. 299., that it is extremely beautiful, 
and an export to China. 

:}: By Grenfel's Observations on the Copper Coinage, it would 
appear, that the Cornish and Devon mines alone now yield about 
80,000 tons of ore annually. For an interesting account of the 
celebrated and extraordinary copper mine in Dalecarlia, near 
Fahluny in Sweden (which also yields silver and gold), the reader 
is referred to Dr. Clarke's Travels in Sweden ; the copper is the 
finest in Europe. 

§ See Franklin's Tracts regarding the Dominions of Ava, p. 63. 

II See Malayan Miscellanies, p. 18. 

€| See Turner's Embassy to the Court of the Tishoo Lama, p. 372. 

** See Macdonald's Account of the Products of Sumatra, Asiat. 
Res. vol. iv. 

f f See his Voyage to the Indian Seas, vol. ii. p. 37. 


common too in those delightful regions. Franklin, 
in his Tour from Bengal to Persia, informs us, that 
copper is found in Tauris ; it is a product of Ceylon, 
and, byMorier* and Macdonald Kinneir's accounts, 
it can be obtained in abundance at SivaSy amongst 
the mountains South of Helat, in Persia, and in the 
provinces of Mazenderaun and Kerman^ also in Ar- 
menia^ at the mines of Keban\ and Arguna. In 
Turkey, by Olivier's account, it is drawn from mines 
South of Trehisond, in the environs of Tocat, and in 
several parts of Asia Minor. Similar information is 
given us by Morier, in his Travels through Persia, 
Armenia, &c., p. 344. Captain Arthur saw at Co- 
lumbo a crystallized silky carbonate of copper, which, 
he w^as told, had been found in the interior of the 
island, and there called petong. I need hardly say, 
that copper, fused with tin, forms bronze and bell- 
metal ; and with zinc, or the oxide of zinc, called 
calamine, it forms brass t, which the natives of 
India know how to prepare in a simple way* 
Other alloys of this metal are tombac^ princess 
metaly pinchbeck^ and similor ; these are all prepared 
with different proportions of zinc, are, more or less 
yellow, and are known to the Hindoos. Princess 
metal is the palest, and has, therefore, most of the 
alloy ; pinchbeck is redder, and contains more cop- 
per ; tombac is of the deepest reddish hue, in it the 
proportion being still increased. The finest of all 
is the similor^ which is also called manheim gold ; it 

* Copper is brought to India from Persia in large regular 
shaped cakes, ready for making brass. See Morier's Journey 
through Persia, p. 161. 

f See Morier's First Journey through Persia, pp.344', 345. 

\ Brass is 'peilatey in Tamool ; peettle yjij in Dukhanie ; tarn- 
baga-koning in Malay ; pittalie in Tellingoo ; and pitalaka 

T^^C^^ in Sanscrit. 


has the colour of gold, and resembles pinchbeck ; it 
is from this that the spurious leaf-gold, laces, and 
other articles, are manufactured, and it is what is 
mostly gilt. What has been called white copper ^ and 
which is much used in China, Dr. Black supposed 
owed its distinguishing colour to nickel. Nicholson, 
on the other hand, thought it was an alloy of 
copper and arsenic ; he adds, that if the quantity of 
copper is small it is both ductile and malleable, 
otherwise it is brittle. Considerable confusion seems 
still to exist with respect to the articles zinc, tuttenag, 
and white copper, in Eastern countries. Nicholson 
says, tuttenag is a name given, in India, to the semi- 
metal zinc ; that is true : then, he says, it is also 
given to the white copper of China, a compound, he 
observes, some think, of copper and arsenic. This 
much I know to be the case, whatever the tuttenag* 
of China may be, it differs from what the Chinese 
call white copper^ a substance of which they are ex- 
tremely jealous, and will not permit it to be exported; 
it is a peculiar product or manufacture of China, na- 
tural or artificial. Dr. Andrew Fyfe analysed some 
(it was, I believe, a basin which Dr. Hewison pro- 
cured in China), and found it to consist of copper, 
zinc, nickel, and ironf; it is supposed to be procured 
from the reduction of an ore containing these ingre- 
dients ; and Dr. Dinwidie states, that the pak-fong, 
or white copper of China, is composed of copper, 
nickel, and zinc (without iron) ; the quantity of the 
zinc amounting to seven-sixteenths of the whole, and 

* Sir George Staunton informs us, that tutenag is, properly 
speaking, zinc extracted from a rich ore or calamine. Embassy to 
China, vol. ii. pp. 540, 541. 

t By Sir George Staunton's account, a little silver, and, in 
some specimens, a small portion of iron is found in the white 
copper. See same vol. and pages. 


the proportion of the two first are to each other as 
five to seven. 

While on the subject of white copper, I cannot 
avoid adding here what has been said of it by Kefer- 
stein, and which may be found in the Annal. de 
Chem. xxiv. p. 24. : ^' This is a metallic substance 
resembling silver, which has been employed, under 
the name of white copper, for a long time at Suhl in 
ornamenting fire arms. M. M. Keferstein and Muller 
have recently sought out the origin of this substance, 
and ascertained that it is got in the scoria of some 
ancient copper works formerly attached to mines 
now abandoned ; this white copper*, which had for- 
merly been rejected as useless, is now obtained by 
fusion, for the purpose above stated. ^^ The Malay 
gongs are a composition of copper, zinc, and tin, 
in proportions not yet determined. 

The Romans appear to have got most of their 
copper from the island of Cyprus, and from certain 
situations amongst the Alps. Pliny says much on 
the subject of this metal, both with regard to its use 
in the arts and in medicine ; he gives various pre- 
scriptions for rolyriums, in which copper was a 
prime ingredient, and speaks of two different me- 
thods for preparing verdigris ; one preparation, he 
terms scolecia, was made by keeping for a time, in 
very hot weather, certain proportions of alum, nitre, 
and strong white-wine vinegar in a pot of Cyprian 
copper. See Nat. Hist, book xxxiv. chap. xii. 

* Mr. Brande, by analysis, found what is called white copper to 
be' an alloy of copper and nickel. Manuel of Pharmacy, vol. ii. 
p. 242. 



TRIOL. Toorishoo ^rt^dr (Tarn.) Neelatota 
iuy Axj (Duk.) Tutiya UJ3.J (Hind.) Zungbar 
,l>Cj (Arab.) Toorishie (Tel.) Tutthanjana 
FT^^fT^^ (Sans.) Palmanicum (Cyng.) Sulphate 
de cidvre (Fr.) Schwefelsaures kupfer (Ger.) Vi- 
triuolo bio (It.) Caparosa (Span.) 

Sulphas Cupri. 


GRIS. Vimgdldp-patchei (TLja^c5^rrGVTLJL__GPOT)9= 
(Tarn.) Zungar jtlj (Pers.) Pitrai tfVjJ;. (Hind.) 
Ziinjar ^Wj (Arab.) Sennang ^31;^ (Mai.) Zen- 
ghaliepatsce (Tel.) Pittalatd T^^^rfT (Sans.) 
Vert de gris (Fr.) Grimspan (Ger.) Verdegrise 

(It.) Cardenillo (Span.) 

SuBACETAs Cupri. 

I cannot learn that this article, verdigris, or that 
immediately preceding it, is ever prescribed, inter- 
nally, by the Indian practitioners ; the first they use 
externally, as we do, and they are both employed by 
them as detergent and stimulating applications for 
ill conditioned ulcers. 

Sulphate of copper is sometimes given as an 


emetic in the early stages of phthisis*, and where 
laudanum has been taken as a poison ; the dose from 
gr. i. to X. or xv. in about ^ij of water; it acts quickly 
and easily, and may be given with advantage in cases 
of over-eating, where apoplectic symptoms are pro- 

Verdigris (acetate of copper) is well known to be 
principally manufactured at Montpellier, by stratify- 
ing copper plates with the husks of grapes, which 
remain after the juice has been pressed out; these 
soon becoming acid, corrode the copper ; by digest- 
ing the oxide thus obtained in acetic acid, and sub- 
sequent evaporation, crystals' of acetate of copper, 
commonly called verdigris, are procured. We are 
informed, by Dr. Thomson, that the Grenoble verdi- 
gris is a purer subacetate, being prepared by simply 
disposing plates of copper in a proper situation, and 
repeatedly moistening them with distilled vinegar till 
the surface is oxidized and changed into verdigris. 

Verdigris is now commonly avoided as an internal 
medicine, though, in doses of half a grain, it has 
been considered as tonic, and extolled in epilepsy ; 
but many prefer, for this purpose, the cuprum am- 
moniatum, in doses of a quarter of a grain to five 
grains ; as an emetic, in cases requiring quick oper- 
ation, verdigris is given in doses of from gr. i. to 
grs. iij. In the arts it is occasionally employed in 
India, as in Europe, in dyeing cotton black, also of 
an orange shade, and green ; it is likewise used in 
the preparation of colours, chiefly greens, and, with 
the assistance of sal ammoniac, a beautiful blue. 

The sulphate of copper (sulphas cupri) is obtained, 

* See Dr. Simmon's Practical Observations on the Treatment of 
Consumpfion. Dr. Good would seem, in such cases, to prefer 
ipecacuan. Study of Medicioe, vol. ii» p.770w 


in considerable quantity, by evaporation from the 
water of some copper mines, such as Parys^ in An- 
glesea, where it occurs along with copper pyrites, 
and from which it can be procured by roasting and 
exposing them to the action of air and moisture. 
It is a product of Pegu*, from which country it is 
brought to India ; externally, it is a useful escharotic 
to consume fungus, and is well known to the Maho- 
metan medical men. In Europe it is employed in 
making ink, also in the process of cotton and linen 
printing, and the oxide, separated from it, is used by 

Poisoning t from cooking and other utensils made 
of brass or copper is by no means a rare occurrence 
in India, where, however, they are not unacquainted 
with the art of tinning such implements. I have 
known more instances than one of fatal consequences 
from the use of butter milk that had been kept till it 
got sour in a brass pot ; on other occasions, food 
having been allowed to stand for some time in a cop- 
per pan, after it had been taken from the fire, be- 
comes a poison by admitting of the formation of a 
green carbonate : in the first case (that in which 
butter milk was used) verdigris was produced, which, 
however, would more speedily have been the result 
if the contents of the pot had been vinegar, or lime 
juice, in place of butter milk. In order to detect 

■^ See Franklin's Tracts regarding the Dominions of Ava, 
p. 129. 

\ By Marcet*s interesting Memoir on the Action of Poisons on 
the Vegetable Kingdom, it appears, that a bean root placed for 
twenty-four hours in a solution of sulphate of copper occasioned 
the death of the plant. See Journal of Sciences, Literature, and 
the Arts, No. xxxix. p. 193. Mr. Phillips found similar effects 
from a solution of copper used for watering a young poplar tree ; 
a knife employed in cutting a branch of which had the copper 
precipitated on its surface. Annals of Philosophj"^, xviii. 


the salts of copper, in any suspected liquor, Dr. 
Thomson directs us to drop into it a solution of am- 
monia, which, if any salt of copper be present, will 
produce a beautiful blue colour; he adds, that in 
cases of poisoning from any of the salts of copper, 
sugar is the best antidote. 

I stated above that I could not learn that the 
natives of India ever employed either the "vungala 
patchei (verdigris), or the toorushoo (blue vitriol) 
internally, yet they have several preparations of this 
metal (passpoms) which are peculiar to themselves, 
and which the reader may find particularly described 
by Dr. Heyne. What is called the white passpom, or 
tampuru passpom, is made, he tells us, " by plunging 
a copper coin made red hot into the acid juice which 
is expressed from the leaves of the tamarind tree ; 
this to be repeated several times, after which the 
coin is to be melted in a crucible, with an ounce of 
sulphur thrown into it at two different times ; grind 
this mass, moistening it with the juice of lemons 
which will render it white/'* Dr. Heyne next men- 
tions a preparation called bhastmon^ which is certainly 
a most strange, complex, and heterogeneous com- 
pound, too much so, indeed, for particular insertion 
here; thus much I shall state, however, that it contains 
copper, egg shells, muriate of ammonia, corrosive 
sublimate, borax, orpiment, mercury, and lime. It 
is, by Dr. Heyne's account, administered in leprosy 
and other cutaneous affections, and, in obstinate 
cases, it must, he says, be persevered in for forty 
days. Missy is the name of an oxyde of copper, 
used by the natives of India against the tooth ache, 
and to stain their teeth black. 

* See Tracts on India, pp. 170, 171* 
VOL. I. L L 


GOLD. Pwonn QLjrrsc^r (Tarn,) Soona Hy^ 
(Duk. and Hind.) Tibr ^aj' (Arab.) also Zeheb 

i^'^ (Arab.) Tilla V^y (Pers.) also Zir jj, (Pers.) 
Run (Cyng.) Bungarum (TeL) Mas ^j^U (Mai.) 
Swarna ^^OT and Suvarna HSflir (Sans.) Or (Fr.) 
Qoiid (Dut.) Guld (Dan.) Oiro (Port.) Sona 
and Swarna (Mah.) 



India properly so called, has not much to boast of 
with regard to this metal. Captain Warren dis^ 
covered a gold mine in Mysore, in 1800, betwixt 
Annicul and Poonganore, but which does not appear 
to have been thought deserving of much notice ; the 
metal, as far as I can learn, is disseminated in quartz*, 
(similar perhaps to that which is found in some parts 
of Hungary). Gold too, I understand, was dis- 
covered in the Madura district, by the late much to 
be lamented Mr. Mainwaring, mineralized by means 
of zinc, constituting a blende, perhaps resembling 
somewhat the Schemnitz blende of Hungary, and we 
know from Cronstedt, that the zinc ores of Schemnitz 
contain silver, which is rich in gold. Captain 
Arthur informed me, that he found gold in Mysore 
disseminated in quartz, and also in an indurated clay; 
some specimens he observed, likewise crystallized in 

* Gold, it would appear, is oftener found imbedded in quartz 
than any other stone, though it is also, occasionally, met with in 
limestone, in hornblende, &r. 


minute cubes ; in which form we learn from the 
authority of Brunnich, that gold is sometimes met 
with in Transylvania, where it is also to be obtained 
in solid masses, as in Peru. In the Spanish West 
Indies gold is oftener seen in grains ; Siberia being, 
I believe, the only country in which it can be got 
composed of thin plates, or pellicles, covering other 
bodies. Captain Hardwicke says, gold can be pro- 
cured from certain sands in the Sirinagur country, 
and we know it to be a product of Assam.*" 

Gold is more generally found native than any 
other metal, though Bergman was of opinion, that 
it never was discovered altogether free of alloy ; 
and Kirwan says, it is seldom got so. Gold dust 
has been got in the bed of the Godavery, and in 
Malabar, in the bed of the river which passes Ne- 
lambur, in the Irnada district ; it has moreover been 
procured in very small quantities in Wynade^ in the 
Arcot district ; also near Woorigum and Marcoos^ 
pum in the Pergunnah of Colar ; and in the sand of 
the Baypoor river, near Callicut. Pennant, in his 
View of Hindoostan (vol. i. p. 181.), tells us, that 
gold is to be found in the rivers of the Panjab ; and 
other travellers say it exists in the channels of cer- 
tain rivers of Lahore, t Kirkpatrick observes, in 
his Account of Nepaul (p. 45.), that a little is to be 
met with on the borders of that country ; but that in 
Thibet it abounds. From Kinneir's " Geographical 
Memoir of Persia*' (p. 340.) we learn, that there are 
gold mines in Georgia j and Tavernier, in his " Tra- 

* See Gladvvine's Asiatic Miscellany. See also Asiatic Annual 
Register for 1805, p. 123. 

t But in all these rivers in much less quantities than what are 
found in the river AvanyoSy in Transylvailia, or in the beds of 
several torrents of Brazil. 

L L 2 


vels'* (chap, x.) informs us, that there are both gold 
and silver mines in MengreUa, now included in 
Georgia ; one called Souanetj the other Obelety about 
five or six miles from Tefflis ; he adds, that there is 
also a gold mine at Hardanoushe, and a silver one at 
GunishCy not far from Trebisond.* In other territories 
lying still farther east this precious metal is found in 
great abundance ; next to tin, Mr, Crawfurd tells us, 
in his excellent work on the Indian Archipelago 
(vol. iii. p. 470), gold is the most valuable mineral 
of the Archipelago ; but it appears to be most 
abundant in those islands which constitute the 
Northern and Western barriers ; Borneo affords by- 
far the most ; the principal are mines in the vicinity 
of Sambas or Jambas ; next to it comes Sumatra, and 
in succession the Peninsula (Malayan), Celebes and 
Lusong. The gold of the Indian islands in regard 
to geognostic situation, is found, as in other parts of 
the world, in veins and mineral beds, as well as 
alluvial soils ; in the first situations it exists in gra- 
nite, gnesis, mica-slate, and clay-slate ; and in the 
second in ferruginous clay and sand. The ore is 
what modern mineralogists term gold-yellow native 
gold^ and always contains a considerable quantity of 
silver, and generally, though not always, some 

Gold, it would appear, has lately been discovered 
at Santa Anna in Estremadura; Japan f is rich in it, 
and the mines easily worked ; the island of Formosa 
abounds in gold mines (Asiatic Journal for Decem- 

* Fraser, in his Journey to Khorasan, informs us, that gold is 
found in a mountain called Altoun Taugh^ in the Southern district 
of Bochara. 

+ See Crawfurd*s Indian Archipelago, vol. i. pp. 319, 320, 


ber 1824.). Forest* tells us, that there is much in 
the island of Mindano ; it is a product of almost all 
the Philippine islands t, especially of Luzon (Lu- 
conia), of Borneo J, of Sumatra §, of Siam, of Pegu ||, 
of Bali ^, in the Straits of Java, of China**, of 
Tonquin, of the Burmah dominions, of Sulo (at 
Tambasuc), of Palembang tt, of Thibet, and of Ma- 
lacca ; but perhaps in no part of the world is this 
metal found in greater abundance than in Cochin- 
Chinatt; nay, it would appear from a description of 
that kingdom, which may be seen in the Asiatic 
Journal, for 1801, that gold there is almost taken 
pure from the mines, which are near the surface of 
the earth. Niebhur, in his Travels (vol. ii. p. 366.), 
informs us, that it is a product of the kingdom of 
Mazambic, and of Abyssinia, and of late years much 
has been got in Russia. § § 

* See his Voyage to New Guinea, p. 249, 

t See Le Gentil's Voyage in the Indian Seas, vol. ii. p. 30. 
French edition, 

% See a paper in the Malayan Miscellanies (p. 25.), by Mr. Hunt, 
in which he mentions the rich gold mines of Laura^ in that 
island ( Borneo), situated to the Eastward of the town of Sambas^ 
also of those of Tambasuk ; and Dr. Leyden, in his Sketches of 
Borneo, speaks of the gold of Bonjar, on the South side of the 
island. See 7th vol. of the Transactions of the Batavian Society. 

§ See Marsden*s Sumatra, p. 133. 

II See Oriental Repertory, vol. ii. p. 479. 

^ At a place called Pejen, on the East coast of Bali. 

■^* For some account of the gold of China, and the manner qf 
using it in that countryj the reader is referred to a curious paper 
by M. Landresse, which may be found in the Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Paris, taken, it would appear, from a Chinese 
work, entitled *^ A Description of the Arts of the Empire of 
China." See Oriental Herald for May, 1825. 

ff The inferior sort of gold dust at Palembang is called mooda, 
or young dust ; the best tooa, or old ; the last, when purified, is 
most brilliant. 

:[: J See Bori's Account of Cochin-China, also Abbe Rochan's 
Voyage to Madagascar and the East Indies, p. 308. 

§§ Sir Alexander Crichton tells me, that the richest gold mines 


It would appear, that in former times, one of the 
grand sources of wealth of the Carthaginians, was 
derived from the valuable mines of Andalusia and 
Cordova. We are told by Aristotle, that when the 
Phoenicians first visited the coast of Iberia, they 
found both gold and silver in great abundance ; nay, 
Pliny observes, *^ We have silver mines in many of 
our provinces, but how is it that the richest should 
be in Spain, and producing the finest and most beau- 
tiful silver?'' (Nat. Hist, book xxx. chap, vi.) 

Gold leaf (soona wurk Sj^ \iy^^ is prescribed by 
the native practitioners in consumptive complaints, 
and in cases of general debility, from its supposed 
virtues as a tonic, cordial and restorative. The 
opinions of the Hindoos respecting it, as a medicine, 
are to be found in many of the Medical Sastrums, 
especially in a celebrated Sanscrit work, entitled 
Rasarutna SamoochayeUj by Vackbutta, in which 
medicaments prepared with different metals are fully 
treated of; it is also particularly noticed in a 
famous work in high Tamool, entitled Kylasa Chut- 
tamoony VadanooU in which medicines from the 
mineral world are minutely examined. The Arab- 

ia Russia are those of the Oiiral mountains, at a place called 
Berezoff^ near Catherenberg ; there are also mines in the Altai 
mountains, especially at Schlangenberg, which signifies in Russian 
the mountain of serpents. By late accounts from Russia it would 
appear, that towards the end of the year 1824, eight thousand 
pounds of gold are expected to come from the Oural mountains 
mines, containing much platina; the value of that quantity of 
gold may be about one million of ducats. Now, at the beginning 
of this century, the whole of America did not produce more than 
seventeen thousand two hundred and ninety-one kilogrammes of 
gold per annum, and of this Brazils supplied six thousand eight 
hundred and seventy -three kilogrammes. Russia, this year, has 
yielded three thousand two hundred and eighty kilogrammes, 
being nearly the half of what is supplied by Brazil! 


ians, according to Avicenna, considered this metal as 
somewhat similar in its virtues to hyacinth (cordial) ; 
and the same author tells us, that the filings of it 
were given in melancholia, " limatura ejus ingredi- 
tur in medicinis melancholice.*^ For other particulars 
the reader may consult the Arabic work, ** Canoon 
Fil Tihy ^W ^i QJ>JIS. The modern Arabs, like 
the Hindoos, reckon gold leaf amongst their Car- 
diacs^ placing it in the class Mokewyat-diL 

Gold, in every part of the world, is found chiefly 
in its metallic state, though generally alloyed with 
silver, copper, iron, or all the three. South America* 
furnishes the greatest quantity. The principal gold 
mines of Europe are those of Hungary. It is the 
most tough and ductile, as well as the most malleable 
of all metals, more elastic than lead or tin, but less so 
than iron or even copper ; hammering renders it brit- 
tle, but it resumes its ductility on being slowly heated; 
it is not sonorous, and is the heaviest of all bodies, 
platina excepted ; for its fusion it requires a low de- 
gree of white-heat, somewhat greater than that in 
which silver melts. Gold mingles in fusion with 
all metals ; it amalgamates very readily with mer- 
cury, aiid is remarkably disposed to unite with iron ; 
every metal except copper debases the colour of 

* The veins of native gold are most frequent in the province of 
Oaxaca, either in grains or mica slate ; the last rock, Mr. Jameson 
tells us, is particularly rich in this metal, in the celebrated mines 
of Rio San Antonio. Baron Humboldt estimated the annual pro« 
duce of the gold mines of South America at about 25,026/^.9- 
Troy. It does not appear by the Journal of a Residence in Colombia 
during 1823 and 1824, by Capt. C. Stuart Cochrane, that that 
country is very rich in the precious metals ; he says, the mir.^s of 
Choc6 are the most likely to, prove productive under scientific 
management ; those considered as worth working give two pounds 
of platina to six of gold. The reader is referred to the interest- 
ing pamphlet of Sir W. Adams for much curious information on 
the actual state of the Mexican mines, 

. L L 4 


gold ; it gives it a red hue, and a greater degree of 
firmness than it has when very pure ; hence the com- 
bination is employed in making coins, and different 
articles of plate, &c. The alloy with silver is made 
with difficulty j and forms the green gold of jewel- 
lers. Proper quantities of copper filings, nitre, pre- 
pared tutty, borax, and hepatic aloes, fused together 
by a skilful artist * give a beautiful compound, which 
much resembles gold. 

With regard to the solution of gold, Mr. Kirwan 
was of opinion, that in its metallic state it may be 
diffused through the concentrated nitrous acid, 
though not dissolved in it ; that able chemist found 
the aqua regia, which succeeded best in the dissolu- 
tion of gold, was prepared by mixing three parts of 
the real marine acid with one of the nitrous ; aqua 
regia made with common salt, or sal ammoniac and 
spirit of nitre, is less aqueous than that produced 
from an immediate combination of both acids, and 
hence it is the fittest for producing crystals of gold ; 
one hundred grains of gold require for their solution 
two hundred and forty-six grains of aqua regia ; the 
two acids being in the proportion above mentioned. 
The well known aurum fulminans *, which by Beck- 
man's account, was discovered by a German bene- 
dictine monk in 1413, is gold precipitated from a 
solution of that metal in aqua regia, by means of 
ammonia} it explodes by heat with a greater violence 

** See Smith's School of Arts, vol. i. p. 130. 

f The fulminating property of gold was at one time supposed 
to be owing to the presence of the nitrous or marine acid. Black 
considered it as consequent of fixed air, but it is evident that is 
not the case, as gold fulminates as well when precipitated by the 
caustic volatile alkalie as by that which contains fixed air. Berg- 
man considered volatile alkalie as the real cause of the explosion, 
and explained it on the principles assumed by him and Scheele. 


than any other substance in nature ; indeed with a 
strength, according to Bergman, one hundred and 
seventy-six times greater than that of gunpowder. 
While gold is indestructible by the common oper- 
ations of fire, so is it altogether exempted from 
rusting. The best compound metal for making 
the mirrors of reflecting telescopes, is that made 
with an equal part of zinc and gold. With iron 
gold forms a grey mixture, which is very hard, and 
is said to be superior to steel for the fabrication of 
cutting instruments. 

Gold is said to be mineralized, when it is mixed 
with some other substance, in such a manner as not 
to be readily acted upon by aqua regia ; such as 
hy sulphur ; "with sulphur by means of iron, as in the 
golden pyrites ; by means of quicksilver^ as in the 
auriferous cinnabar; by means of zinc and iron, as in 
the Schemnitz blende, already mentioned, &c. Gold 
is no longer in Europe considered as possessing any 
medicinal qualities, though the ancients* believed 
it to have such. The solution in aqua regia is a 
strong poison ; if on this solution any essential oil is 
poured, the gold is separated from the acid, and is 

* Pliny tells us, that in his time gold was considered as a 
sovereign remedy for green wounds, applied externally, and that 
the Roman mothers used to hang it about the necks of their 
children to preserve them from the spells of sorcerers ; he more- 
over says, that, according to the testimony of M. Varro, gold 
makes warts fall off! See Natural History, book xxxiii. chap, iii. 
The author just cited informs us, that the Romans in the time of 
Nero used to obtain their gold from Dalmatia, and from the sands 
of the Tagus, in Spain ; Po, in Italy ; Hebrus, in Thrace ; Pac- 
tolus, in Asia ; and the Indian Ganges. Their scientific men, like 
those of later ages, busied themselves with alchymy, and Pliny 
very gravely observes, that the Emperor Caligula (who was a very 
covetous man) actually had a small quantity of that precious 
metal made by boiling orpiment dug out of the ground in Syria, 
See same book and chapter. 


united to the essential oil ; but this union does not 
last, for in a few hours the gold separates in a bright 
yellow film to the sides of the glass. A solution of 
gold, however, in vitriolic ether is more perfect than 
that with the essential oils. The yellow etherial 
solution poured off, and kept for some time in a glass 
stopt with a cork, so that the spirit may slowly exhale, 
yields long transparent prismatic crystals*, in shape 
like nitre, and as yellow as a topaz. 

Should the reader wish to see a very curious de* 
tail on the alloys of gold, he may consult Philoso- 
phical Transactions for 1803, Experiments by Mr. 
Hatchet. The alloy of lead renders gold very brittle 
when that metal only constitutes ^ of the alloy. 
Gold coin is an alloy of eleven parts of gold and 
one of copper. Arsenic and antimony in very small 
proportions with gold, destroy its colour, and render 
it quite brittle. Mercury and gold combine with 
great ease, forming a white amalgam much used in 
gilding. See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii* 
p. 291. 


IRON. Eerumboo lj_?C5LOl_j (Tam.) Loha U^^l 
(Duk. and Hind.) Ahun ^^\ (Pers.) Eenumo 
(Tel.) Loha ^^ (Sans.) Hedeed iSj^s^ (Arab.) 

B4ssee ^^j (Mai.) Ydkddd (Cyng.) Fer (Fr.) 

Ferro (It.) Eissen (Ger.) Hierro (Span.) Tee 



* See Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.iv. p. 528. 


This metal is found in so many different parts of 
India that it may be considered as a common pro- 
duce of the country. In Mysore, in the neighbour- 
hood of Baydamungulum^ it is smelted from a black 
iron ore, called in Tellingoo nalla isaca, in the Car- 
nataca language cart tcsu, and in Tamool carpoo 
mantl ; in other parts of the same territory, lying 
betwixt Seringapatam and Bangalore, it is obtained 
from two ores, called aduru kulloo and ipanada ; the 
last mentioned. Dr. Buchanan* informs us, is a very 
pure ore, found scattered among gravel in small 
lumps ; near Colangodoo, in Southern Malabar, it is 
obtained from a dark coloured sand ore. Captain 
Arthur discovered, in Mysore, the magnetic iron ore^ 
also the specular iron ore, or iron glance, which Dr. 
Heynet likewise picked up among the Cbittledroog 
hills, near TalerUj and other places* Captain Arthur 
also discovered in Mysore the brown hematitet, or 
fibrous brown iron stone, which, I am led to think, 
is the stone sometimes called by the Tamools carin 
kulloo. In the Palavarum district it would appear, 
by Dr. Heyne's§ account, that this metal is obtained 
from an ore composed of ochre, clay, scintillating 
spar, and calcareous earth. " At Yerragutty^ near 
Sautgur^ iron is smelted from what is called the iron- 
stone II of mineralogists, a subspecies of micaceous 
iron-stone, and which is powerfully attracted by the 
magnet.'' At Ramanaka^ about six miles North of 

^ See Dr. Buchanan's Journey through Mysore, Canara, and 
Malabar, vol. i. p. 181. 

f See Heyne's Tracts on India, p. 44. 

:|: Or bloodstone, called by the Arabians hujraldum f ^^Jj^-^sj^ 
and by the Persians shadunj -^j^Li. 

§ See Oriental Repertory, vol. ii. p. 485. 
II See Heyne's Tracts on India, p. 191. 


Niizid, this metal is smelted from an ore consisting 
of small rounded stones, lying loose and uncon- 
nected, and which do not appear to contain any- 
calcareous matter. Dr. Heyne is of opinion, that 
though this ore does not exactly correspond with any 
common iron ores in England, it approaches nearest 
to hematites ; he was disposed to term it a hydrous 
carbonate of iron : the charcoal employed in smelting 
it is made from the mimosa sundra (Roxb.). Much 
iron is manufactured in the Nahn or Sirmor * 
country, in the North of Hindoostan , also in the 
Nagpore Rajah's dominions t, particularly near the 
town of Chowpara^ on the banks of the Beingunga. 
There is much iron on Ceylon J ; on Java § ; in 
Siam ; in Tonquin, by Barrow's account, it abounds ; 
it is not uncommon in Cabul^ in the territory of the 
Afreeds, and in Bqjour. A few years ago it was 
discovered to be a product of the island of Billitteny 
Eastward of Banka. Captain Macdonald Kinneir, 
in his Geographical Map of Persia (p. 224.), men- 
tions, that it is to be met with in the mountains South 
of Helaty in Mekran ; and Foster observes, in his 
Travels, that it is an export from Turshish. Valan- 
tyen found it in Bali.\\ To India it is often brought 

* Particularly on the hills near the great Lakandi, where, ac- 
cording to Captain Blane (in his Memoir on Sirmor), the ore 
yields one-fourth of its weight of pure iron. 

f See Account of a Route from Nagpore to Benares, by Daniel 
Robertson Leckie, pp. 68, 69. 

:j: It would appear, that the Ceylon iron ore is of a very superior 
quality: Mr. Russel lately laid before the Literary Society of that 
island a report, in which he notices, that the iron of certain places 
has this extraordinary property, that it is malleable immediately 
on being taken out of the furnace, a circumstance which, when 
known to manufacturers at home, cannot fail to attract great 
attention. See Asiatic Journal for August, 1823, p. 136. 

§ See Civil and Military Sketches of Java, p. 207. 

jl See Malayan Miscellanies, p. 11. 


from Pegu, where, it would appear, that it can be 
procured of a superior quality ; also from Tonquin. 

Iron has been discovered in almost every country 
of Europe; that of Sweden* is considered as the 
best. The native metal is scarce ; most iron being 
found in the form of oxide, in ochres, bog ores, and 
other friable earthy substances, of a brown, yellow, 
or red colour. The iron which is obtained by smelt- 
ing is not pure, but in the three following states, 
white crude iron, grey crude iron, and black cast 
iron, which last is commonly fused with white iron. 
When crude iron, especially grey, is fused again, in 
contact with air, it unites, sparkles, loses weight, and 
becomes less brittle, and may be converted into mal- 
leable iron by fusing it in the midst of charcoal, and 
then beating it for a time with a large hammer, so as 
to drive out all the parts that may still partake of 
crude iron ; the remainder, on being thus made 
malleable, is so formed into bar iron ; this purified, 
or bar iron, is soft, ductile, flexible, and malleable, 
and is what may be converted into steel t, in two 
ways, by cementation or by fusion. The English 
steel, a compound of iron with carbon, is made by a 
process called cementation J, and afterwards, when 

* For an animated account of the extraordinary and, it may be 
added, awful iron mines of Persberg, in Sweden, the reader is 
referred to Dr. Clarke's Travels in Sweden, &c. 

f Steel is in Tamool oorukooy also yeghoo ; in Tellingoo ooklcoo; 

in Persian and Dukhanie ybo/ao^ ^^^5; in Hindoostanie hhere 

\ There is a particular kind of steel called in India tvootZy 
which, from its superior quality, has attracted, of late years, 
much notice in England ; it is prepared in several parts of Lower 
Hindoostan, especially at a small village South-West of Chittle- 
droog, in the Mysore country, and at Kakerhally, a village on 
the road from Bangalore to Seringapatam (see Heyne's Tracts, 
p. 358.). " In order to convert iron into this steel each piece is cut 


fused with a flux composed of carbonaceous and 
vitrifiable ingredients, it becomes what is termed ca,U 
steel, in bars, })lates, and other forms j and is almost 
twice the price of other good steel. Nicholson, in 
his Dictionary of Chemistry and its Application to 
the Arts, tells us, that the Olueing of steel affects its 
elasticity in a manner not easily explained, and is 

into three parts, making fifty-two in all ; each of which is put into 
a separate crucible, together with a handful of the dried branches 
of tangedu ( cassia auriculata), and another of fresh leaves of the 
vonangadj/ (convolvulus laurifolia). The mouth of the crucible 
is then closely shut with a handful of red mud, and the whole 
arranged in circular order, with their bottoms turned towards the 
centre, in a hole made in the ground for the purpose. The hole 
is then filled up with charcoal, and large bellows are kept blowing 
for six hours, by which time the operation is finished. The cru- 
cibles are then removed from the furnace, ranged in rows on moist- 
ened mud, and water is thrown on them whilst yet hot. The steel, 
or tvootz, is found in conical [)ieces at the bottom of the crucibles, 
the form of which it has taken." Some of this Indian steel was 
some years ago sent to England to Mr. Stodart, by Dr. Hcync, 
who, after examining it, said, that, in his opinion, it was not, in 
the state in which it was brought from India, perfectly adapted 
for the purposes of fine cutlery, the mass of the metal being un- 
equal, proceeding from imperfect fusion ; therefore, it is that Mr. 
Brande recommends a second fusion, which makes it truly valu- 
able for edged tools, and fitted for forming the finest instruments. 
Mr. Stodart concludes his letter to Dr. Heyne by observingi^ 
" this India steel, however, is decidedly the best I have yet met 
with." Mr. Stodart is of opinion, that the most proper mode of 
tenipering 'woolz is by heating it to a cherry-red colour in a bed of 
charcoal dust, and then (|uenching it in water cooled down to 
about the .freezing point. Mr, Brande seems to be of opinion, 
that the peculiar excellence of the Indian steel is owing to com- 
bination with a minute portion of the earths oi' alumina and Hilicia^ 
furnished, perhaps, by the crucible in making the steel, or rather 
with the bases of those earths, and, as a proof of this, he shows 
how wootz may be made artificially (Manual ok^ Chemistry, vol.ii. 
p. 308 ). Nay, Dr. Heyne himself observes, that it is not quite 
mdifferent, in preparing the wootz, what crucibles are used in the 
operation ; the loam employed for these crucibles, in Lower India, 
is of a brown-red colour, of an earthy appearance, and crumbles 
betwixt the fingers ; it has no earthy smell when breathed on, nor 
effervesces with acids. 



done by exposing steel, the surface of which has 
been first brightened, to the regulated heat of a plate 
of metal, or a charcoal fire, or flame of a lamp, till 
the surface has acquired a blue colour. It is a sin- 
gular circumstance that the sword blades of Damas- 
cus are still considered as the finest in the world, nor 
is it known exactly how they are made, though I 
think it highly probable that they are made of the 
wootz steel of India. 


IRON FILINGS. Eerumhoo podie ui^(g5LDM 

gLjrri ql (Tam.) Arapodi (Tel.) Lohay ka hoora 

^jyj L^axib^ (Duk.) Limailles de fer (Fr.) GopuU 

mrtes eissen (^Ger.) Limatura di Ferro (It.) Lima- 

dura hierro (Span.) 

Limatura Ferri. 


IRON, RUST OF. Eerumboo tuppoo li^Qtudm 
557 ljm (Tam.) Lohay ka zung dLj L^axib^ (Duk.) 
Manura ^^'^Ji (Sans.) Kith (Hind.) Eenapa- 
tooppoo (Tel.) Carbure de fer (Fr.) Ossido car^ 
bonato di Ferri (It.) Sitdeed ul hedeed iXjjJ^l ^y.*o 
(Arab.) Zqfrani ahun ^^\ (jj'^i^^j (Pers.) S/8>3go^ 


Ferri Rubigo (Dub.) 

I cannot find that ironjilings are used in medicine 
by the Hindoos, and but rarely by the Mahometans, 


who sometimes give them in cases requiring tonics, 
in conjunction with ginger. The Tamool name is 
erumhoo podie ; the Dukhanie name is lohay ka boora 
^jyj IJCxi*^. Indeed, in Europe, except when there 
is a decided presence of acidity in the stomach, they 
are seldom employed, as in dyspepsia ; in worm cases 
they act mechanically ; they are usually given in 
powder, combined with an aromatic, or in the form 
of an electuary; Dr. Thomson, and no man's opinion 
I value more, thinks best, in combination with myrrh, 
ammoniacum, or some bitter : the dose from gr. v. 
to 5SS. 

The rust of iron the Hindoo doctors prescribe in 
certain cases oi mayghum (cahexia), particularly that 
species of it combined with jaundice. By European 
practitioners it is considered as tonic and emena- 
gogue, and, of late years, it has been used with good 
effect both as an external and internal remedy in 
cases of cancer ; the dose from grs. v. to grs. xx. 
or XXV., twice daily. What are commonly called 
scales of iron (oxidized iron) the Tamools term 
eerumboo kit turn ; they are those substances which 
are detached by the hammer of the smith from the 
surface of iron heated to redness in the forge. The 
native Indians, as far as I can learn, do not employ 
them in medicine. They are, when purified, an im- 
perfect oxide (oxidum ferri nigrum purificatum), and 
have been given with good effects in general weak- 
ness, dose from grs. v. to gr. xv. The simple scales 
(squamae) are used in the same manner as iron filings, 
and Dr. Thomson says, are preferable. 



TRIOL. Anna haydie 211(5^(5^(2'— '^T (Tarn.) 
Heera cashish (ji>iS' V^xifc (Duk.) Taroosee (Mai.) 
Casis (Hind.) ZunJcar madenee ^i^^U J^y^ (Pers.) 
Tootya subz (Pers.) Sulphate defer (Fr.) SchxvefeU 
saures eisen (Ger.) Solfato diferro (It.) 

Sulphas Ferri. 

This substance was, a few years ago, obtained in 
Travancore, by Captain Arthur, from an aluminous 

Sulphate of iron is a dangerous medicine if not 
administered with caution ; it is considered as tonic, 
emenagogue, and anthelmintic, and is given with 
success in diabetes, amenorrhoea, and phthisis, and, 
by Dr. Good's account, in dyspepsia (see his Study 
of Medicine, vol. i. p. 17L) ; lately it has been used 
as a lotion in cancerous and phagedenic ulcers. It 
seems to be very partially known to the Hindoos. 
It is administered in pills with rhubarb, myrrh, or 
aromatics, in doses of from gr. i. to gr. vi. 

Iron, under any circumstances, is not a medicine 
frequently resorted to in India, where hepatic de- 
rangements and other visceral affections are but too 
common, and in which it is certainly injurious ; in 
scrophulous complaints I have given it with marked 
good effects, and have been induced to think, that on 
such occasions it may act by supplying what is de- 

VOL. I. M M 


ficient* of that substance to the blood. The tinc- 
tura muriatis ferri is one of the best preparations 
of iron in dyspepsia or other cases requiring chaly- 
beates ; five or six drops given every ten minutes till 
nausea is excited, often gives ahnost immediate relief 
in dysuria, depending on spasmodic stricture of the 
urethra ; as a tonic, the usual dose is from ten drops 
to twenty-five drops in a glass of water ; it is also 
used as a styptic for cancerous and fungous sores. 
The ferrum ammoniatum 1 have never prescribed in 
India, and believe that it is now seldom ordered. 

Dr. Heyne, in his Tracts on India, says, that the 
native Indians have a variety of ways of preparing 
iron for medical purposes, and that they are suffi- 
ciently well acquainted with its general virtues ; he 
gives an account (see Tracts, pp. 167, 168, 169.) of 
several preparations of this metal, or what are called 
in Tamool cenduramSj which, excepting that a little 
sulphur and the juice of one or two plants are em- 
ployed in making them, appear to differ but little 
from the red oocide of iroUy which is now seldom used 
in Europe, excepting as a pharmaceutical agent, but 
has, no doubt, the same tonic properties that some of 
the other preparations possess. The Hindoos believe 
those cendurams above mentioned as most efficacious 
in several diseases, particularly what the Tamools 
term the ulkachely or internal fever ; these prepar- 
ations ought properly to be called ecrumboo cendu- 
rarnaj or iron cendurams. 

It would require more room than can be here 
spared to enumerate the different uses of this valu- 
able metal in the arts ; it is a principal ingredient in 
dyeing black ; with the aid of sulphate of iron cot- 

* See Russel on Scrophula. 


ton is dyed of a shamois colour, linen yellow, wool 
and silk black ; it is also employed in preparing 
common ink, and Berlin blue. The ancients* had 
certainly the art of making a blue enamel with the 
aid of iron ; and, it would appear that Klaproth, on 
analysing a piece of antique glass of a sapphire blue, 
transparent only at the edges, found it contained 
silex, oxide of iron, alumine, oxide of copper, and 

The Hindoos use eerumboo podic (iron filings), in 
conjunction with vinegar and the bark of the ma- 
rudum tree, terminalia alata (Koenig.), for dyeing 
black ; it is also made use of by the chucklers 
(tanners), together with other ingredients, for giving 
leather the same colour. The rust of iron (eerumboo 
tuppoo) as well as the scales {eerumboo kittum)^ and 
also the dross or refuse {sittie kull), are employed by 
the native Indians for similar purposes. The suL 
phate of iron {anna baydie^ they use sometimes in 
the preparation of black leather. 

In addition to what I have already said of oorukoo 
(steel), I shall observe, that Dr. Buchanan (now 
Hamilton), in his Journey through Mysore, Canara, 
and Madura (vol. i. p. 151,), mentions, that there are 
in the district of Chinnarayandui^gay in Mysore, no 
less than four forges employed in that manufac- 
ture ; this excellent writer also tells us, that at Chin- 
napatam^ in the same country, steel wire is made for 
the strings of musical instruments, which is in great 
request, and sent to the most remote parts of India. 

What is commonly called black lead (plumbago), 
Pennant says, is a produce of Ceylon (vol. i. p. 189.)> 

* I think Pliny notices this, though I have not been ^ble to 
light on the passage. 

M M 2 


but, it is to be presumed, that it is of a very in- 
ferior quality to that of Borradale, in Cumberland ; 
it is a carburet of iron, and is what lead pencils are 
made of. A counterfeit kind is prepared by the Jews, 
by mixing the dust of plumbago with gum Arabic, 
or fusing it with resin or sulphur, and pouring it into 
the cavities of reeds. The powder of plumbago, 
with three times its weight of clay and some hair, 
makes an excellent coating for retorts. 

With regard to the use of iron amongst the 
ancients — there is nothing satisfactory, nay, much 
room for doubt. The Arab writers (particularly 
Avicenna) are more explicit, or rather better in- 
formed ; he says of the rust : *^ Rubigo ferri vim 
adstringendi habet ;*' again : ^^ Vinum in quo ferrum 
restinctum fuerit, lienosis, stomachico dissolutis ac 
debilibus auxiliatur.*' Vide Canon, lib. ii. tract ii. 
p. 142. 


LEAD. Eeeum llJluluLO (Tam.) Sheesh J:^ 

(Duk.) Sisa 1*^j<m (Hind.) Anuk S^\ (Arab.)- 

Sheeshum (Tel.) Surb <^j,L (Pers.) Temaetam f UjUJb 

(Mai.) Sisaka ^"t^^ (Sans.) Plomb (Fr.) Blei 

(Ger.) Lood (Dut.) Piombo (It.) Plomo (Span.) 

Chumbo (Port.) Swinez (Russ.) Hih-yen (Chin.) 


At Dessouly in Higher Hir^^oostan, about fifty 
coss East of Sirinagur, there is a lead mine of con- 
siderable value, worked by the Rajah. In Lower 


India this metal has been found in small quantities, 
at Jungumrauzpillayj in the Cumbem district, in 
combination with varying proportions of iron, anti- 
mony, silver, sulphur, argil, and silex. Dr. Heyne* 
informs us, that ores of lead have been met with 
near Cuddapa. In the Sirmor country, as is noticed 
by the late Captain Rodney Blane in his interesting 
Memoir of that district, there is a valuable lead mine 
at Lodi. In Thibet, Captain Turner says, that at a 
place situated nearly two miles from Tessoolumboj 
there is u mine of this metal which much resembles 
some of those in Derbyshire, and in which the lead 
is mineralized by sulphur ; Sir John Malcolm speaks 
of a lead mine lying a little North of Odeypoor in 
Malwa. It is a product of Tonquin, and, according 
to Dr. F. Hamilton t, of Nepaul, where, however, it 
would appear but two mines are worked, all the 
metal being reserved for the Rajah's magazines. In 
Persia, it is found in the neighbourhood X of Yezdy 
and amongst the mountains South of Helat in 
Mekran ; and by Mr..Morier's§ account, also at 
Khalcal, fourteen fursungs distant from Tabriz. 
The greater part, however, of this metal which is 
brought to India comes from Siam, from Aracan, 
and occasionally from the Burmah dominions ; it is 
a product of Oman in Arabia, whence, Niebhur tells 
us, much is sent to Muscat for exportation (Travels, 
vol. ii. p. 365.) Mr. Elphinstone, in his excellent 
Account of Cabul, says, it is also a product of that 
country, particularly in the territory of the Afreeds 
and in Upper Bungush. 

* See his Tracts on India, p. 315. 

f See his Account of Nepaul, p. 78. 

:j: See Kinncir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, pp. 40 and 224. 

§ See Morier's First Journey to Persia, p. 284. 

M M 3 


Lead is found in many parts of Europe, also 
in some Northern and Eastern* countries. The 
mines of England are particularly rich ; those of 
Derbyshire alone yield annually about 6000 tons ; 
it is seldom seen native t being chiefly procured 
in the form of an oxide, called native cerusse, or 
lead ochre, or lead spar of various colours, red, 
brown, yellow, green, blueish and black. There are 
three distinct oxides of lead, the yellow, or massicot, 
the red, and the brown. Nicholson observes, in his 
Dictionary of Chemistry, that a native minium was 
a few years ago discovered by Smithson in Hess. 
Lead is also found combined with various acids, car- 
bonic, muriatic, phosphoric, chromic, sulphuric, 
molybdenic; likewise with arsenic acid, forming what 
is called arseniate of lead. The use of this metal in 
the arts is well known ; it is much employed in 
glazing porcelain white : it is a principal ingredient 
in the manufacture of white glass, and the diflferent 
coloured oxides are valuable pigments, and as such 
are used by the Hindoos, for particulars respecting 
which, the reader is referred to another part of this 


Vulluif Ga\-javT2Lr5vT also Moothoo vullaij (Tam.) 

* Lead is a product of the Asiatic dominions belonging to Russia^ 
especially irt the mines of Nirtchensk^ near the borders of Chinese 
Tartary. Sir Alexander Crichton informs me, that a chromate of 
it is found in several mined near Catherenberg, in the Oural 
mountains, chiefly at BerizofF. 

f Either sulphuretted (in galenas) or combined with antimony. 


Stiffidah rid^xm (Duk. Pers. and Hind.) Asfidqj 
g-?*Xxiuw! (Arab.) Plomb carbonate (Fr.) Bleiweisse 
(Ger.) Cerussa (It.) Seebaydoo (Tel.) 

Plumbi Subcarbonas. 



gapoo sendooerum, also Eeum sindoorum ljl2*lululdC 
f^CDS/r^LD (Tam.) Sendoor j^^Xj^ (Duk.) Sindiir 
(Hind.) Tsrenj ^^yj (Arab.) Sindura f^pT"^ 
(Sans.) Yerra sindoorum (Tel.) V^^Uj Temamera 
(Mai.) Minium (Fr.) Mennig (Ger.) Vermilion 
(Span.) Minio (It.) Yuen4an (Chin.) 

OxiDUM Plumbi Rubrum. 


OF LEAD. Marudar singhie LOAQ/^rrA^^rR;^ 
(Tarn.) Moorddr sang ^'^^ ^b^ (Pers. Duk. and 
Hind.) Litharge (Fr.) Bleiglatte (Ger.) Piombo 
semivitreo (It.) Almartago (Span.) 


Cerusse is occasionally used medicinally by Eu- 
ropean practitioners in India as an astringent j 

M M 4 



with it the Tamools are in the habit of preparing 
certain kdlimhoos (plasters) ; the Arabians place it 
amongst their ^^\ vi^UJCw^ (Anodyna.) It is from 
the subcarbonate of lead, that most of the cases 
of poisoning* occur, which happen to painters; 
and also from the base custom of putting it as 
well as sugar of lead (plumbi superacetas) into 

The red oxide of lead (minium) is an export 
from Surat, and, according to Elmore, also from 
China ; its medicinal qualities are nearly the same 
as those of htharge, but it is now rarely used : 
the modern Arabs place it amongst their Modumilat- 
herough (Cicatrizantia), and the Hindoos, especially 
the Bhills, use it commonly in performing some of 
their religious 1^ ceremonies. Litharge is never given 
internally ; like the other preparations of lead it is 
powerfully astringent. The Mahometans of India 
occasionally employ it mixed with vinegar to remove 
pimples from the face and clear the complexion* 
What is commonly called Goulard's extract (liquor 
plumbi subacetatis), is a medicine too well known 
to require particular notice here ; it is used ex- 
ternally, and when diluted with water, forms a 
most valuable application to burns and phlegmon- 

* Such aflBictions are attended with violent pain in the stomach, 
vomiting, costiveness, difficult breathing, tremors, and a peculiar 
hardness and smallness of pulse ; they are best combated with 
cathartics combined with henbane, plentiful mucilaginous dilution, 
and the warm bath. 

\ It appears by Marcet's admirable Memoir on the Action of 
Poisons on Vegetable Substances, that a bean plant was killed in 
two days by putting its root into a solution of acetite of lead. 
See Journal of Sciences, Literature, and the Arts, No. xxxix« 
p. 193. 

X See Sir John Malcolm's Essay on the Bhills, in the Transac- 
tions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. i. part i. p. 82. 


ous inflammations * ; about 5!. to Ib.i. of water ; in 
a still more diluted state it is a useful application 
in cases of ophthalmia. Sugar of lead (plumbi 
acetas), taken internally, is very powerfully astringent 
and sedative in haemoptysis ; dose about half a grain, 
given every eight or ten hours ; as a lotion or co- 
lyrium the proportions are from gr. xv. to 9i. of the 
salt, to eight or ten ounces of water. 

Common galena or lead glance is often found in 
the bazars of India, and is confounded with the 
sulphuret of antimony (surmeh). It is apt also to 
be confounded, Jameson t says, with blende or sul- 
phuret of zinc. Galena is used for glazing pottery ; 
it is abundantly combined with sulphur, and is gene- 
rally seen in heavy, shining, black or blueish lead- 
coloured cubical masses. The Romans appear to 
have got most of their lead from Portugal and Ga- 
licia ; and to have been perfectly aware of its re- 
frigerent quality, as was Avicenna (Canon. Med. 
lib. ii. tract ii. p. 273»). Pliny, in his Natural History, 
book xxxiv. chap, xviii., gives us a formula for the 
preparation of psimmithyum (cerussa), and speaks 
of its poisonous nature when taken internally; he 
adds, that the Roman ladies occasionally used it 
as a kind of cosmetic, for making the complexion 

* Mr. Reynard of the *^ Societe des Science" of Lisle, is of 
opinion, that common sugar might be, with advantage, employed 
instead of sulphate of soda, to prevent the bad effects of sub- 
acetate of lead when taken internally. Journal of Science for 
January, 1824, p. 395. 

f See System of Mineralogy, vol. iii. p. 367« 



ganese (Fr.) Braunstein (Ger.) Manganese (It.) 


This metal, it is to be presumed, is not common in 
India ; Captain Arthur, however, informed me that 
he had found it in Mysore, massive in an indurated 
reddish-brown ochre, combined with oxide of iron ; 
and it would appear that the black oxide is a product 
of Ceylon * ; of all the ores of manganese, this 
alone has been introduced into the Materia Medica. 
It appears to have been first particularly noticed t by 
Boyle, about the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
but was considered as an iron ore, till the separate 
experiments of Scheele and Bergman, in lyy^^j proved 
it to be an oxide of a peculiar metal, which Gahn 
afterwards succeeded in obtaining in its metallic 
state. The greater part of the black oxide that is 
used in England, is found near Exeter in Devon- 
shire, in Cornwall, and at Howth near Dublin. 
There is this singularity in manganese, that in its 
metallic state, it has been found capable of depriving 
a small portion of iron of its magnetism ; but the 
effect ceases as soon as the metal is converted into 
oxide* The white oxide, or protoxide is imperfect, 

* See Dr. Davy's Account of that island. 

f I say particularly noticed hy Boyle, for I think there is no 
doubt that the ancients were acquainted with it, though they 
confounded it with the magnet ; and Pliny, in more parts than 
one, remarks, that the magnet was employed in making glass : this 
could have been nothing else than manganese. See Beokman'a 
History of Inventions, vol. iv. p. 59. 


and is soluble in acids; the black or per-oxide, which 
abounds as a natural product, is altogether insoluble ; 
it is found in Devonshire and Aberdeenshire, also in 
Somersetshire. Manganese does not combine with 
sulphur, but Mr. Brande* tells us, that a compound 
of oxide of manganese and sulphur is found in 
Transylvania and Cornwall. Manganese melts readily 
with most metals, always excepting mercury, which 
it rejects. 

Manganese has rarely, if ever, t yet been discovered 
in its metallic state ; but its ores are found in most of 
the countries of Europe. The only medical t use of 
the black oxide of manganese in England is for pro- 
curing oxygen gas, and for fumigating in cases of 
infection ; for the mode of preparing the gas, the 
reader is referred to Dr. Thomson's excellent account, 
in his London Dispensatory. § For the manner of 
destroying infection by means of fumigating, the 
gentleman just named instructs us to take common 
salt ^iv., oxide of manganese in powder gi., sul- 
phuric acid Ji., and water ^ij., mix the acid and 
water well together, and then pour the mixture over 
the other ingredients in a China basin, which should 
be placed in a pipkin of hot sand. The doors and 
windows of* the room to be fumigated, must be 
closely shut, for two hours after the charged basin 
has been placed in it ; then thrown open, and a 
current of air allowed to pass through the room. 

* See his Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 108. 

f A Frenchman of the name of Peirouse is said to have foiind 
it in its native state in the county of Foix. See Beckman's His- 
tory of Inventions, vol. iv. p. 68. 

^ In speaking of manganese, Alibert says, " Depuis que la 
medicine s'est appropriae la manganese, elle en a fait des applica- 
tions utiles au traitement de la teigne, des dartes," &c. See his 
" Nouveaux Elemens et de Matiere Medicale/' vol. ii. p. 276. 

§ Edition for 1822^ 


The native peroxide of manganese is much used 
in the arts in Europe, such as in making the common 
bottle gass, and when added in excess it gives to 
glass a fine red or violet colour ; it has also been dis- 
covered to yield a fine brown colour, used for paint- 
ing porcelain. Of late years it has been employed 
in composing the finest kind of crystal-glass * ; and 
in forming flint-glass. In the labaratory it is con- 
sidered as by far the cheapest material t from which 
to procure oxygen gas ; and is largely employed in 
modern times in the preparation of chlorine, especially 
by the bleachers. See more on this subject in an- 
other part of this work. The best manganese is 
supposed to be that of Piedmont and Perigord in 


MERCURY. Rasam cre=LD (Tam.) Rasam 
(Tel.) Pdrdh »^L (Duk. and Hind.) Abiik Jk>\ 
(Arab.) also Zibdkh (Arab.) Seemdb u^Uxv- (Pers.) 
Para (Hindooie). Rdssd Uly» (Mai.) Sutam Hrf 
also Rasa "^^ and Pdrada mX^ (Sans:) Mercure 
(Fr.) Quicksilbe?^ (Ger.) Mercurio (It.) Azogue 

(Span.) Shwiiy-yin (Chin.) 


We are informed by Captain Turner, that, at 
Tessoolumbo, in Thibet, cinnaber is found, w^hich 
contains much quicksilver ; and I perceive by that 

* See Smith's School of Arts, vol. i. p. 210. 
f See Jameson's Mineralogy, vol.iii. p. 324. 


valuable little volume, entitled, *' Remarks on the 
Internal Husbandry and Commerce of Bengal,^^ that 
mercury thus mineralized may be considered as one 
of the export articles of trade from India; the 
greater part of this metal, however, which is exposed 
for sale in India, is brought from Japan *, where it 
is procured, both in its native state and combined 
with sulphur (cinnaber)t; in which last form it 
would appear also, by Dr. F. Hamilton's account, to 
be sometimes met with in Guzerat, and has there got 
the Hindoostanie name of cJ^S^Z-i shengerf; the 
same author informs us, that it is found in its native 
state in Nepaul, where it is called sabita. 

It is from native cinnaber that the greater part of 
the mercury of commerce is obtained ; this is found 
in many parts of Europe : amongst the most pro- 
ductive mines, are those of Idria, Carinthia, and at 
Wolfstein and Morsfeld in the Palatinate ; but, per- 
haps, after those of Idria, the richest mercury mines 
at present in a state of activity, are those of Almadin, 
near Cordova, in Spain ; though they have been 
worked upwards of two thousand years. In the 
Idria mines of Germany, virgin or pure mercury is 
often procured in considerable quantity; the quantity 
in 1663, when Dr. Pope visited them, was about 
14,862 lbs. annually. 

Factitious cinnaber, or red sulphuret of mercury 
(hydrargyrum &ulphuretum rubrum) may be obtain- 
ed from the black sulphurett, by heating it red hot in 
a flask, when a grey sublimate is procured ; which, 

* Where, it would appear, that it is also found combined with 
silver, forming what is termed solid amalgam ; the festes amalgam 
of Werner. 

t See Abbe Rochan's Voyage to Madagascar and the East 
Indies, pp. 365, ^Q6> 

\ Or Ethiop's mineral, a name, however, now little used. 


when reduced to powder, assumes a red colour, and 
is called cinnaber. See Brande's Manual of Che- 
mistry, vol. ii. p. 255. This has been considered as 
alterative and deobstruent, and at one time was 
much used in rheumatic affections, leprous cases, 
and also in worm cases ; it is the suru?^ ahmar 
j^j^y^ of the Arabians, but it is now chiefly em- 
ployed in fumigating in old venereal complaints ; the 
dose when given internally, is from grs. viii. to 3i., in 
the form of a bolus or electuary. The cinnaber of 
commerce, or vermillion, a compound of about 8 
parts of mercury with one of sulphur, is manu- 
factured to great extent in Holland as a pigment*; 
and a curious and particular account of the mode 
of preparing it, may be found in the ^* Annales de 
Chimie'' livre i. p. 196. The Hindoostanie name of 
factitious cinnaber is durdar jS^^j^j in Arabic it is 
sometimes named zunjefer .i<si^}^ in Tamool it is en- 
ghilicumy in Dukhanie paah shengherf o,5^i^ J'L, in 
Persian shengherf i^.tlx;*^ in Hindooie ingooVj in San- 
scrit inghoohiniy in Malay sedilengam ; it is also not 
unfrequently called by the Tamools shadilingum. It 
is an export from Surat to Madras, also from China t 
and Batavia J ; the Hindoos § know how to prepare 
it in a coarse manner, and consider it as antispas- 
modic ! and also as a valuable remedy for cutaneous 
affections, and for fumigating, in such cases of the 
venereal disease as are attended with ulcers in the 
nose, mouth, or throat. - 

Mercury, which is well known to be much, and most 

* See Imison's Science and Art, vol. ii. p. 471., also Brande's 
Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 255. 

f See Elmore's Guide to the Indian Trade. 

X See Oriental Repertory, vol.i. p. 88. 

§ See Fleming's Catalogue of Indian Medicinal Plants and 
Drugs, article Shengherf^ p. 51. 


successfully used in India, is there chiefly employed in 
the following forms: calomel (hydrargyri submurias), 
the mercurial pill (pilulae hydrargyri), corrosive sub- 
limate (hydrargiri oxymurias), and the ointment. 

The use of mercury in venereal complaints, has now 
been persevered in for upwards of three * hundred 
years; and although there have of late been doubts 
entertained with regard to the absolute necessity of it, 
in such maladies ; nay, those who affirm that they 
can cure the constitutional disease by other and 
simpler means ; I own that I have not been made a 
convert to this new doctrine, nor shall give up the 
favorable opinion I have formed of it, after a nearly 
forty years' experience, notwithstanding all that has 
been brought forward against it. Much has been said 
of the modus operandi of mercury in syphiUs ; but 
perhaps nothing more judicious has been given to the 
world on that subject, than the following notion of 
the celebrated Hunter ; that the stimulant operation 
of this metal, induces an action incompatible with the 
morbid action of the venereal virus, until the poison 
is either destroyed or evacuated from the body by 
the excretions ; but whatever may be the principle 
on which it operates, as Dr. Thomson observes, ^* its 
efficacy is certain when judiciously t and cautiously 
administered." It has appeared to me, that after 

* Berengarius Jacobus, a surgeon at Carpo, was the first who 
cured the venereal disease by means of mercurial ointment ; he 
died in 1527- 

f I know of no failure of a complete cure of syphilis, in India, 
when the medicine in question was timely resorted to and given 
with skill, and when the patient lived and managed himself as 
directed ; but I have known infinite mischief produced by delay, 
carelessness, inattention to diet during the course ; these are but 
too often followed by racking night-pains, nodes, ulcers, and all 
the rest of the horrid train of anomalous symptoms, which I need 
not enumerate here. 


long continued courses of mercury in India, (and 
they are often, I fear, too long,) blood drawn is not 
only more fluent, but much darker * coloured than 
it appears to be when taken from a person in health; 
if this position is just, it becomes a question, whether 
or not this power of liquifying, or partially breaking 
down the blood, may not extend to the other fluids 
and secretions of the human body ; and so account 
for, from the use of this medicine, the removal of 
various glandular and other obstructions, to which 
the frame is subject, whether buboes, liver affections, 
tumours of the joints from rheumatism f, &c. ; and 
of this we are certain, that in those painful and, I am 
sorry to say, frequent hepatic derangements (to be met 
with in all climates), and which are particularly dis- 
tinguished by a dark-coloured, viscid and offensive 
smelUng bile, and a long train of dyspeptic and ner- 
vous symptoms, no sooner has the mercury testified its 
alterative effect on the habit by bringing on a slight 
soreness of the mouth, than the bile, if examined, will 
be found to have assumed its proper healthy rhubarb- 
like appearance and consistence, with that peculiar 
smell it only has, when secreted by a liver no longer 
diseased ; while the extraventicular digestion will also 
be observed to go on with its former vigour, and the 
stomach by sympathy partake of the happy amend- 

* I perceive the same power of rendering the blood dark co- 
loured was observed in mercury by Cirillo, a physician of Naples. 
See Alibert's ** Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique,'* vol. ii. 
p. 268. 

"I- Of die wonderful efficacy of mercury in acute rheumatism 
I have no longer any doubt ; it was but lately I saw a delicate 
female who had been brought to the verge of the grave by bleed- 
ing, purging, and the use of diaphoretics, in this complaint, with- 
out the smallest advantage, relieved from all her sufferings the 
moment her mouth became a little affected from the use of the 
blue pill cautiously administered. 


ment. How the more fluent and darker colour of 
the blood may be induced by the use of mercury, it 
is for chemistry to explain ; the bright-red colour 
has been supposed by some to be owing to the iron * 
it contains ; the red globules having been found to 
consist of a fibrous gluten, and that metal ; now we 
know that mercury forms no amalgam with iron, 
though it does with gold, copper, zinc, bismuth, and 
lead, &c. t 

It is well known that the Eastern nations were 
the first who employed mercury t in the cure of some 
of their obstinate cutaneous and leprous affections j 
and it may be questioned, whether the natives of 
India were before the Arabians, or only second in 
order, in avaiUng themselves of the virtues of that 
powerful mineral. We are told by Le Clerc, in his 
" Histoire de la Medicine" (pp. 771. 791. )> that, ac- 
cording to Fallopius, the first physicians in Europe 
who made use of mercury in venereal cases, lived 
towards the end of the fifteenth century ; and that 
they were induced to make trial of it from what they 
had read of its efficacy in scabies and leprous cases, 
in the writings of Rhazes§, Avicenna||, and Mesne. 
The first lived about eight hundred years ago ; the 
second died in 1036 ; and the last, we are told, pub- 

* The experiments of the celebrated Rhades show that from 
twenty-five pounds of blood from the human body, nearly two 
drachms of the oxide of iron were obtained. See Hooper's 
Medical Dictionary. 

f See Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 260. 

■^ See a valuable paper on the leprosy of the Hindoos, by H. 
H. Wilson, Esq., in the Transactions of the Medical and Physical 
Society of Calcutta, vol. i. p. 1. 

§ " Argentum vivum cum extinguitur ardens est ; quod scabiei 
auxilium affert." Vide Rhaz. de Re Med. lib.iii. cap. xxiv. 

II " Argentum vivum extinctum adversus pediculos et lendes 
cum rosaceo oleo valet.'* Vide Avicen. Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. 
p. 119. 

VOL. I. N N 


lished in the twelfth century (though I perceive 
that Moore, in his History of the Small-pox, says, 
Mesue lived towards the end of the eighth * century, 
and beginning of the ninth); and we know that 
Almenar, a Spaniard, published on it, in 15l6.t 

Calomel is well known to be most efficacious in 
liver complaints, in India, and especially in what is 
called acute hepatitis ; but it is not to be prescribed 
until the more violent inflammatory symptoms have 
been mitigated by bleeding, blistering, purging, and 
low diet ; it is apt occasionally to open the body too 
much ; in such cases, the admixture of a very small 
quantity of camphor may be necessary, but certainly 
not more than a grain, or, at most, two grains in 
the course of the twenty-four hours. Laudanum or 
opium in complaints of this nature is often deceitful. 
I have observed, that calomel is less likely to purge 
when prescribed in small divided doses during the 
day, than in a full one at bed time. I commonly 
gave a grain and a half, or at most two grains, three 
times in the day, rubbing in ji. or 3ij. of mercurial 
ointment, once in the twenty-four hours, on any part 
of the body where the skin was soft and free from 
hair. As soon as the mouth gets properly touched J 
with the medicine, the pain and uneasiness in the 
side will be found to abate, so that its further con- 
tinuance must be regulated with caution. In all 

♦ But the fact is, there »vould appear to have been two indi- 
viduals of the name of Mesue, probably of the same family. The 
one who has the greatest claim to our notice, is said to have 
flourished in the tenth century, to have professed the Christian 
religion, though a native of Bagdat, he practised at Cairo. 

f We learn from Morrison's excellent Chinese Dictionary, that 
it is not exactly known when mercury was first given, internally, 
in China ; but that in A. D. Y45, it was termed in that country 
puh'Sze-che-yo, or elixir of life. 

X And this is our surest pledge that mercury is to do good. 


cases where offending bile is to be worked off, or 
where it may be required to excite a new action, 
calomel is an excellent remedy, mixed, as occasion 
may require, with other medicines, aloes, jalap, rhu- 
barb, colocynth, &c. It is no place here to enter 
into a minute investigation respecting the causes of 
diseases ; and, no doubt, there has been great differ- 
ence of opinion concerning those which occasion in- 
flammation of the liver. This much may be safely 
said, that the stimulus of heat (particularly a dry heat, 
such, for example, as characterizes the climate of the 
Coromandel coast, where liver afiections are more 
common than in Bengal or in Malabar), too full and 
improper diet, and imprudent potations, have a great 
share in bringing on the mischief; nor can it be 
questioned but that a viscid and badly prepared bile, 
producing obstruction and irritation, is a more im- 
mediate source of evil ; and so constantly does 
neglected constipation precede an attack of hepatitis, 
that we cannot for a moment deny, but that it must 
powerfully contribute towards hurrying on the oi'- 
ganic derangement by binding up what should daily 
be carried of}*. How calomel may be supposed to do 
good under such circumstances, I think may be con- 
ceived from what has been above stated regarding 
the modus operandi of mercury on the human frame ; 
viz. by inducing a new action incompatible with the 
existing evil ; but, perhaps, more directly by render- 
ing that bile more fluent and natural, which had 
become viscid and depraved ; so the most likely of 
all things to produce disease by obstruction, stimu- 
lated as the liver is at the same time by inordinate 
heat, and thereby secreting a larger quantity of bile 
than usual, but which is too thick to flow easily 
through the various ducts. 

N N 2 


With regard to the proximate causes of hepatitis 
much has been said by different authors. Winslow 
ascribed both the acute and chronic to an inflamed 
state of the ramifications of the venae portae, which, 
in his opinion, constitute the seat of the disease. 
Saunders, and Dr. Good thinks with some plausi- 
biUty, suspects the acute variety to be owing to an 
inflammatory state of the hepatic artery, and the 
chronic to a Kke state of the venae portae (Study of 
Medicine, vol. ii. p. 388.). 

When the membranes of the liver are attacked 
v^ith inflammation, the pain and fever are infinitely 
more severe than when the substance of that 
organ is the seat of the disease. Indeed, I have 
known instances in which it appeared after death, 
that almost the whole of the parenchyma was con- 
verted into pus, though but Httle pain of any con- 
sequence had preceded. The pain stretching up to 
the top of the right shoulder more especially marks 
the acute disease ; when the inflammation is on the 
convex surface of the liver the patient lies with most 
ease on his right side ; while, on the other hand, if 
the concave side is aflfected, he lies with greater com- 
fort to himself on the left. The acute disease will, 
invariably, end in suppuration, by which part of the 
parenchyma of the organ will be destroyed if a stop 
is not put to the inflammation by bleeding, blistering, 
and purging, and a subsequent use of mercury. A 
tumour forming near the edge of the liver, or to- 
wards the concave surface, points externally, and can 
easily be opened, and the patient by this means 
saved. If the abscess forms on the convex surface, 
it will point towards the cavity of the thorax, fre- 
quently corroding through the diaphragm. I have 
known several cases in which the inferior lobe of 


the lungs having contracted an adhesion with those 
parts of the diaphragm connected with the abscess, 
the matter was discharged by the bronchiae ; but it 
more usually happens that the pus is diffused into 
the cavity of the thorax, and so forms a kind of 
purulent empyema; when the tumour forms adhe- 
sions with the stomach, or colon, the matter is con- 
sequently poured into them, and is either vomited 
up or passed by stool. 

There is a variety of hepatic derangement which 
is extremely insidious, and is either a sequel of the 
acute disease, unskilfully treated, or a consequence 
of general torpor and languid circulation in the 
organ in question ; in the latter instance frequently 
attacking delicate women of sedentary habits. It is 
usually accompanied with one or more of the follow- 
ing derangements : obstructions and slight indur- 
ations of the liver itself, or in some of the ducts j 
chronic dysentery ; partial feverish symptoms ; dys- 
pepsia ; great irregularity of the bowels, from vitiated 
or scantily prepared bile ; dejection of spirits ; mental 
irritability ; and, if the sufferer be a female, irregu- 
larity of the menstrual discharge. This malady 
requires much nicety in the treatment ; mercury 
must be used with infinite caution, cool air sought, 
and whatever is likely to invigorate the frame with- 
out over-stimulating : in such affections calomel, by 
its cathartic quality, is not so much to be trusted to 
as the blue pill, an excellent addition to which is 
ipecacuanha ; two or three grains of the blue pill 
mass, with two grains of ipecacuanha, made into two 
pills, may be taken in the course of the twenty-four 
hours. Corrosive sublimate is, generally speaking, 
not a favourite medicine in India ; its virtues in 
syphilis are doubtful ; in cutaneous complaints it is 

N N 3 


considered as more efficacious, but in every instance 
it sickens and irritates more or less. The Arabs, by 
Forskahl's account (Mat. Med. Arab.), employ it 
often, and call it ^UJ^ soleimanie. The best mode 
of administering it is in the form of a pill, mixed 
with some grateful aromatic. I have noticed the 
good eftects produced by a judicious use of mercury 
in certain cutaneous diseases, in hepatitis, syphilis, 
and rheumatism ; but there are many other maladies 
in which it has been found highly useful; such as 
dysentery*, croup, hydrocephalus, the bilious remit- 
tent fever of hot climates, in which the remission is 
of too short duration to expect much advantage from 
the bark ; dyspepsiat, when its cause can be traced, 
which it often may, to a vitiated bile ; hypochondri- 
asis, when it is a consequence of the same derange- 
ment; and melancholy, in which the fluid in question 
is almost invariably dark-coloured, viscid, and offen- 

* How many instances have I known in India of patients being 
saved by the use of mercury (ointment) in dysentery ! The very 
moment almost that the mouth became affected the frequency and 
tenesmus ceased. A similar salutary result from the use of mer- 
cury in dysentery is noticed by Dr. James Johnston, in his valu- 
able work on the Influence of Tropical Climates, p. 220. 

"I- This variety of dyspepsia must not be confounded with some 
others of that complaint, such as that in which the stomach is 
affected by diminished nervous influence, or through sympathy 
with the head, to which there may be an over-determination of 
blood, ending, sometimes, in mental derangement; nor with that 
disease of the stomach consequent of scirrhus in the organ itself. 
The dyspepsia in which mercury does good is that in which the 
bile is either too scanty in quantity, or of bad colour or consist- 
ence, and which is often characterised by great flatulence about 
three or four hours after eating ; in such cases, a pill, composed of 
grs. iiss. of the blue pill, and as much compound extract of colo- 
cynth, taken at bed time, and continued for fifteen or twenty days 
together, will be found of the greatest advantage. Dyspepsia, 
distinguished by peculiar acidity, is best combated by antacids 
and strict attention to diet. By Frout's experiments the free acid 
in the stomach has been ascertained to be the muriatic. 


sive, requiring correction in both colour and con- 

The diseases in which I am of opinion mercury 
may do harm, in India, are, generally speaking, those 
which are termed nervous, whose causes are to be 
traced rather to the brain than the liver; mental 
derangement, excepting that variety of melancholy 
distinguished by a black bile, is invariably rendered 
worse by the use of mercury*; and I think it is 
sufficiently evident that epilepsy and palsy are to be 
treated by other means than mercury, if we expect 
to render the sufferers any relief. So is this mineral 
also contraindicated in all those deviations from 
sound health, when either matter is formed in some 
part of the body, or in which a solution of continuity 
is evidently approaching; and equally so in those 
commonly termed cachectic t, provided always they 
cannot be traced to hepatic derangement. After 
suppuration has taken place in hepatitis mercury 
will not affect the mouth. 

I mentioned above the advantage that might be 
expected from the use of mercury in the bilious 
remittent fever of India ; ii\ however, this disease 
has, by mismanagement, not been arrested in its 
career, but suffered to pass into the typhoid type, we 
must no longer look to mercury for a cure ; the time 
for its employment with success is then gone by ; the 

* Which appears to me to rarify or make more fluent the cir- 
culating fluids, and may have a somewhat analogous effect, per- 
haps, on the animal spirits, thereby bringing on flightiness of 
manner and irregular excitement, the but too common conse- 
quences of long-protracted and injudicious courses of mercury 
in hot climates ! 

-|- In the scurvy it is known to be a perfect poison ; the danger 
from its use in such cases I perceive noticed by Alibert, in his 
** Nouveaux Elemens de Therapeutique," vol. ii. p. 268. 

N N 4 


reaction, the excitability of the frame, as Brown 
would have said, has been overcome by the violence 
of the fever ; and the sufferer, whose body is no 
longer capable of being made to assume a new 
action, must be supported and sustained through the 
depression, by bark, the mineral acids diluted, or, 
what is better, the juice of ripe oranges* or pome- 
granates, or death will inevitably ensue. The pre- 
paration of bark I have found the best suited in such 
cases, is the strong decoction with a portion of the 
fine powder added to it ; taking care to open the 
bowels every evening by means of an enema, and, if 
necessary, to keep up the vis vitae by the application 
of repeated small blisters to the upper part of the 
foot or inside the ancle ; but I, in some instances, 
could do little good when oranges were not plentifully 

Calomel I have found of the greatest service in 
putting a stop to the feverish attacks which children 
are subject to in India ; one grain, two or three, ac- 
cording to the age of the patient, may be given over 
night, and worked off with a little rhubarb and mag- 
nesia, or castor-oil, in the morning, and repeated if 
necessary. With respect to the use of mercury in 
scrophula, it is a subject on which much has been 
written, and more said : one fact I have sufficiently 
established, and that is, that, in this malady, saliv- 
ation does harm. If the mineral is given at all it must 
be with great caution, as a gentle stimulant and 
alterative, and soon followed by sea-bathing and the 
use of iron, both of which I have found to be most 
efficacious in affections of this nature ; the latter, 

* Which the patient swallows with remarkable avidity, and 
which is, perhaps, the most powerful of all antiseptics. 


perhaps, acting by giving to the blood that portion 
of iron in which it is found to be defective.* The 
preparation I have found best suited to the stomachs 
of scrophulous patients is the tinctura ferri ammoniati; 
the dose from in. viii. to ^r\ xxxv., twice or thrice in 
the twenty-four hours, in a glass of water. 

Cancer is a disease of rare occurrence in India ; 
in its early stages I have found mercury of use, but 
when an altered organization had taken place, it ap- 
peared rather to do harm : the sub-muriate is the 
best preparation in such cases. The yercum pawl 
(milky juice of the asclepias gigantea dried) I am 
strongly inclined to believe might be useful in such 
affections : see article Yercum Vayr in this volume ; 
it is the mudar of Upper India. Neither does this 
active mineral ever seem to have done much good 
in consumption ; nay. Dr. CuUen doubted whether 
or not it did not do harmt; but, alas! what does 
much good in this distressing complaint ? I have, 
in more instances than one, arrested the progress of 
the malady in its early stage by means of the blue 
pill, but the effects were not lasting. 

After all that I have said in favour of mercury, 
in India, and I advance it with great submission to 
higher authorities, I must enter a caution against its 
indiscriminate use ; and certainly would object to 
the very large J doses now given equally in England 

* See Russel on Scrophula. 

+ See Practice of Physic, vol. ii. sect, dccccvii. 

\ This is, I know, at variance with the opinions of some late 
and very intelligent writers, such as Mr. R. W. Bamfield, who, 
in his Practical Treatise on Tropical Dysentery, recommends 
scruple doses of calomel night and morning. I have found in 
hepatitis a repetition of smaller doses more certainly beneficial ; 
for instance, grs. ij. given at most thrice in the twenty -four hours. 
With regard to dysentery, I would object to mercury in any quan- 
tity being given internally, unless, perhaps, a liith of the blue 


and in India* ever being introduced into general 
practice. In cases requiring simply cathartics, that 
is to say, unattended with much fever, or any po- 
sitive visceral affection, why have recourse to this 
powerful, but debilitating metal ? Surely, we have 
abundance of excellent purgatives, where merely 
evacuation and not change of habit is required ; 
medicines which do not nauseate nor exert their 
influence beyond the first passages. The great ten- 
dency to the skin in a tropical country, seems to 
render it there more difficult to affect the system with 
mercury than in colder climes ; I w^as, on that ac- 
count, in the habit of advising those who could do it 
with convenience to remove, during the time they 
were using it, to some cool situation.! 

I cannot conclude what I have to say of the use 
of mercury as an internal remedy, in India, without 
expressing more fully a notion regarding it, which 

pill in conjunction with ipecacuanha ; in that disease I trusted 
more to the strong mercurial ointment, and so saved the bowels 
from irritation. My notions of calomel are also in opposition to 
those of Mr. Corbyn, who informs us, that calomel, in doses of 
frt)m grs. V. to grs.x,, excites lassitude^ sickness, irritation, and, 
on account of its being a stimulant^ acts as a good purgative ; but 
that in doses of from grs. xv. to grs. xx. it is a sedative ! allays 
Tomiting, removes spasm, sends the patient to sleep, and produces 
one or two motions ; in this way he found it of advantage in the 
spasmodic cholera. See Reports on the Epidemic Cholera, pub- 
lished at Bombay, in 1819, Appendix, p. 3. 

* Much has been said on the use of calomel, in India, in cases 
of cholera morbus ; and on that subject I was led to give my 
opinion fully in my observations on the cholera morbus of India 
(pp. 64 and Q5.) ; I can only here add, that whatever hopes may 
have been at one time expected from this mineral, in that malady, 
it in too many instances has failed to allow us to speak of it with 
encomium, and has often been discovered, after death, in the sto- 
mach, where it had proved quite inert. 

t For instance ; if in the Carnatic, that the patient should pro- 
ceed to the Mysore country, or to the delightful and cool valley of 
Courtalam, in the Tinnively district. 


has been already hinted at. I have oftener than 
once observed, that the supervention of one disease 
has caused the immediate disappearance of another : 
dysentery I have known effectually removed by the 
coming on of intermittent fever ; rheumatism by an 
attack of dysentery ; epilepsy by epidemic fever ; 
and one remarkable instance of an officer who had 
not fewer than seven spreading scrophulous ulcers 
in different parts of his body, which had long baffled 
my best endeavours to heal, and who, from particular 
circumstances, having been obliged to sleep amongst 
the mountains of the Ganjam Circar, for two nights 
together, got the endemic fever of the district, 
which, after the third paroxysm, had so completely 
the efiect of changing his habit, that before the end 
of the eighth day from the time that the fever-first 
seized him, every sore on his body was healed up, 
nor ever again returned, as far as I could learn. 
Now the query is, whether, without being led to 
look farther for the modus operandi of mercury, we 
might not say, that it acts by bringing on a new 
affection, and so conquering the morbid action we 
may have been called to subdue.^ 

* See Ferrier's excellent Treatise on the Conversion of Dis- 
eases, a work which contains sentiments and facts, perhaps, but 
too little attended to, and which have ever appeared to me to 
adduce many excellent hints for medical treatment. Reasoning 
from what he has advanced, for instance, might we not be induced, 
on some occasions, to try what could be done by exposing the 
patient to a new but more tractable morbid action, with a view of 
combating what may have baffled our best endeavours to over- 
come. It will not be denied that the great object of the practice 
of physic is to produce, with the least possible delay, so great a 
change in the state of the human frame, that the existing ailment 
may be checked, and another excitement superinduced in its 
room. To ensure this happy effect various modes have been had 
recourse to, so that the question simply becomes, how can it be 
best accomplished ? Of the wonderful virtues of mercury, in 


The preparations of mercury, used externally, 
which are chiefly resorted to in India by European 
practitioners are the following : 1. The white preci- 
pitate (hydrargyrum prascipitatum album), employed 
in the form of an ointment in some of the most 
obstinate cutaneous complaints. 2. The red pre- 
cipitate (oxydum hydrargyri rubrum, per acidum 
nitricum), used in the form of a fine powder, for 
destroying fungus or cleaning chancres ; also, when 
mixed intimately with fine sugar, in the proportion 
of grs. ss. of the oxide to grs. iv. of sugar, for re- 
moving specks on the cornea blown into the eye ; or,. 

occasioning a revulsion in many maladies, I can bear full testi- 
mony ; antimony, galvanism, brisk purging, copious and repeated 
bleeding, have all had their strenuous advocates ; against the last 
powerful agent it may look almost like petty treason to say a word 
in these days, yet this much I shall venture to affirm ; that (how- 
ever useful, nay, absolutely necessary, it may be to bleed freely 
in some acute, inflammatory, organic affections, and in cases of 
severe falls and contusions), by the large abstraction of the vital 
fluid I have known many a fine constitution most seriously in- 
jured for life ; the blushing roses bhghted on the cheek of youth ; 
the muscles rendered flaccid, the tone of the stomach impaired ; 
nay, I have but too often remarked, that it was ever those who 
had been most frequently bled in early life that were most apt 
to sink into dropsy and paralysis in their more advanced age. 
Dr.Morgan, of Walthamstow, suggests the bringing on of syncope, 
as expeditiously as possible, as a remedy in some obstinate dis- 
orders, such as the cholera morbus of India ; and this, he says, 
can be done at once by removing the pressure of the atmospheric 
air from the thigh and limb of one side, by means of an air 
pump : the notion is new and ingenious, and certainly worth the 
experiment. My proposed method of combating the same com- 
plaint is by means of galvanism, from a supposition that all the 
symptoms of the disease are consequent of a temporary diminished 
quantum of the galvanic fluid in the frame of the sufferer ; the 
vomiting I conceive to be occasioned altogether by a morbid 
acidity of a peculiar nature, brought on by the reduced nervous 
energy, and most likely to be relieved by antacids (magnesia) and 
the use of calf's bile, taken internally ; the natural bile being ever 
observed to be wanting in the evacuations in such attacks ; when, 
it does flow it is salutary. 


made into an ointment with lard, it is prescribed as 
an application to ulcerations of the eye-lids and to 
chancres. 3. The grey oxide of mercury (hydrar- 
gyri oxydum cinereum) I have found, from expe- 
rience, to be most valuable for fumigating, especially 
in such cases of venereal ulcers as have become 
sphacelous, when it acts like a charm ; the fumes 
directed to the parts affected. 4. The milder oint- 
ment of nitrate of mercury (unguentum nitratis 
hydrargyri mitius), the chief use of which, when 
moderately diluted, is as a local remedy in herpes 
and tinea capitis, but more especially in psoropthalmia, 
ulcerations of the tarsi, and in the purulent ophthal- 
mia of infants ; it is what used to be called ungu- 
entum citrinum, though that name, perhaps, more 
properly belonged to the stronger ointment of nitrate 
of mercury. 

For some account of the preparations of mercury 
in use amongst the Hindoos, the reader is referred 
to the second part of this work ; articles Rassum, 
Rassapuspumj Rassacarpoorum^ Shadilingum^ Shavi- 
rum^ and Rassa sindoorum. The diseases in which 
mercury in various forms is had recourse to in India 
by the Hindoos, are anasarca (neer covay), ascites 
(maghodrum), apoplexy (assadi sennie), the vene- 
real disease (maygha veeadie), and leprosy (koostum). 
See Tamool Sastrums, Aghastier Pernool, and 
Aghastier Ayrite Anyouroo. 

The ancients considered mercury, used internally, 
as a poison, at least in the time of Pliny the elder it 
was so reckoned (Nat. Hist, book xxxiii. chap. 8.) ; 
though it would appear that Galen, who wrote about 
a hundred years after, and flourished in the reigns of 
M. Aurelius, Commodus, Lucius, and Severus, began 


to think more favourably of it. He would seem like 
Tlieophrastus, to have turned his attention particu- 
larly to minerals and metallic substances ; he went 
to Lemnos, to see the famous Lemnian earth ; he 
reviewed the metallic substances of Cyprus, and 
brought to Rome many valuable drugs from the 
mineral kingdom ; nor did he leave unexplored the 
vegetable kingdom ; he made a journey to Palestine, 
to make experiments on the opobalsamum, and 
directed the attention of his countrymen, to a great 
variety of medicinal plants. See Eloy*s Diet. Hist. 
The uses of mercury in the arts, are many, and 
highly valuable ; such as in constructing thermo- 
meters and barometers ; in preparing amalgams of 
gold and silver for the purposes of gilding (in gild- 
ing steel or iron, however, which has no affinity for 
mercury, it is necessary to employ an agent to dis- 
pose the surface to receive the gilding ; for this pur- 
pose a solution of mercury in the nitrous acid is ap- 
plied to the parts intended to be gilded ; when the 
acid by a stronger affinity seizes a portion of the 
iron, and deposites in the place of it, a thin coating 
of mercury, which will not refuse a union afterwards 
with the gold amalgam).* Other uses are, in making 
what is called a quickening water for gilding ; for 
taking off the gold from gilt-silver tankards ; for 
silvering looking-glasses ; for preparing an amalgam 
in conjunction with tin, lead, and bismuth, for quick- 
silvering the inside of glass globes ; for silvering the 
convex-side of meniscus glasses for mirrors ; for pre- 
paring that amalgam in combination with tin and 
zinc, and formed into a paste with hog's-lard, which 

* See Imison's Elements of Science and Art, vol. ii. p. 376. 


has been found the best suited for anointing the 
cushions of electrifying machines, &c. 

What is called Howard's fulminating preparation 
of mercury, as having been discovered by him, is 
made by dissolving by heat 100 grains of mercury, 
in an ounce and a half of nitrous acid ; this solution 
being poured cold into two ounces by measure of 
alcohol in a glass vessel, heat must be then applied 
till effervescence is excited ; a white vapour un- 
dulates on the surface, and a powder is gradually 
precipitated ; which, when well washed and dried, is 
the powder in question : it detonates by gentle heat 
or slight friction. 

We are told by Dr. Paris, in his excellent work*, 
that with the exception of Peruvian bark, he knows 
no medicine so often adulterated as mercury j its im- 
purity is seen by its dull aspect ; by its tarnishing, 
and becoming covered with a grey film ; by its 
diminished mobility j it is commonly adulterated by 
lead, bismuth, zinc, and tin. 

There is, I think, no doubt, but that what Pliny 
calls minium^ and which was brought to Rome from 
Spain, was no other than the native cinnaber t of the 
modern authors ; he observes, that the Greeks termed 
it miltoSy and that some named it cinnaberi, an ap- 
pellation, however, which we find was also sometimes 
bestowed on dragon^s bloody a circumstance which 
often led to much confusion ; the minium (cinnaber), 
the Romans also occasionally called secundarum or 
secondary vermillion, and were in the habit of pre- 

* Pharmacologia, pp. 394, 395. 

f The K<j/ya^api? of Dioscorides, which some others suppose 
corresponds with our cinnaber, Dierbach seems to be of opinion 
was no other than the sanguis draconis. See Dierbach's Materia 
Medica of Hippocrates, chap. iv. 


paring, by means of fire, what they termed artificial 
quicksilver or hydrargyrum from it, which in nothing 
differed from our quicksilver. As a medicine used in- 
ternally, Pliny cautions us against it as a poison, but 
adds, and I consider the fact as extremely curious, 
nor am I aware that it has been before noticed, 
^^ unless indeed it is to be administered in the form of 
an unction on the belly ^ when it will stay bloody fux J* 
Now whether the ancients carried the use of this 
remedy so far as to produce ptyalism, is a question 
we, alas ! cannot now solve. See Plin. Nat. Hist, 
book xxxiii. chap. 8. The same author mentions 
the use of quicksilver amongst his countrymen in 
gilding. In the seventh chapter of the same book, 
we are told this interesting circumstance, that ac- 
cording to Theophrastus, Callas, the Athenian, about 
249 years after the foundation of Rome, was the 
first, who, trying to procure gold by means of fire, 
from a red sandy earth, obtained by chance the first 
real cinnaber. By the same author's account it 
would appear, that native mercury was got in his 
time from the same mines in Spain that yielded 
silver ; chap. vi. 

For various and interesting particulars regarding 
the use of mercury amongst the Hindoos, the reader 
may consult a celebrated Tamool Sastrum, entitled 
Concananirar Nool, a work on the preparations of 
mercury, and other powerful minerals; also, one 
entitled Boganinar Terumuntrum^ which treats of 
the different preparations of mercury, &c. In San- 
scrit there are many works on the same subject ; the 
most celebrated are Rasarutna Samoochayem, Rasa 
Sarum^ and Rasa Rutnacarum^ in which may be seen 
many curious, and, certainly, a few extraordinary 


notions, respecting the metals, precious stones, sorcery, 
brimstone, &c. In Ceylon, there are several very 
interesting Sanscrit works on the Materia Medica, 
written in the Cyngalese character, though sometimes 
in Pali ; of the last, the books entitled Manjiisa and 
Yogapitake^ are most remarkable. The Bhaishqjja 
Maiit Mdldwd consisting of 1166 stanzas, and the 
Sdtd Slokd are in Sanscrit, but in the Cyngalese 
character. Of modern Persian medical books, in 
which mercury may be found mentioned, the best 
appear to be the various writings of Secunder, es- 
pecially that called iSj^^sn ^^,^^Ji Krabadinie* Se- 
cundrie ; the author's name is Secunder Ben Ismaelj 
he is said to have been a native of Constantinople, 
and was at one time physician to the Nabob of Ar- 
cot, to whom he dedicated one of his works (^y^'i 
<SjdsX^D.^y in 174<7.t 

With regard to the Arabic works in which this 
metal is mentioned; the reader will find it fully 
noticed in a book entitled c^LJ! ^i C!J>"'^^ Kanooni Fi 
Altib (Canon. Med. lib. ii. tract ii. p. 119.)- 

* Since writing the article mercury, I have read Mr. J. Annes- 
ley*s valuable work on the Effects of Calomel ; also Dr. S. A. 
Cartwright's Essay on Syphilis. I have now too little room left 
here to say much more on this subject; and shall, therefore, re- 
serve any further sentiments I may have to offer till I have occa- 
sion to speak of mercury in that chapter of this work which 
contains the " Formulae." 

f I am happy to say, that we have got four volumes of the 
writings of this author in the library of the Royal Asiatic So- 

VOL. I. O O 



SILVER. Vellie Q(Tua\rTa\rr' (Tarn.) Rupd 

L^j (Duk. and Hind.) Nokra xyu (Pers.) Fazzek 

^h (Arab.) Vendie (Tel.) Perdk S\jj (Mai.) 

Peddle (Cyng.) Bajata ^3Trr and Rupya '^^'^ 

(Sans.) Argent (Fr.) Silber (Ger.) Argento (It.) 

Plata (Span.) Yin (Chin.) 


Silver occurs in trifling quantities in Upper Hin- 
doostan. In Lower India, I have been informed 
that Mr. W. Mainwaring found it in its native state 
in the Madura district, associated with zinc, sulphur, 
iron, fluoric acid, silica, and water, forming a yellow 
blende, perhaps somewhat similar to that to be 
met with at Ratieborziz in Bohemia. Captain 
Arthur was the first who discovered this metal in 
small quantities in Mysore, both in its native state, 
in thin plates, adhering to some specimens of gold 
crystallized in minute cubes, and mineralized with 
sulphur, iron, and earthy matter ; forming a kind of 
brittle, sulphurated silver ore, not unlike what is found 
in the district of Freyberg, in Saxony, and in Siberia. 
On the island of Banca there are silver mines, but 
the sultan has a great objection to their being worked. 
There are silver mines in the kingdom of Ava *; it is 
an export in ingots from Cochin-China. We also 
know, that this valuable metal is a product of Siamfy 

* See Symes's Embassy to Ava, vol. ii. p. 374. 
f See Oriental Repertory, vol.i. p. 119. 


(from which country it is brought to India,) as 
well as of Manilla *, Thibet t, Japan t, Tonquin, 
and Java. § Kinneir informs us, that it is found 
in Armenia^ and in the provinces of Mazanderaun 
and Kermaun in Persia. || The richest silver 
mines of the Russian dominions are those of Schlan- 
genberg, in the government of Culivan. What is 
called the Sysee silver of China %j found in the 
mines of Honan^ is of the finest quality, five per 
cent better than dollars ; it is got in irregular pieces, 
but can only be taken from the country by smug- 

Dr. Heyne, in his Tracts on India (pp.315, 316.), 
tells us, that in the Nellore and Callestry districts, 
on the Coromandel coast, a galena of lead, rich in 
silver, was found some few years ago ; and he adds, 
that the same ore has also been discovered eight 
miles north of Cuddapah ; the mine I believe had 
been formerly worked by order of Tippoo Sultan, 
but abandoned because not sufficiently productive. 
It would appear, that the ore had been lately ana- 
lyzed in Bengal, and found to contain eleven per 
cent of silver ! 

Native silver is rarely got altogether pure, but 

^ See Oriental Repertory, p. 88. 

f See Turner's Embassy to the Teshoo Lama, p. 370. 

:J: See Tavernier's Indian Travels, part ii. book ii. chap, xxiii. 

§ At Pondang, in that island. 

II Frazer, in his Journey to Khorasan, informs us, that silver 
is found in a mountain called Altoun Taugh, in the Southern dis- 
trict of Bockara. 

f We are told by Du Halde, in his History of China, that 
there are silver mines in that country, in the province of Hou- 
quango near the city of HengtcJieou-Jbu (see work, vol. i. p. 213. 
English edition) ; and by Morier, in his Journey through Persia, 
&c., that there are silver mines at Keeban, about eight days' 
journey from Tocat, in that part of Asiatic Turkey called Ru* 
miyah (see work, p. 344'.). 

O O 2 


generally contains small portions of other metals, 
such as metallic antimony with an occasional trace 
of copper and arsenic ; auriferous native silver is 
found at Konigsbergy in Norway (discovered in 1623), 
at Bauris in Salsburgh, and in Siberia at Schlangen- 
berg ; it contains by Jameson's account 7^ parts of 
silver and 28 of gold ! One of the most frequent 
ores of silver is what is called the compact silver 
glance, also vitreous silver ore, and sometimes com- 
pact sulphureted silver ore ; the constituent parts 
of which (obtained at Himmelfurst) were 85 of 
silver and 15 of sulphur ; it is found in many parts 
of Europe ; in Asia, I believe, only at Schlangenberg, 
in Siberia. 

The most valuable silver mines are well known to 
be those of Mexico and Peru, which far exceed in 
value the whole of the European * and Asiatic 
mines ; we are told by Baron Humboldt, that in 'the 
space of three years they afforded not less than 
316,023,883 lbs. troy of pure silver. t 

* In those of Konigsberg, in Norway, however, according to 
Dr. Clarke, in his Travels in Sweden, the metal is sometimes found 
in immense masses ; one of which, he tells us, kept in the museum 
of Copenhagen, measures six feet in length, and, at one part, 
eighteen inches in diameter. From the mines of Konigsberg about 
one hundred and thirty thousand dollars are annually coined. 

f The mines of Mexico^ or New Spain, are considered as richer 
in silver than those of La Plata (Peruvian) ; and the mines of 
Guanaxuato are infinitely richer than those of PotosL More 
than three-fourths of the silver obtained in America is extricated 
by means of quick-silver; the loss of which in the process is 
immense. For interesting particulars respecting the " actual 
state of the Mexican mines," the reader is referred to Sir Wil- 
liam Adams*s pamphlet on that subject ; he speaks highly of that 
of Valenciana, which, he says, in one year, 1791, yielded as much 
silver as was produced by the whole kingdom of Peru; nay, it 
would appear, from late accounts, that the same mine is now 
actually producing ore which is worth 5000/. weekly : this I should 
be much inclined to doubt. 


The only preparation of this metal used in medi- 
cine, is the nitrate of silver (argenti nitras) ; it is 
the strongest and most manageable caustic known. 
Boerhaave gave it in dropsies ; it has been prescribed 
as an antispasmodic and tonic, in cases of epilepsy, 
chorea, and angina pectoris, in doses of an eighth of 
a grain, gradually increasing the dose to three or 
four grains, and is given in the form of a pill with the 
crumb of bread : in too large doses it is a poison, 
and is ranked as such by Orfila j the antidote for 
which, he tells us, is common salt. I perceive, by 
Dr. Thomson's London Dispensatory, that, accord- 
ing to Hahnemann^ a solution of the nitrate in 1000 
parts of water, is recommended as an application to 
old sores, and for healing. the ulcers of the mouth 
brought on by the use of mercurials. Nitrate of 
silver, taken internally, and persevered in for some 
time, gives a singular darkness to the colour of the 
skin ; which often remains a long time after its dis- 
use. See Dr. Good's Study of Medicine^ vol. iii. 
p. 547. It does not appear from Mr. Brande's ac- 
count, that any certain means have yet been dis- 
covered of preventing this discolouration.* See 
Manual of Pharmacy. 

The nitrate of silver is occasionally prepared in 
India, by some of the more enlightened Mahometan 
practitioners, but in a clumsy way ; and, I believe, 
but do not give it with perfect confidence, that some 
mention is made of it in a Persian medical work, en- 
titled Krabadinie Cadery tSj^Vi ^jJvjVjS, which is an 
extensive treatise on pharmacy, written by Moham- 
med Akbar Arzany^ physician to the emperor Au- 

* The reader will find this appearance of the rete mucosum 
particularly described by Dr. Bradely, in the Transactions of the 
Medico-Chirurgical Society, vol. ix. p. 234. 

o o 3 


rungzebe, to whom it is dedicated. The opinions of 
the Hindoos, respecting silver, may be seen in a 
Tamool sastrum, named Kylasa Chintdmani Vctda- 
noolf which treats of the art of making nine metals 
into strong powders ; also of arsenic, &c. &c. 

The Romans appear, according to Pliny *, to 
have got most of their silver from Spain, and we find, 
that author expresses his wonder, ^^ that those mines 
of the metal, which were first worked in the days of 
Hannibal, should still retain the names given to 
them by those Carthaginians who first discovered 
them, and, brought them to light ; such as that of 
BebelOj so called in the days of Pliny ;'^ it yielded to 
Hannibal three hundred pounds weight of silver 

The uses of silver in the arts are many and valu- 
able. For curious and interesting accounts of silver- 
ing in all its modes, the reader is referred to Smithes 
School of ArtSj and Nicholson's Dictionary of Che- 
mistry^ "with its application to the arts. The silver- 
smiths of Upper India appear to be well acquainted 
with the art of silvering ; they also make silver-plate 
admirably, and can prepare the leaf, which the Ta- 
mools call villie reck ; in Hindoostanie it is o,^ ^^^ 
(riipie wurk) ; in Tellingoo venie rekoo, and in San- 
scrit rupie dullum. It is much employed by the moo- 
chiemen in ornamenting pictures, images, fans, &c. t 

What is called fulminating silver^ was discovered 
by Berthollet ( Annales de Chimie, tom. i.), and is 
obtained by dissolving oxide of silver in ammonia ; 
when a small quantity of liquid ammonia is poured 

* See Pliny's Natural History, book xxxiii. chap. vi. 

f My friend Dr. C. Wilkins informs me, that in the higher 
provinces silver-wire is made as fine as a hair ; this can be flattened 
into lamina, it is then covered with a silken thread for embroider- 
ing muslins. 


on the oxide, a portion is dissolved, and a black 
powder remains ; this is the fulminating compound, 
which explodes on being gently heated (see Brande's 
Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 269.) ; but this 
powder is not to be confounded with the detonating 
silver of Descotils, which is obtained by dissolving 
silver in the pure nitric acid, and pouring into the 
solution while it is going on, a sufficient quantity of 
rectified alcohol; for further particulars respecting the 
process, the reader is referred to Ure's excellent 
Dictionary of Chemistry, article Silver; I shall 
merely here add, that the powder, when well pre- 
pared, is white and crystalline, and that heat, a blow, 
or long continued friction, causes it to inflame with 
a brisk detonation. 

To conclude, I may observe, that in speaking of 
the description of rocks in which native silver and 
gold are most frequently found in different parts of 
the world. Baron Humboldt says, <* If the great 
argentiferous and auriferous deposits that have 
formed for ages the wealth of Hungary and Transyl- 
vania, are found solely * in syenites and porphyritic 
green-stones, we must not thence conclude that it 
is the same in New Spain. The veta negra of Som- 
brerete, which traverses a compact lime-stone, has 
furnished the example of the greatest abundance of 
silver which has been observed in the two worlds. 
The mine of Valenciana is worked in transition slate ; 
and in the central part of New Spain, where por- 
phyries are frequent, it is not that rock which affords 

* This, however, does not hold good in some other countries of 
Europe ; for instance, we know that in Saxony, and Bohemia, and 
Norway, native silver occurs in gnesis and mica slate ; in Ireland 
and Saxony in clay slate ; and in Suabia in granite. See Jame- 
son's Mineralogy, vol. iii. p. 45. 

o o 4 


precious metals, in the three great workings of 
GuanaxuatOy ZacatecaSj and Catorce ; the miners 
there work on metalliferous mineral deposits, almost 
entirely in intermediary formations of claT/slatej grau- 
waclce and alpine lime-stone. In fact the more we 
advance in the study of the constitution of the 
globe in different climates, the more we are con- 
vinced, that there scarcely exists one rock anterior 
to alpine lime-stoney which has not been found in 
some countries extremely argentiferous/' See Hum- 
boldt's Geognostical Essay, on the Superposition of 
Rocks, in both Hemispheres, 


TIN, Tagarum s^eFO"LD (Tam.) Rungd \^>j 
(Duk. and Hindooie). Urzeez yjj\ (Pers.) Timet 
U^* (Mai.) also ^iJLi (Mai.) Trapu ^^ and Ranga 
JJ] (Sans.) Kulai ^^ (Hind.) Resds ^\j^j 
(Arab.) Etain (Fr.)* Zinn (Ger.) Tin (Dut.) 
Estano (Span.) Stagno (It.) Olowo (Russ.) Galai 

(Turk.) Yang'Seih (Chinese). 


I do not believe that tin has been hitherto found 
in any part of our Indian dominions, strictly so 
called ; it is a product of the East coast of Sumatra, 
and of the Malay peninsula, including consequently 
Si am and Pegu ; but not to the Northward of 10^ 
of North latitude, nor to the Southward of 6°, 
The places whence it is chiefly brought to India 
as an article of commerce, are, Queda, Junk-Ceylon, 


Tavai '^ in Lower Siam t, and the islands of Lingiii 
and Banca \ : the tin mines of the last mentioned 
country are extremely rich, and are worked by the 
Chinese ; from these mines, Mr. Ehuore tells us, in 
his ** Guide to the Indian Trade^^ (p. 20.), are an- 
nually exported, not less than from forty to sixty 
thousand peculs of tin ; and it appears, by a valuable 
memoir on the subject of this metal in Eastern coun- 
tries, to be seen in the Asiatic Journal for Jan. 1820, 
that at the two islands last mentioned, it is sold 
cheaper than at either Prio or Pera, or indeed any 
part of the Malay peninsula ; and that must be 
cheap indeed, as the tin of the last-mentioned coun- 
try, we know, is sold at Queda for about 48/. per 
ton, and sells in China for 80/. per ton. There are 
those who believe, that the tin mines of Banca are 
comparatively a recent discovery, about the year 
1710, as is stated by Captain Hamilton §, who was 
in India at the time of the discovery ; but how can 
this be reconciled with the facts, that the native 
Indian ships were found laden with tin, in the first 
voyages of the Portuguese, and that it was carried 
to China by the Arabs in the ninth century. 

The tin ore of Banca, is the common tin ore or 
tin-stone of mineralogists, and is usually of a reddish- 
brown colour ; ^* superior in value," Mr. Crawfurd in- 

* See Franklin's Tracts on the Dominions of Ava, p. 64. 

\ We are told in the Oriental Herald for February, 1824, that 
tin, in Siam, is diffused over more extensive geographical limits 
than in any other part of the world ; and for productiveness the 
mines of Junk- Ceylon are considered as next to those of Banca. 
Eight thousand peculs, or about five hundred tons, are sent an- 
^nually to the capital from the mines of Junk-Ceylon. 

:[: The island of Banca lies betwixt Sumatra and Borneo, from 
the first of which it is separated by a narrow channel ; it is in 
longitude 106° 5\ and latitude '2P S5' 8". 

§ Sec Nexv Account of the East Indies, vol.ii. p. 120. 


lOrms US, to block tin *, twenty-two and a quarter per 
cent. The Cornish tin is obtained with vast labour, 
by mining through obdurate granite, often to the 
prodigious depth of many hundred fathoms. Banca 
tin, on the other hand, by digging through a stratum 
of sand and clay ; and seldom to more than three or 
four fathoms in depth. " To clear the Cornish mines 
from water, the most expensive and complex ma- 
chinery is requisite; to clear those of Banca t, a 
simple wooden wheel, costing a few shillings !'' We 
learn from Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of Persia, 
that tin is found in that country, amongst the moun- 
tains South of Helat, in the province of Mekran 
(p. 224.) ; and I was informed by the late Mr. W. 
Petrie of Madras, that there is a tin mine at Penang; 
it would also seem, by Barrow's account, to be a 
product of Tonquin. Tin, there is not a doubt, is 
found in some part of the Russian dominions, but 
Sir Alexander Crichton says, that it has not yet been 
discovered from what exact spot. 

The tin of Banca finds its way to almost every 
part of the world ; but China, and the continent of 
India, are its principal markets. 

The tin-stone ore, above noticed, is combined with 
oxide of iron and silex. Another species of oxidized 
tin, is what is called wood-tin ; its constituent parts, 
according to Jameson, being, oxide of tin 91 parts, 
and oxide of iron 9 parts. I am not aware, that it 
has as yet been found in Asia ; it occurs at St. Co- 
lumb, St. Roach, and St. Denis in Cornwall ; it is 
one of the commonest tin ores of Mexico. Tin, in 

* A name vulgarly given to iron and tin combined. 

f The produce of the Banca mines, when they were wrought 
to the greatest advantage, was nearly the same in numerical 
amount with the highest produce of those of Cornwall. Craw- 
furd's Indian Archipelago, vol. iii. p. 466. 


its metallic state, has been hitherto found only in 
Cornwall, in the form of what is called tin pyriteSy 
and often associated with ores of copper and blende. 

The pulvis stanni I have known some of the Ma- 
hometan doctors acquainted with as a medicine. It 
is considered as anthelmintic, and acts chiefly me- 
chanically, given in doses of gi. or jij. mixed with 
treacle or honey, for two or three successive morn- 
ings, and a brisk cathartic afterwards administered. 
Dr. Good mentions a case of tape-worm thirty-eight 
yards long, having been expelled from the anus by a 
dose of tin filings and jalap ; 3ij. of the former and 
3ss- of the latter, mixed with honey (Study of Me- 
dicine, vol.i. p. 299.)- 

The various uses of tin in the arts in Europe, are 
too well known to require being particularly noticed 
here. Some of the chief are, in tinning different 
metals, such as iron and copper. Iron when tinned 
in a particular manner, formsj^r blanc. Pins are 
whitened^ or, improperly speaking, what are called 
silvered, by boiling them with tin filings and tartar. 
Hollow mirrors or globes are silvered by an amalgam, 
consisting of one part by weight of bismuth, half a 
part of lead, the same quantity of pure tin, and two 
parts of mercury. Tin is much used for making 
domestic utensils, and in the process of enamelling, t 
There are various kinds oi pewter ; the most valuable 
is that made with 17 parts of antimony and 100* of 
tin ; to this the French add a little copper : Mr. 
Parkinson t proposes the addition of a little lead. 
The oxide of tin, vulgarly called putty, is generally 
used for polishing mirrors, lenses, and for rendering 

* See Nicholson's Dictionary of Chemistry. 
-|^ See Parkinson's Memoranda Chemica, p. 169. 
\ To make the xiohite enamels. 


glass white and (^que, converting it into enamel. 
Tiiis must not be confounded with the putty of gla- 
ziers^ which is prepared by kneading powdered chalk 
with linseed oil. 

The oxide of tin is used in dyeing, as a mordant, 
especially for the purpose of heisrhtening scarlet and 
madder red ; and the murio^iLLpiiat of this metal 
has been found to be a useful addition to give a 
deeper hue to yellow, in dyeing silk of that colour 
with the quercitron bark. T . tan musivwn is a 
fsombination of tin and sulphur, much used by the 
j^panners, also as a pigment for giving a golden 
cdbur to small statues or plaster figures ; it is like- 
wise mixed with i: gl^^ss to imitate lapis lazuli. 
WaDevions st^pposed tuttenag was a compound of two 
parts of tin with one of bismuth. Tin is also, we 
know, employed in the composition of a valuable 
kind of earthenware. 

Mr. Beckman, in his History of InventionSj seems 
to be of opinion, that the stannum of the ancients, 
and casateron of the Greeks,, was altogether difierent 
firom our tin, and that it was no other than the re- 
gulus of lead, or werk of the Germans. Now, on 
perusing Pliny's Natural History on this article (book 
xxxiv. and chap. xviL), I find no reason at aU to 
concur with that gentleman ; on the contrary, Pliny, 
after teUing us very plainly the use of tin, viz. for 
lining brass or copper utensils, pardy to take away 
tiie disagreeable taste which such vessels have, and 
partly to preserve them fircHn rust, adds, that ^' in 
these days tin is often jmmd counterfeit j by adding to 
white lead a third part of white brass ;^* he also 
mentions another device for counterfeiting tin, \tz. 
^ by mixing together uhite and black lead in equal 


proportions^''^ and so forming what was in his time 
termed, argentine lead ! 

Some account of tin may be found in a Persian 

medical work, entitled <-^ ^^ j^ Ll>>-''' Kanoon der 
Alimi Tib^ also, 1 believe, in a Sanscrit work called 
Rasa Sdrum^ which treats of the principles of nine 
metals, and their compounds ; but I have met with 
no Hindoo medical practitioner that seemed to be 
aware of the virtues of the powder in worm cases ; 
nor have I in my possession any Tamool prescription 
(and I have many) that contains tin. 


ZINC. Tootoondgum Bj^u^aj^-r^^o^Lo (Tam.) 
Sungbusrie <sy^^:^ (Duk.) Zinc (Ft.) Zink 
(Ger.) Zinco (It.) Pi-yuen (Chin.) 


Mr. Mainwaring discovered zinc in the Madura 
district, in Southern India, some years ago, com- 
bined with sulphur and iron, forming what is called 
blende ; but whether it was the yellow, the brown, 
or the black, I cannot say. Dr. F. Hamilton found 
zinc in Nepaul, and there called dastaJ^ But by far 
the greater part of this metal w^hich is met with in 
India, is brought from Cochin-China or China, where 
both the calamine and blende are common ; it is 
from the last, however, which is a sulphuret, that 
this metal is usually obtained for commerce, and is 

♦ See his Account of Nepaul, p. 76. 


then called spelter.* The metal may be procured 
pure *^ by dissolving this zinc of commerce (spelter) 
in diluted sulphuric acid, and immersing a plate of 
zinc for some hours in the solution, which is then 
filtered, decomposed by carbonate of potassa, and 
the precipitate ignited with charcoal in an iron pot'' 
(Brande's Manual of Chemistry, vol. ii. p. 133.). 
It would appear, that though the process of extract- 
ing zinc from its ores had long been known in China, 
it was not so in Europe before the year 1721, when 
Henke pointed out a method of extracting it from 
its ores ; and Dr. Thomson informs us, in his Dis- 
pensatory, that Von Swab first obtained it by distill- 
ation in 1742. Now-a-days, the mode of extracting 
zinc from its ore is sufficiently well understood, 
as well in Derbyshire as in many other parts of 

Zinc, oxidized in the ore, called red zi?ic ore t, has 
hitherto only been got in North America. Oxidized 
in the common calamine t, its constituent parts are 
varying proportions of oxide of zinc and carbonic 
acid ; this is found in several parts of England, but, 
I believe, in greatest abundance in Derbyshire ; on 
the continent it is got in Carinthia, Hungary, Silesia, 
&c. Calamine is an article of the British Materia 
Medica, but it must first be prepared, forming then 
what is called calamina prceparata, and is used in 
making certain collyria ; also, in dry powder, it is 
applied, with success, to excoriations, ichorous ulcers, 
and superficial inflammations ; it is calamine prepare 

* This spelter, or impure zinc, is employed by the braziers in 

f Consisting of 76 parts of zinc, 16 of oxygen, and 8 of oxides 
of magnesia and iron. 

\ Of this there are two varieties, the one a true caibonate of 
zinc, the other a compound of oxide of zinc and silica. 


(Fr.); galmei (Ger.); kalmei (Dutch) -^ galmij a and 
calamina (Ital. and Span.). Calamine, in its impure 
statCy is well known to the Hindoos, who term it 
mdddl tootum (Tam.) and dusta (Hind.). The Ma- 
hometans of India call it kull-kubrie cfjj^^S' yf ; they 
employ it for nearly the same purposes that the pre- 
pared article is used in Europe. 

What is commonly called tuUy is the impure o^ide 
of zinc, which the French call tutie, the Germans 
tutidy the Italians tuzia, and the Spaniards atutia; 
it is supposed to be an artificial compound of the 
sublimed oxide of zinc, that collects in the chimneys 
of the furnaces in which the ores of this metal are 
roasted, mixed with clay and water, and baked. Dr. 
Hooper considers the name tutia as a Persian word, 
and that the article was known to the ancients under 
the name of pompholyx. I am strongly led to 
believe, whatever confusion may have been intro- 
duced by their want of scientific arrangement, and 
by their many vague terms and synonymes, that the 
ancients knew much more than we are aware of 
regarding many mineral substances ; and in the 
present instance, I am inclined to think, that, per- 
haps, spodoSy and not pompholya^y was the word which 
they bestowed on the impure oxide of zinc. It ap- 
pears that it only got the name of pompholyx 
after having undergone a certain preparation, which 
rendered it not only much whiter y but lighter* than 
the spodos ; in fact, a something which I fancy cor- 
responded very nearly with oxxy Jlowers of zinc y or 

* In book xxxiv. chap. xii. Pliny gives an account of the pre- 
paration of pompholix, which, he says, is exceedingly light, and 
rises with the smoke of the smiddie, and is only to be distin- 
guished from soot by its extreme whiteness. Now this must lead 
us to suppose, that pompholix actually was the same as the lana 
philosophica and /lores zinci of the early chemists. 


zinci oxydum of the London Dispensatory. So am 
I also of opinion, however indefinitely he applies the 
word cadmia^ that by it Pliny meant our calamine 
stone, and that with it and copper the Romans made 
some of their most highly-prized brass images (see 
chapters iv., v., and vi. of the same book and work) ; 
and all this may have been done without their con- 
sidering zinc, as we now do, a distinct metal : with 
them cadmia was a most useful stone, and as- such 
they employed it. 

The oxide of zinc has been considered, by Euro- 
pean practitioners, as tonic and antispasmodic ; and 
has been, according to Gaubius, employed with suc- 
cess in chorea; he gave it the name of cadmia. 
Dr. Goodf, however, does not speak so highly of its 
virtues ; though he thinks its antispasmodic proper-^ 
ties may be greatly increased by adding to a full dose 
of it a full dose of ammoniated copper. Dr. Dun- 
can gave it with success in epilepsy (Comment- 
aries, iii. p. 216.). 

I do not find that the Mahometan practitioners of 
India employ zinc in any form. The Hindoos, or 
rather the Tamools, call it, as already noticed, tootd- 
ndguniy and prepare with it a kind oijloivers of zinc, 
which they term tootenagum passpum, in the follow- 
ing manner : " Zinc is to be fused in an earthen 
pot, some green leaves of the euphorbia nereifolia 
(jslekullie) being thrown into the melted mass, which 
is constantly stirred with an iron spoon ; it in- 
flames in the usual manner, leaving ashes, which 
are kept in the fire till they acquire a splendid 
white colour ; only the finest parts of these are pre- 
served for medical use, and are separated from the 

* See Study of Medicine, vol. iii. pp.440, 441. 


rest by sifting through a piece of fine muslin'* (see 
Heyne's Tracts on India, p. 166.). This tootenaga 
passpum^ the gentleman just quoted tells us, is em- 
ployed by the native practitioners with the greatest 
confidence (and I consider the fact as curious), in 
the following diseases : gonorrhoea virulenta (megho- 
TOgam\ in debility from nocturnal pollutions, in fluor 
albus {liusum arogam\ and the haemorrhoids (arge- 

The white vitriol, or sulphate of zinc, is in Tamool, 
vulley tootunii in Dukhanie, sitffhid toota ju/J iXJuw, 
in TelUngoo, tootuniy and in Sanscrit caburnie. 

The Hindoos and Mahometans of India seem only 
to know it through their connexion with Europeans. 
In very small doses, that is from one to two grains, 
it has been employed, given twice a day, as a useful 
tonic in epilepsy*', intermittent fever, fluor albus, 
chorea, and pertussis. Dr. Pearson says, that in 
doses of five or six grains he has found it a useful 
emetic, evacuating the stomach without weakening 
it. When immediate vomiting was required I have 
given it to the extent of 3i. with success : we all 
know its value in preparing collyria, to be used after 
vascular congestion has been removed. 

The use pf zinc in the arts is chiefly in the fabric- 
ation of brass and other gold-coloured mixtures, and 
in making bronze^ which is done by fusing together 
tin, copper, and zinc. The lately discovered mal- 
leability of zinc, at a temperature of 300° of Fah- 
renheit, has, no doubt, greatly enhanced its value j 
the inconvenience arising from its brittleness thus 
being removed, the metal is now applied to many of 

* See Brande's Manual of Pharmacy, in which he says, that in 
diseases attended with considerable irritability the sulphate of 
zinc appears preferable to sulphate of iron. • 

VOL. I. P P 


the purposes for which copper had been hitherto 
used (Jameson's Mineralogy, vol. iii. p. 418.). The 
same author tells us, that the oxide of zinc has of 
late been recommended as a substitute for white 
lead ; as a pigment it is not liable to change, and 
is not subject to those deleterious consequences so 
frequently attendant on preparations of lead. Zinc 
detonates strongly if mixed with nitrate of potash 
and thrown into an ignited crucible. Gold, silver, 
platina, and nickel, are rendered brittle* by it; but 
with bismuth and lead it enters into no combination 
in fusing. Of all known bodies, except manganese, 
zinc imites the most readily with oxygen ; it takes it 
from almost every other body, which renders it 
useful in detecting the most trifling quantities of 
oxygen : hence zinc acts with great rapidity on all 
the acids. I shall conclude what I have to say of 
this article by observing that zinc inflames in oxy- 
muriatic gas, and is a most powerful conductor of 

Such are the metals and metallic substances which 
I have found in India and other Eastern countries, 
in use amongst the natives and European inhabitants; 
there are, no doubt, others, but any inquiry regard- 
ing them would have been foreign to my pursuit, 
which is confined merely to such articles as are 
known to have some tangible intrinsic value, whether 
in medicine, the arts, agriculture, or horticulture. 

♦ See Parkinson's Memoranda Chemica, p. 173. 



See Article I. page 2. 

Diluted Sulphuric Acid — Acidum Sulphuricum 


Prepared by mixing a fluid ounce and a half of the 
sulpiiuric acid with fourteen fluid ounces of distilled 
water. It is a tonic, a restorative, and is given with 
success in protracted venereal affections, in India, 
when the constitution has been weakened by long 
courses of mercury : dose from ten to thirty mi- 

R Acidi sulphurici diluti - rnx. 

Infusi rosae - - - f Jiss. 

Misce. This may be taken two or three times 
during the day. 

R Acidi sulphurici diluti - f sij. 

Tincturae cinchonae compositae f ^ij. 

Misce. Of this one or two tea-spoonsful may be 
taken twice in the twenty-four hours, in a glass of 
water, to restrain colhquative sweats. Dr. A. T. 
Thomson tells us, in his London Dispensatory, that 
in malignant erysipelas, with a tendency to hsemor- 
rhagy, the diluted sulphuric acid has been given to 
the quantity of f ^i. in twenty-four hours. 

p p 2 


See Article II. p. 2. 

Diluted Nitric Acid — Acidum Nitricum Dilutum. 

Prepared by mixing together a fluid ounce of nitric 
acid with nine fluid ounces of distilled water : dose 
from ten minims to forty in any bitter infusion or in 
distilled water. 

R Acidi nitrici diluti - - f 3ij. 

Aquas distillatae - - f Jxxvi. 
\ Syrupi - - - f^ij. 

Misce. Of this three or four ounces may be 
ta:ken for a dose in typhus fever ; or, as a tonic, to 
alternate with mercury, in venereal affections at- 
tended with obstinate anomalous symptoms ; or it 
may be prescribed as a useful adjunct to bark in 
typhus fever. 

R Decocti cinchonas - - fsxii. 

Tincturae ejusdem - - f 3i. 

Acidi nitrici ... v\\x. 

Syrupi aurantii - - f 3i. 

Misce. Fiat haustus. 

Diluted nitric acid is sometimes used, in India, to 
act as a bUster in cases of cholera morbus ; and with 
it is prepared, occasionally, a bath, as recommended 
by Dr. Scott in chronic hepatitis : in making this 
bath* the acid must be added to the water till it is 

* The bath recommended by Dr. Scott was for the feet and 
legs, which he ordered to be kept in the acid mixture for half an 
hour or more at a time, and to be continued for a fortnight if 
found beneficial ; it would appear to stimulate the liver and keep 
the bowels open: but in two instances, in which I marked its 
effects, it rendered both individuals peculiarly nervous, amounting 
almost to hysteria ! ' 


about the sourness of vinegar. Dr. Thomson re- 
commends for foetid ulcers a lotion made with f 3ij. 
of the acid and Oj. of water. A few drops of di- 
luted sulphuric acid added to sulphate of quinine, 
previously to its being mixed with water, seems to 
have the effect of increasing its tonic properties. 

See Article III. p. 4. 

Diluted Muriatic Acid — Acidum Mitriaticum 


Prepared by mixing together a pound each, by 
weight, of muriatic acid and distilled water: dose 
from fifteen minims to fsi. in any bitter infusion. 
Mr. Brande says (Manual of Pharmacy, p. 200.), 
that, as a tonic, this acid is not preferable to the sul- 
phuric; he gives us the following gargle as service- 
able in malignant sore throat : 

R Acidi muriatici - - f 3SS. 

Decocti cinchonae, 

Infusi rosae, comp. aa - f Jiiiss. 

Mellis rosae - - - f ^i. 
Misce. Fiat gargarisma. 

This acid, in the state of gas, is employed often, 
with advantage, for neutralizing putrid miasmata and 
destroying infection in sick rooms j disengaged by 
pouring sulphuric acid on common salt. The mu- 
riatic acid does not appear to have any positive anti- 
syphiUtic virtues, and is but little employed in any 
way in India. 

p p 3 


See Article V, p. 6. 

Almond -^^ Ami/gdalus Communis (Lin,), 

R Olei amygdalae dulc. - - f ^i. 
Syrupi tolutani - - - f^L 
Aquae distillate - - f §vi, 

Liquoris potassae subcarbonatis, q. s. 

Fiat emulsio. A table-spoonful to be taken two 
or three times in the day, when cough is trouble- 
some, and inflammatory symptoms abated. The bitter 
almonds contain less fixed oil than the sweet ; but 
there can be obtained from them, by distillation, 
an oil which is virulently active, in fact, destructive 
to animal life*; taken in the small quantity of one 

See Article VI. p. 8. 

Aloes — Aloes Extractum (Edin.). 

Aloes is seldom prescribed by itself; but is one of 
the best of all the stomachic aperients in India, given 
alone or in conjunction with bitter extracts. 

R Aloes spicati ... - 9ss. 

Pulveris rhei - - . gss. 

Extracti gentian. - - 9i. 
Syrupi simplicis, q. s. 

Misce, et divide in pilulas xx. Two of these may 

* See an excellent Treatise on Prussic Acid, by Dr. Granville 
(p. 89.). See also the papers of the very able and scientific Mr. 
Brodie, in the Philosophical Transactions. If Prussic acid should 
have been taken so as to endanger life, Mr. Stowe recommends 
an emetic, without delay, and then to rouse the energies of the 
system by means of oil of turpentine, brandy, or ammonia. This 
acid has a strong odour of bitter almonds; it is soluble in alcohol, 
and may be precipitated from its solution by nitrate of silver. 



be taken twice in the twenty-four hours, in slowness 
of the bowels consequent of dyspepsia. 

The extract of the common aloes (Barbadoes aloes) 
is more active than that of the spiked aloes. 

In dyspepsia, with much flatulence, consequent of 
liver derangement, I have found the following most 
useful : 

R Pilulae aloes compos., 

Pilulse hydrargyri, aa - grs. xxv. 
Syrupi zingiberis, q. s. 

Misce, et divide in pilulas x. One to be taken 
every night at bed time, and continued for fifteen or 
twenty days; or the compound extract of colocy nth pill 
may be used in the same quantity, in place of the aloes. 

R Aloes spicati . - . ^iss. 

Lact. nov. vaccin. - - f §viij. 

Tere simul, ut fiat enema, tepidum injiciendum ; 
in suppression of the menses or to expel ascarides. 
The pilulae aloes et assafoetida^ are usefid in flatu- 
lence and dyspepsia ; dose grs. x. twice daily. The 
pilulae aloes cum myrrha are excellent for opening the 
bowels in chlorosis ; dose from grs. viii. to grs. xv. 
twice daily. 

R Pulveris aloes composit. - 9ij. 

Pulveris antimonial. - - 9j. 
Syrupi simplicis, q, s. 

Misce, fiat massa, et divide in pilulas xvi. Two 
may be taken every night as a sudorific laxative. 

R Pilulae aloet. (Edin.) - grs. xii. 
Calomel . . - grs. v. 

Syrupi simplicis, q. s. 
Misce, et divide in pilulas iv. The whole to be 

p p 4 


taken at bed-time to purge of bile, when the stomach 
is easily sickened ; or they may be made with the 
pilul. aloes composit. (Lond.) 

R Vini aloes - - - f ^iiss. 

Spiritus ammon. aromat. - f ^ss. 

A table spoonful may be taken, or a little more, 
when necessary, to open the bowels in cases of ner- 
vous weakness.* 

See Article VII. p. 11- 

Alum — Alumen. 

This is used as an astringent and tonic in haemor- 
rhages and gleets. For the first a powder has been 
found useful, consisting of alum grs. x., kino grs. v., 
and repeated twice or thrice daily. For the latter, 
pills composed of alum grs. v. orvi., compound powder 
of cinnamon grs. vL, and extract of gentian, grs. vi. 
made into four pills for a dose, and repeated if found 
to do good. Dr. Pearson recommended alum-w